Volcano Chain


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volcano chain Ecuador

Ecuador
is a developing country. Travelers to the capital city of Quito may require some
time to adjust to the altitude (close to 10,000 feet), which can adversely
affect blood pressure, digestion and energy level. Tourist facilities are
adequate, but vary in quality. Introduction Epithet after epithet was found too
weak to convey to those who have not visited the intertropical regions, the
sensations of delight which the mind experiences.--- Charles Darwin If an
argumentative group of travelers sat down to design a shared destination, they
would be hard put to come up with a place that would best Ecuador. Packed like a
knee-cap between Peru and Colombia, Ecuador contains within its borders an
improbable variety of landscape and culture. For the mountaineer, it is bisected
by an epic stretch of the northern Andes. For the jungle explorer, there is a
biological mother lode within the Amazonian Oriente. The sea-minded are rewarded
with miles of Pacific coastline, to say nothing of the living wonders of the
Galapagos Islands. Not only are these regions highly defined, but excluding
Galapagos they are also wonderfully contiguous. The entire country is about the
size of Washington state, and it is home to some of the world's most
extraordinary national parks. In a matter of two hundred miles, the traveler can
penetrate all of the mainland's defining regions--the coastal lowlands in the
West, the volcanic central highlands, and the rainforests of the East, or
Oriente. Ecuador's climate is equally generous to the traveler. Embracing the
Pacific, Ecuador rests squarely on the equator (hence its name). Here, seasons
are defined more by rainfall than temperature. A warm rainy season lasts from
January to April, and May through December is characterized by a cooler, drier
period that is ideally timed for a summer trip. History & Culture Ecuador's
culture and history mirrors the diversity of its landscape. Like much of South
America, Ecuadorian culture blends the influences of Spanish colonialism with
the resilient traditions of pre-Columbian peoples. Archaeologists trace the
first inhabitants as far back as 10,000 BC, when hunters and gatherers
established settlements on the southern coast and in the central highlands. By
3,200 BC three distinct agricultural-based civilizations had emerged, producing
some of the hemisphere's oldest known pottery. They developed trade routes with
nearby Peru, Brazil, and Amazonian tribes. Culture continued to thrive and
diversify, and by 500 BC large cities had been established along the coast.
Their inhabitants had sophisticated metalworking and navigational skills and
they traded with Mexico's Maya. In 1460 AD, when the Inca ruler Tupac-Yupanqui
invaded from the south, three major tribes in Ecuador were powerful enough to
give him a fight: the Canari, the Quitu, and the Caras. The Inca were a dynamic,
rapidly advancing society. They originated in a pocket of Peru, but established
a vast empire within a century. It dominated Peru and extended as far as Bolivia
and central Chile. The Inca constructed massive, monumental cities. To
communicate across their empire they laid wide, stone-paved highways thousands
of kilometers long and sent chains of messengers along them. These mailmen
passed each other records of the empire's status, which were coded in system of
knots along a rope. A winded runner could even rest in the shade of trees
planted along both sides of the road. Remarkably, the Canari, Quitu, and Caras
were able to hold back Tupac-Yupanqui, though they proved less successful
against his son, Huayna Capac. After conquering Ecuador, Huayna Capac
indoctrinated the tribes to Quechua, the language of the Incas, which is still
widely spoken in Ecuador. In celebration of his victory, Huayna Capac ordered a
great city to be built at Tomebamba, near Cuenca. Its size and influence rivaled
the capital of Cuzco in Peru--a rivalry that would mature with posterity. When
he died in 1526, Huayna Capac divided the empire between his two sons, Atahualpa
and Huascar. Atahualpa ruled the northern reaches from Tombebamba, while Huascar
held court over the south from Cuzco. The split inheritance was an
unconventional and fateful move, as the first Spaniards arrived in the same
year. On the eve of Pizarro's expedition into the empire, the brothers entered
into a civil war for complete control. Francisco Pizarro landed in Ecuador in
1532, accompanied by 180 fully armed men and an equally strong lust for gold.
Several years earlier, Pizarro had made a peaceful visit to the coast, where he
heard rumors of inland cities of incredible wealth. This time, he intended to
conquer the Incas just as Hernando Cortez had crushed Mexico's Aztecs--and he
couldn't have picked a better time. ... more

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Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs: How they became extinct
Something happened 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, something so devastating that it altered the course of life on earth. It seems like it happened so sudden, as geologic time goes, that almost all the dinosaurs living on earth disappeared. So how did these dominant creatures just die off? Was it a slow extinction, or did it happen all of the sudden? These questions bring rise to many different beliefs on how the dinosaur disappeared over 65 million years ago.
Extinction itself is easily defined: When the birth rate fails to keep up with the death rate, it is called extinction. But, the definition does not answer the question about the nature or causes of extinction. Paleontologists generally divide extinctions into two types, for that of different causes arose. The first is called background extinctions, isolated extinctions of species due to a variety of causes. Included is out competition, depletion of resources in a habitat, changes in climate, the development or destruction of a mountain range, river channel migration, the eruption of a volcano, the drying of a lake, or the destruction of a forest, grassland, or wetland habitat. The second type of extinction is called mass extinctions. There are four main components involved: Large numbers of species go extinct; many types of species go extinct; the effects must be global; and the effects must occur in a geologically short period of time.1
The dinosaur could not have lived for ever. No creatures, no plants, no tiny bacteria are forever, not even Homo sapiens. Extinction is the fate of all species. One theory on how the dinosaurs became extinct is that of carbon dioxide, and the greenhouse effect. Volcanoes produced the proposed conditions. A massive volcanic eruption could have saturated the atmosphere with carbon dioxide so that it caused a sharp rise in temperatures worldwide. The excessive carbon dioxide would have permitted solar energy to enter the atmosphere but would have blocked the radiation of most surface heat back out into space, therefore causing the greenhouse effect. Rising temperatures could have killed off or reduced the activity of plankton, disrupting food chains and also messing up the planktons normal role in converting carbon dioxide to oxygen through photosynthesis. From there it would not have been long for all the dinosaurs to have been suffering, and then to become extinct.

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  • O: Ecuador O: Ecuador Ecuador Ecuador is a developing country. Travelers to the capital city of Quito may require some time to adjust to the altitude (close to 10,000 feet), which can adversely affect blood pressure, digestion and energy level. Tourist facilities are adequate, but vary in quality. Introduction Epithet after epithet was found too weak to convey to those who have not visited the intertropical regions, the sensations of delight which the mind experiences.--- Charles Darwin If an argumentative group of t...
  • L: Dinosaurs L: Dinosaurs Dinosaurs Dinosaurs: How they became extinct Something happened 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, something so devastating that it altered the course of life on earth. It seems like it happened so sudden, as geologic time goes, that almost all the dinosaurs living on earth disappeared. So how did these dominant creatures just die off? Was it a slow extinction, or did it happen all of the sudden? These questions bring rise to many different beliefs on how the dinosaur dis...
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  • N: Mount St. Helen is a volcano located along the Cas N: Mount St. Helen is a volcano located along the Cas Mount St. Helen is a volcano located along the Cascade range which is a volcano chain stretching from Northern California to British Colombia. It now stands at a height of 8,364 feet above sea level. Mount St. Helen was on of the smaller eruptions of five major ones in Washington State. Its elevation before the eruption was 9,677 feet high. On March 29, 1980 after a period of one-hundred and twenty-three years of inactivity a earthquake under the volcano quaked, and seven days later a pheartic ...
  • O: Hawaiian volcanoes O: Hawaiian volcanoes hawaiian volcanoes Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience; one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination throughout the history of mankind. The active Hawaiian volcanoes have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which can be viewed and studied with a relative ease and safety. The island of Hawaii is composed of five volcanoes, three of which have been active within the past two hundred years. Kilauea...
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  • Hawaii Hawaii hawaii Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience; one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination throughout the history of mankind. The active Hawaiian volcanoes have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which can be viewed and studied with a relative ease and safety. The island of Hawaii is composed of five volcanoes, three of which have been active within the past two hundred years. Kilaueas latest eru...
  • BLOW ME BLOW ME BLOW ME NAME DATE CLASS PROFESSOR ASSIGNMENT VOLCANOES Hot! Fire! Destruction! These are words that most people associate with volcanoes. But some good effects can come out of volcanoes. Volcanoes also have their own special mythology associated with them. A lot of volcanoes have some general characteristics in common. There are many volcanoes around the world and some have special characteristics. So come along and take a trip with me into the wonderful and exciting world of volcanoes. Over 550...
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  • Mount St. Helen Mount St. Helen Mount St. Helen Mount St. Helen Mount St. Helen is a volcano located along the Cascade range which is a volcano chain stretching from Northern California to British Colombia. It now stands at a height of 8,364 feet above sea level. Mount St. Helen was on of the smaller eruptions of five major ones in Washington State. Its elevation before the eruption was 9,677 feet high. On March 29, 1980 after a period of one-hundred and twenty-three years of inactivity a earthquake under the volcano quaked...