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wind turbine these INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE

INTRODUCTION
Internal Combustion Engine, a heat engine in which the fuel is burned ( that is, united with oxygen ) within the confining space of the engine itself. This burning process releases large amounts of energy, which are transformed into work through the mechanism of the engine. This type of engine different from the steam engine, which process with an external combustion engine that fuel burned apart from the engine. The principal types of internal combustion engine are : reciprocating engine such as Otto-engine, and Diesel engines ; and rotary engines, such as the Wankel engine and the Gas-turbine engine.
       In general, the internal combustion engine has become the means of propulsion in the transportation field, with the exception of large ships requiring over 4,000 shaft horsepower ( hp).
       In stationary applications, size of unit and local factor often determine the choice between the use of steam and diesel engine. Diesel power plants have a distinct economic advantage over steam engine when size of the plant is under about 1,000 hp. However there are many diesel engine plants much large than this. Internal combustion engines are particularly appropriate for seasonal industries, because of the small standby losses with these engines during the shutdown period.

History
The first experimental internal combustion engine was made by a Dutch astronomer, Christian Huygens, who, in 1680, applied a principle advanced by Jean de Hautefeuille in 1678 for drawing water. This principle was based on the fact that the explosion of a small amount of gunpowder in a closed chamber provided with escape valves would create a vacuum when the gases of combustion cooled. Huygens, using a cylinder containing a piston, was able to move it in this manner by the external atmospheric pressure.
       The first commercially practical internal combustion engine was built by a French engineer, ( Jean Joseph ) Etienne Lenoir, about 1859-1860. It used illuminating gas as fuel. Two years later, Alphonse Beau de Rochas enunciated the principles of the four-stroke cycle, but Nickolaus August Otto built the first successful engine ( 1876 ) operating on this principle.

Reciprocating Engine
Components of Engines
The essential parts of Otto-cycle and diesel engines are the same. The combustion chamber consists of a cylinder, usually fixed, which is closed at one end and in which a close-fitting piston slides. The in-and-out motion of the piston varies the volume of the chamber between the inner face of the piston and the closed end of the cylinder. The outer face of the piston is attached to a crankshaft by a connecting rod. The crankshaft transforms the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. In multi-cylindered engines the crankshaft has one offset portion, called a crankpin, for each connecting rod, so that the power from each cylinder is applied to the crankshaft at the appropriate point in its rotation. Crankshafts have heavy flywheels and counterweights, which by their inertia minimize irregularity in the motion of the shaft. An engine may have from 1 to as many as 28 cylinders.









Fig. 1, Component of Piston Engines.

       The fuel supply system of an internal-combustion engine consists of a tank, a fuel pump, and a device for vaporizing or atomizing the liquid fuel. In Otto-cycle engines this device is a carburetor. The vaporized fuel in most multi-cylindered engines is conveyed to the cylinders through a branched pipe called the intake manifold and, in many engines, a similar exhaust manifold is provided to carry off the gases produced by combustion. The fuel is admitted to each cylinder and the waste gases exhausted through mechanically operated poppet valves or sleeve valves. The valves are normally held closed by the pressure of springs and are opened at the proper time during the operating cycle by cams on a rotating camshaft that is geared to the crankshaft . By the 1980s more sophisticated fuel-injection systems, also used in diesel engines, had largely replaced this traditional method of supplying the proper mix of air and fuel; computer-controlled monitoring systems improved fu!
el economy and reduced pollution.

Ignition
In all engines some means of igniting the fuel in the cylinder must be provided. For example, the ignition system of Otto-cycle engines , the mixture of air and gasoline vapor delivered to the cylinder from the carburetor ... more

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Northern States Power

A leader in today's economic world, Northern States
Power (NSP) is recognized for its outstanding performance
in both regulated and nonregulated operations. Its regulated
operation serves over two million electric and gas
customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South
Dakota, Arizona, and Michigan (NSP - Investor's
Overview 1). Its head offices are located in Minneapolis,
Minnesota, and the Chairman, President and Chief
Executive Officer (CEO) is Mr. James J. Howard III
(Howard 1). Its Viking Gas Transmission Company
Subsidiary owns and operates a 500-mile natural gas
pipeline (NSP - Investor's Overview 1). Northern States
Power is one of the nation's leading energy companies with
competitive rates, responsive service, and dependable and
reliable energy. A relationship with NSP began's when they
sign up for services with them; moreover, when you choose
to live in a certain area. Some of the facts about NSP are
services/people, profit, rates, and sources of power,
standings, first aid/safety, Y2K, merger, and about how
they help within the community. In North Dakota, NSP
provides service to more than 80,000 electric customers
and 30,000 gas customers in Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot,
and many surrounding communities (NSP - Northern
Dakota 1). They have served in these communities for over
80 years (Northern States Power Energy Wise 2). "By
powering the world, NSP brings energy to (Howard 6):" ?
The international markets where we do business ? The
communities close to home where we contribute time and
money ? To customers, who have ever-increasing energy
needs and choices ? To employees, who make the energy
work ? And finally, to youthe shareholderswho have
placed trust in them The 24th straight year in a row to mark
growth for NSP was 1998. Northern States Power's
common stocks are traded on three different exchanges:
New York Stock, Chicago Stock, and Pacific Stock. Its
ticker tape symbol is NSP. Newspaper stock tables list
NSP Company as NoStPw, NoStPwr, or NSPw (NSP -
Investor's Overview's 2). Northern States Power and its
subsidiaries reported earning of $52.3 million or 34 cents a
share, for the first quarter of 1999. Operating revenue for
the quarter was up 6 percent to $743.2 million. Warmer
weather, increased maintenance, and Y2K computer work
is the cause of the decreased earning (NSP First-quarter).
"Advantages to being a registered shareholder are (NSP -
Investor's overview 2):" ? Dividend checks are sent directly
to you, deposited in the back account you designate, or
maybe reinvested in the company as you choose ? You
may purchase additional stock (through dividend
reinvestment and optional investment plans) with little or no
fees ? You may deposit your share certificates with the
company for safekeeping if you sign up for the Dividend
Reinvestment Program ? Shareholder company mailings
will be sent directly to your address "Electricity is an
extremely price-volatile commodity. The price of on-peak
electricity on 15 April 1998 ranged from $20 per
megawatt-hour to $38 per megawatt-hour. Competitive
prices serve us well today. But becomes an even greater
advantage in a competitive market (Howard 3)." In trying
to compare different electrical Service Companies, I talked
with my Uncle, Edward Schiele, from Karlsruhe, North
Dakota. I asked him what his monthly electric bill averages
and he said it is between $100 to $115 a month during the
winter months. Verendrye Electric Cooperative out of
Velva, North Dakota, services Karlsruhe with its electrical
needs. Karlsruhe is a rural community of around 150-200
people (Schiele, Edward). Our families electrical service
needs are serviced by NSP. My Mother, Virginia Schiele,
said our last electrical bill was only $41.49. That is a big
difference from my uncle's bill. Additionally, my mother told
me that when we lived in Holiday Village Trailer Court we
were serviced by Verendrye Electric and the bill averaged
around $80 a month in the winter (Schiele, Virginia).
Across North Dakota they're many different electrical
companies. Electricity from other utility companies can cost
up to 63 percent more than from Northern States Power.
In checking nine different companies, they ranged from
$72.50 a month with Cass County Electric to Northern
States Power at $49.68. Northern States Power has the
lowest electric rates for Northern Dakota customers. If
you're looking for the best value, it definitely is Northern
States Power (Northern States Power Energy Wise 2).
There is always a challenge on energy pricing. In recent
years, many businesses have explored co-generation. That
is harnessing energy from the excess heat produced in
manufacturing (Brauer 2). Northern States Power is
investing in renewable sources of power. It is studying the
use of solar, wind, and biomass energy sources and how
they fit into our energizes future needs (Northern States
Power Company Home 2). During the 7th Century, the
ancient Persians were believed to have ... more

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