Looking for essays on york oxford university? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
managed exchange rate system deals with trade rate between countries. Managed
rates assume that one country sets the monetary policy, takes the exchange rate
that is given, and assumes the other country will go along with that rate. The
other country then tries to reduce inflation by setting their own exchange rate.
The managed exchange rate system slows down exchange-rate movement through the
foreign trade market intervention. The whole purpose behind the European Union
is to maintain peace between the European counties, and to integrate them. The
founding gentlemen of the EMS wanted to restore the integration of the European
Communities. In 1949, the Council of Europe was founder to promote political and
social unity in Europe. Later in 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community was
started to allay fears of a military-industrial complex fuelling
renascent German nationalism (Artis & Lee 5). Economic integration and
unity was brought to a head in March of 1957 when the European Economic
Community and the European Atomic Energy Community were formed. These two
treaties were used to help stabilize and form the ECU. All three of these
organizations/treaties were essential to forming what is today called the
European Union. The European Union/European Monetary System failed for three
basic reasons in the early 1990s. First of all, it failed because it was
inefficient due to the low-inflation system and the recession in that time
period. The recession elaborated on the conflicts between the member countries
of the European Union. Second, it is not sufficiently competitive at the current
rate of exchange. Third, the real interest rate of the world would need to
decline drastically in order for the EU to work. Also in the early 1990s
there were smaller expectations of devaluations (DeGrauwe 131). The
current European Union has been a result of recent treaties. The first treaty
that was signed in February 1992 helped the unification of Europe be that much
closer. It set the groundwork for one currency throughout Europe called the
euro. In order to update the current treaties the Amsterdam Treaty was signed as
a result of the Intergovernmental Conference. This treaty resulted in a plan to
listen to the citizens, get closer to a more secure Europe, to make Europe more
vocal throughout the world, and to make the European Union more efficient. As of
January of 1997 there were 15 countries belonging to the regional and economic
European Union. The countries currently involved are Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In the future the European Union hopes to
grow and add more countries to this list. The banking system that the European
Union uses is a Central Banking System. With the evolvement of the Euro the
economics of Europe will be easier to maintain. As of January 1, 1999 the
national central banks and the European Central Bank were formed to help
institute the monetary policy using the euro. The macroeconomics theory
accompanied with the use of economic analysis can illustrate the ideas behind
the EMS. The members of the EU have put a strong emphasis into the monetary and
macroeconomic policies. In order to reduce inflation the tried to have more
stable competitive conditions within in the EMS which resulted in strict
exchange rates (Levich & Sommariva 5). The European Union has a long way
to go before it achieves 100% success. It is updated basically on a year-to-year
basis. In order to continue to improve the Union they have established an Agenda
2000. This agenda presents the major problems that they will encounter as the
year 2000 is approached. First, they want to strengthen and reform the Community
policies to deal with a growing European Union. Second, they need to look at the
other countries that have applied to be a part of the Union. Last, a budget
needs to be established that includes all of their future plans. There are many
advantages to having a united Europe to the people of Europe. One benefit is
trade. There is now a free movement of goods, services, people and, money within
the countries belonging to the European Union. Having a united Europe, which
will result in the euro, will benefit information technology, administrative
changes, and the information and training of employees. The benefits of the EU
on citizens, businesses, and tourists will be determined by how much attention
is paid by each particular country to maintaining and promoting good relations
with one another. (Sumner & Zis 249) American businesses are affect by the
united ... more
Find essay on York Oxford University
Mark Twain was one of the most popular and well-known authors of the 1800s.
He is recognized for being a humorist. He used humor or social satire in his
best works. His writing is known for realism of place and language, memorable
characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression (Mark Twain 1). Mark Twain
was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835. He was born on the
Missouri frontier in a small log village called Florida. His parents had come to
Florida from their former home in Tennessee (Unger 192). When Clemens was four,
he moved with his family to Hannibal, Missouri, a port on the Mississippi River
(Mark Twain 1). His father, who had studied law in Kentucky, was a local
magistrate and small merchant (Unger 193). When Samuel was twelve, his father
died. He was then apprenticed to two local printers (Unger 193). When he was
sixteen, Clemens began setting type for the local newspaper Hannibal Journal,
which his older brother Orion managed (Mark Twain 1). In 1853, when Samuel was
eighteen, he left Hannibal for St. Louis (Unger 194). There he became a steam
boat pilot on the Mississippi River. Clemens piloted steamboats until the Civil
War in 1861. Then he served briefly with the Confederate army (Mark Twain 1). In
1862 Clemens became a reporter on the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City,
Nevada. In 1863 he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Mark Twain, a
Mississippi River phrase meaning two fathoms deep (Bloom 43). In 1865,
Twain reworked a tale he had heard in the California gold fields, and within
months the author and the story, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras
County, had become national sensations (Bloom 47). In 1867 Twain lectured in New
York City, and in the same year he visited Europe and Palestine. He wrote of
these travels in The Innocents Abroad. This book exaggerated those aspects of
European culture that impress American tourists (Bain, Flora, and Rubin 103).
Many claim that The Innocents Abroad is Mark Twains second-best book (Unger
198). In 1870 he married Olivia Langdon. After living briefly in Buffalo, New
York, the couple moved to Hartford, Connecticut (Bain, Flora, and Rubin 104).
Much of Mark Twains best work was written in the 1870s and 1880s in
Hartford and during the summers at Quarry Farm, near Elmira, New York (Bain
Flora and Rubin 104). It was at Quarry Farm that he wrote Roughing It in 1872,
which recounts his early adventures as a miner and journalist. While vacationing
in New York one summer in 1876 he wrote his most famous story of all. Mark Twain
wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (Bloom 50). It is about Tom Sawyer, who is a
twelve-year-old boy who lives on the Mississippi River. He is mischievous,
adventurous, and humorous. Tom is loved by readers around the world. The
Adventures of Tom Sawyer brought Twain to the top of the best-sellers list,
where he remained for eight weeks (Unger 199). Mark Twain once said that he
liked Tom Sawyer because Tom represented everything that he had loved as a
boy, and because if the world thought like Tom Sawyer, everyone would forget
about their troubles and become happier people (Kunitz 355). Twain wrote the
sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1884. The sequel, The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn is considered by many to be Twains masterpiece (Mark Twain
1). The book is the story of Tom Sawyers best friend, Huck. He flees his
father, the town drunk, by raft down the Mississippi River with a runaway slave,
Jim. The pairs adventures show Huck and the reader the cruelty of which men
and women are capable. Another theme of the novel is the conflict between
Hucks feelings of friendship with Jim, who is one of the few people he can
trust, and his knowledge that he is breaking the laws of the time by helping Jim
escape (Mark Twain 2). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which is almost
entirely narrated from Hucks point of view, is noted for its authentic
language and for its deep commitment to freedom (Marshall 232). In 1884, Twain
formed the firm Charles L. Webster and Company to publish his and other
writers works. The most famous books published there were The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn and Personal Memoirs, which was written by American general and
president Ulysses S. Grant (Mark Twain 2). A disastrous investment in an
automatic typesetting machine led to the firms bankruptcy in 1894. A
successful worldwide lecture tour ... more
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