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wireless lan Decision Support Systems Used in Network Hardware

Decision Support Systems Used in Network Hardware
How does data pass through the internet? If you said decision support systems, you are correct.  In an indecisive world, network hardware devices uses decision support systems (DSS) to efficiently and effectively route data, in a local area network, with the least amount of errors and inconsistencies.  Decision support systems are the brains behind network hardware, and would be near impossible for them to work without the intelligent core of each distinct DSS.  There are a variety of network hardware devices: switches, hubs, and routers; and they all use algorithms/procedures to transfer data towards the correct destination.  Although there are many more DSS related methods used to route traffic, this paper describes how these three devices use them and each of there functions.  Other types of decision support systems that network hardware devices may use are firewall technology, network address translation, and filter tables, which are all described in this paper.
Network hardware is used in the first three layers of the OSI reference model. The OSI reference model is the Open Systems Interconnections standard and consists of seven layers that build from the wire.  At the first layer, the physical layer, hubs maybe used for simple, inexpensive technology within a corporation.  Hubs, when receiving data sent to it, sends that data too all network interface cards, or NICS on each computer. If the data is at its correct destination, the NIC to read the data, but if it is not, the data is discarded.  Of course, this setting is much slower, because the other NICS are waiting for there turn, which is after the first message is delivered or timed out.  Raymond R. Panko writes this about the waiting state a hub goes in when transmitting data: This creates latency (delay), which grows as the number of stations grows.  Another way of saying this is that the speed of the hub is shared. (Panko 108)  As, you can tell, hubs are simple, and dont use more information than needed.
Switches, which are layer 2 devices, use decision based routing by storing NIC hardware addresses and port numbers on a table in the switch.  By doing this, when data is received by the switch, it knows where the source was, and where the data needs to go.    This allows for faster data transmission for all NICS that are connected, because it uses the switches full bandwidth and there is no broadcasting across ports.  Panko writes this about switches: This approach allows multiple conversations to take place at the same timeThere is no need to wait while another station is transmitting. (109)
Whereas switches and hubs are used within single networks, routers are used to connect two or more networks together into an internet.  Roozbeh Razavi  of HowStuffWorks.com writes: Routers use routing algorithms to find the best route to a destination. When we say "best route," we consider parameters like the number of hops (the trip a packet takes from one router or intermediate point to another in the network), time delay and communication cost of packet transmission. (How Routing Algorithms Work 2nd pg. par 1)  More data is collected in a routing table on routers than there is on switches.  For instance, a routing table on a router includes these attributes:  Row #, Network/subnet, Mask (/prefix), Metric (cost), Interface, and Next-Hop Router.  Each row on the table accounts for a device connected to the router, and the last row on the table accounts for the broadcast channel for all devices.  The network/subnet column of the table tells the router the address of another network connected to the router.  The mask column is used by the router to calculate the network part of the network address, and the subnet part of the network address.  The metric, or cost is the number or time it takes to reach a specific destination.  The interface is the outgoing port on the router, and last but not least is the next-hop router, which tells the router the address of the next existing router that it is connected to.   Michael J. Norton, a software engineer at Cisco Systems describes the next hop a little cleaner:
Routers maintain ... more

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Internet Access




Internet Access

by john york

It would be helpful to provide a brief historical summary of the
Internet before jumping into the different means of accessing "The Net".

The Internet was developed primarily by Vinton Cerf, an American
computer scientist, in 1973 as a part of a United States Department of Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency project managed by American Engineer, Robert
Kahn.  In 1984, the project was turned over to the private sector and to
government research and scientific agencies for further development.  In 1993,
the Internet was turned over to the public and by early 1995 access was
available in over 180 countries and there were over 30 million users.  It is
expected that 100 million computers will be connected to the public Internet by
the year 2000.

The public Internet can be accessed in several different ways:  through
a LAN, by a host, terminal access or gateway access.  A LAN is a Local Access
Network where there are a group of computers and other devices that are spread
over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link.  This
also allows you to communicate with any other computer on the network.  If you
access by a host, it is usually done through a LAN or with telephone lines and
modems combined with Internet software on a personal computer.  Terminal access
is usually done by a telephone line and a modem and it is used with terminal-
emulation software on a personal computer.  This also allows you to interact
with another computer that is an Internet host (explained later).  Gateway
access is similar to terminal access, but it is provided through on-line or
similar services or other networks such as Bitnet, Fidonets, or UUCP nets that
allow users to minimally exchange e-mail with the Internet.

The Internet is made by using different kinds of electronic transport
media including optical fiber, telephone lines, satellite systems, and LAN's.
Most computers that are connected to the Internet are called hosts.  The
function of hosts is to interface users (PC's) to other hosts in the Internet.
Other devices that are called routers which route data, usually in data
"packets" to other computers.  Networks and computers that are part of the
global Internet have unique registered addresses and get access from Internet
service providers.

There are many different services that the Internet provides.

The World Wide Web (WWW) allows you to create and use point-and-click hypermedia
presentations.  Documents are joined across the Internet to form a wide variety
of information that can be browsed easily through the WWW.

E-Mail is a service that allows a message to be sent from one computer to
another.

Gopher allows you to create and use computer file directories which are joined
through the Internet for other users to browse.

File Transfer Protocol allows you to  transfer computer files between host
computers.  This is still the primary use of the Internet.

UseNet enables users to distribute news messages among thousands of structured
newsgroups.

Most of the existing telecommunications providers and an explosion of
new companies have begun offering Internet access service.  A sample of these
companies include:

       America Online
       AT&T
       Bell Atlantic
       Cable and Wireless
       Digex
       Erol's
       MCI Communications
       Pacific Telesis Group
       Sprint
       U.S. West
       UUNET

A good example of the effects that the Internet is having on
technological development in the business world can be shown with MFS
Communications and UUNET Technologies.  These companies are about to merge,
planning a new way to access the Internet that would solve telephone network
congestion.  Users can now be connected through MFS's local networks (the users)
directly to UUNET's Internet network.  This provides a direct, dedicated line to
the Internet.  Also, it bypasses the conventional telephone company network
switch, allowing users to access the Internet at 128 Kbps which is four times
faster than today's 28.8 Kbps modem.  This connection eliminates congestion
among local phone lines.  This new DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) service is
expected to be available in early 1997 in selected markets, followed by a
nationwide rollout.

The WWW is providing the introduction of news business tools and uses
that may lead to billions of dollars worth of business transactions through the
Internet in the future.



... more

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