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The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a
center; appearing as if seen from the sun's center.(Webster,447) The
heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer
named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric
theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now
known as the Copernican Revolution. Heliocentrism was proven true by the
discoveries of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton; through their efforts to prove the
validity of the heliocentric theory people began to find truth in science
through experimentation rather than religion with no proof. Many scientists went
through great ordeals for their scientific beliefs, thus making the heliocentric
theory the most electrifying idea in human history. Ancient people's believed in
Gods and deities for causes to nature and the unexplained. Once the fourth
century BC rolled around, people began to see "astronomical phenomena"
as "natural compound products of simple operations repeated in
perpetuity" rather than the actions of Gods. (Morphet, p.6) Greeks did not
revere celestial bodies very strongly in their religion, despite having deities
for the Sun and Moon. (North, p.78) Different peoples beliefs varied greatly in
ancient times. Different countries progressed in thought at different speeds.
During the Renaissance, many began to "toss aside medieval preoccupations
with supernatural forces and turned to secular concerns" like fame. (Yamasaki,
p.50) With the "Age of Discovery," people began to think for
themselves and ponder truths through philosophy, science, astronomy, astrology,
etc. Philosophers' minds began to turn, the human mind was finally awake. Plato,
a famous Greek philosopher, believed stars were Gods that the creator gave life
to. This view was very influential and proved to be sort of a religion for
intellectual idealists, no longer for the populace. At the time, the thought of
heavenly bodies being divine, and stars being eternal objects in unchanging
motion were common knowledge. Thinking otherwise was considered Atheistic.
(North, p.78) Fellow famous Renaissance man, and Plato's pupil, Aristotle, was
also a very important figure. Born in Stagira in 384, Aristotle is regarded as
the most influential ancient philosopher of the sciences. Aristotle refined
Callippus' geometrical and spherical concepts, and developed the geocentric
theory, which was believed for two thousand years. (North, p.80) Aristotle
believed that the sphere is the most perfect figure because when rotated to any
diameter it occupies the same space; and that circular motions are a sign of
perfection, which is why Heaven is considered divine. The spherical nature of
the Earth and Universe according to Aristotle, is the natural movement of
Earthly matter from all places downwards, to a center, around which a sphere of
matter will build up. "Only circular motion is capable of endless
repetition without a reversal of direction, and rotary motion is prior to linear
because what is external, or at least could have always existed, is prior, or at
least potentially prior, to what is not." In Aristotle's book De Caelo (On
the Heavens), he speaks of the celestial sphere, the Earth's center being the
same shape, and dismissing the idea of the Earth rotating at the center of the
universe. He also dismisses the idea of an orbital motion of the Earth. (North,
p.81) Contradicting Aristotle, Heracleides, an astronomer, believed in the
rotation of the Earth on it's axis and is known to be the earliest astronomer to
stand by it. He was thought to have taken the first step in "Copernicanism."
It is believed in the years to follow that Copernicus was said to have mentioned
Heracleides' name in this connection. (North, p.85) Aristarchus of Samos was the
first astronomer to clearly put forth a true sun-centered theory, learned from
Archimedes. (North, p.85) "...Aristarchus' hypotheses are that the fixed
stars and the Sun are stationary, that the Earth is carried in a circular orbit
around the Sun, which lies in the middle of it's orbit, and that the spheres of
fixed stars, having the same center as the Sun, is so great in extent that the
circle on which the Earth is supposedly carried is in the same ratio to the
distance of the sphere has to its surface." (North, p.85-6) If Aristarchus
did believe in heliocentrism, he still could not prove the differences in the
Earth's motion and seasons, which explains its failure to be accepted. (North,
p.86-7) Although scientists such as Eudoxus, Callippus, and Aristotle all came
up with Earth-centered systems based by providing a center for all motions,
Ptolemy was triumphant for he was able to explain sphere sizes and achieved a
single system, which was not ... more
Find essay on What Sort Of Man
Cloning is a process that has been debated for decades, and all the arguments
are now coming to a head. The thought of cloning has been around since the turn
of the century, but was not given much publication until the genre of science
fiction pursued it in novels, comics, magazines and television shows in the
mid-1950s. When Dolly, a sheep, was cloned, many people, including
scientists, religious leaders, politicians, and common people, were held in
fascination as the cloning process was explained to them on every major network
television channel. People watched as the theory was put to use in certain
stages of sheep and frogs being cloned. Many people also came to the realization
that cloning is a scientific blight upon humanity, which should not be pursued
any further. Cloning will, for the most part, degrade the ethics and civility of
humanity until the population is either: a) no longer recognizably human, or b)
subjected to various forms of barbarianism including slavery, mass production of
spare humans, and the coercement of the gene pool. Cloning, if stopped,
will leave many resources free for other scientific pursuits that could better
humanity, or raise the overall standard of living. The freed manpower could also
be put to more useful scientific tasks, such as food manipulation, or ecology
control. If the research of cloning is not stopped, the end result could well be
a eugenics war, or the inevitable death of the most powerful species on the
planethumanity. Large majorities of people still presume that cloning will
better society, and that the level of technological improvement gained in the
short term justifies the few minor adjustments that would accommodate the
new & improved society. These same people propagate the use of cloning
to harvest the extra bodies for needed body parts, as opposed to people donating
parts, and having people who need the organs sign a waiting list. Another
argument for cloning is that individuals with desirable characteristics could be
cloned as substitutes; e.g., a strong man could be cloned for construction
workers, a smart person could be cloned for scientific R&D, a man with
musical ability could be cloned to help an orchestra. None of the above-stated
arguments are compelling enough to merit cloning as an ethical line of research.
The flaws included within each pro-cloning statement are innumerable, but, due
to space constraints, only a few will be mentioned. Harvesting bodies for organs
is one of the most primitive and savage ideas ever put forth by human society,
especially considering that we are eclipsing the twenty-first century. To waste
time and manpower on an obviously immoral cause is despicable. To create a human
is to care for and nourish it until it is ready to face the world on its own.
If a clone wants to donate an organ it is entirely up to the clone, not the
creator. It is similar to becoming impregnated and then selling the baby to
science for dissection. Cloning people for various tasks originally relegated to
the clonee is not unlike slavery in that the clone is given no consideration as
to what its wants and desires are. As a society, people should fell ashamed
to have put forth the proposition of creating slaves; how is a clones rights
and privileges any different from the original persons? Clones should not be
considered to be of a lower standard than naturally conceived humans are.
Having, hopefully, successfully refuted the pro-cloning stance, it is time to
support the reasons for stopping cloning research and implementation. To start,
the topics of clone/original discrimination will be pursued, followed by the
topic of eugenics. When a clone is created, the world will gaze in wonder, as
the marvel of technological science is an exact replica of a human being, down
to the last strand of hair. When the planet is teeming with clones, the world
will whimper in fear as they see unoriginal humans taking what precious
resources we have left. This will, in all likelihood, lead to a new sort of
discrimination, in which clones are the ostracized group, and humans are the
superiors. It will be reminiscent of former times when Blacks and Indians
were treated with contempt and suffered ridicule. This is all on the premise
that there will be more humans than clones, of course. If the planet ends up
with more clones than humans, well, we originals are out of luck. Theres no
other possibility. Every human being has in their genes the desire to live, even
if it means at ... more
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