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vortex theory Ozone Layer




Orbiting above the Earth, an astronaut can look down on our home and see the thin blue ribbon that rims our planet. That transparent blanket – our atmosphere – makes life possible. It provides the air we breathe and regulates our global temperature. And it contains a special ingredient called ozone that filters deadly solar radiation.
The gaseous area surrounding the planet is divided into several spherical strata separated by narrow transition zones which is the atmosphere. (Graedel 1998) The upper boundary at which gases disperse into space lies at an altitude of approximately 1000 kilometers above sea level. (Graedel 1998) More than 99% of the total atmospheric mass is concentrated in the first 40 km from Earth’s surface. (Graedel 1998) Atmospheric layers are characterized in chemical compositions that produce variations in temperature. (Graedel 1998)
Here is a graph of the different layers in the atmosphere:
The troposphere is the atmospheric layer closest to the planet and contains the largest percentage of the mass of the total atmosphere. (Garcia 1994) It is characterized by the density of its air and an average vertical temperature change of 6 degrees Celsius (C) per kilometer. (Graedel 1998)
Temperature and water vapor content in the troposphere decrease rapidly with altitude. Water vapor plays a major role in regulating air temperature because it absorbs solar energy and thermal radiation from the planet's surface. (Graedel 1998) The troposphere contains 99 % of the water vapor in the atmosphere. Water vapor concentrations vary with latitudinal position. They are greatest above the tropics, where they may be as high as 3 %, and decrease toward the Polar Regions.
All weather phenomena occur within the troposphere, although turbulence may extend into the lower portion of the stratosphere. (Graedel 1998) Troposphere means "region of mixing" and is so named because of vigorous convective air currents within the layer. (Graedel 1998)
The upper boundary of the layer ranges in height from 8 km in high latitudes, to 18 km above the equator. Its height also varies with the seasons, highest in the summer and lowest in the winter. A narrow zone called the tropopause separates the troposphere from the next highest layer called the stratosphere. (Graedel 1998) Air temperature within the tropopause remains constant with increasing altitude.
The stratosphere is the second major stratum of air in the atmosphere. It resides between 10 and 50 km above the planet's surface. The air temperature in the stratosphere remains relatively constant up to an altitude of 25 km. (Graedel 1998) Then it increases gradually to 200-220 degrees Kelvin (K) at the lower boundary of the stratopause (50 km), which is marked by a decrease in temperature. Because the air temperature in the stratosphere increases with altitude, it does not cause convection and has a stabilizing effect on atmospheric conditions in the region. (Graedel 1998) Ozone plays the major role in regulating the thermal regime of the stratosphere, as water vapor content within the layer is very low. Temperature increases with ozone concentration. Solar energy is converted to kinetic energy when ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet radiation, resulting in heating of the stratosphere. (Graedel 1998)
The ozone layer is located at an altitude between 20-30 km. Approximately 90 % of the ozone in the atmosphere resides in the stratosphere. Ozone concentration in this region is about 10 parts per million by volume as compared to approximately 0.04 parts per million by volume in the troposphere. (Graedel 1998) Ozone absorbs the bulk of solar ultraviolet radiation in wavelengths from 290 nm - 320 nm. These wavelengths are harmful to life because they can be absorbed by the nucleic acid in cells. Increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation to the planet's surface would damage plant life and have harmful environmental consequences. Appreciably large amounts of solar ultraviolet radiation would result in a host of biological effects, such as a dramatic increase in cancers.
Meteorological conditions strongly affect the distribution of ozone. Most ozone production and destruction occurs in the tropical upper stratosphere, where the largest amounts of ultraviolet radiation are present. Dissociation takes place in lower regions of the stratosphere and occurs at higher latitudes than does production. (Graedel 1998)
The mesosphere, a layer extending from approximately 50 km to 80 km, is characterized ... more

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Edgar allan poe and the raven

“Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before.”
The writer of these words was enchanted by darkness...thrilled by death.
What sort of person would spend their whole life linking hands with Death
and her counterparts?  Quite possibly a literary genius by the name of Edgar
Allan Poe.  Famous for romanticizing the darker, more Gothic side of life, E.
A. Poe had quite a collection of works from his lesser known stories to his
most famous poem, “The Raven”.   This great man’s life has been analyzed to
death (no pun intended) to find key’s to unlock the maze of his apparent
creativity.  Here, the reader will find only an in depth look at “The Raven”,
information on the author’s life and lifestyle, a brief look at other Poe
works, criticism on his writings, and some unusual ways his fame has been
honored .  To begin with, “The Raven” holds a dark sense of elegance which
has been appealing to many since it was written in 1845.  
The theme of “The Raven” is simple: a man suffering the loss of his
love is visited by a speaking raven, whose repetitious, meaningless answers
torture him to the point of insanity (see Appendix R) (Decoder, Internet).
The feeling of lost love portrayed in the poem might have reflected the
death of Poe’s wife, Virginia, in 1847 (Qrisse, Internet).  As it is read, a
definite rhyme scheme is present: internal rhyme in the first and third line,
and end rhymes in lines two, four, and five.  All eighteen stanzas of the poem
are arranged like this, but Poe never makes it seems unexciting or
repetitious.  Probably the most noticeable and most brilliant aspect of “The
Raven” is it’s saturation of symbolism.  The raven (see Appendix R) itself is
the main symbol, representing the man’s self-torture uncovered in the work.
Because the raven does not comprehend or reason it’s answers, it allows the
man to interpret them however his mind allows, which gives the reader a look
at the mind’s unstable mind state.  The bust of Pallas that the raven perches
upon to preach its “wisdom” is another strong symbol.  Pallas is the goddess
of wisdom, and an eerie feeling is felt as the raven sits upon it and appears
to speak nonsense.  When questioned about his reasoning for using the bust
of Pallas in his poem, Poe replied because of the “sonorous of the word,
Pallas, itself.”  Two other symbols that are not so apparent are the use of
“midnight” and “December”.  Both signify darkness, an end, or a change to
something new.  The chamber the narrator speaks from could be interpreted
as a symbol, as it represents loneliness.  The expensive furnishings of the
chamber appear to say that the beauty and riches the man surrounds
himself in will not replace his love (Qrisse, Internet).  Edgar Allan Poe
entwined all these symbols in “The Raven”, a deliciously twisted poem about
the death of beauty and the heartache it causes.        
Poe lived a solitary, reckless life, which included the use of alcohol and drugs.  Born in 1809 to parents, Eliza Poe and David Poe Jr., he was orphaned before the age of three.  His father died at the age of 36 and his mother died at 24 from tuberculosis (Payge’s, Internet).  Poe was sent live with
foster parents, John and Fanny Allan (see Appendix J).  In 1826, he entered
the University of Virginia.  He was a good student, but eventually turned to
gambling to pay debts.  It was during this time that Poe had his first
romantic interest which ended on a harsh note (see Appendix E)  Despite
grades and ambition, Poe had to leave college because of lack of money.  A
year later he enlisted in the army for two years, after which he entered
Westpoint.  Then, halting his solitary life, Edgar married his 13 year old
cousin, Virginia, in 1836.  On October 5, 1849, he was found unconscious and
on drugs; three days later he died, possibly of rabies (Qrisse, Internet).
(see Appendix R)  Edgar Allan Poe’s appearance is a suprisingly interesting
topic, one that may be addressed with some importance.  Poe was apparently
an attractive, fit man ... more

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