Volatile Organic Chemicals


Find More Volatile Organic Chemicals

Looking for essays on volatile organic chemicals? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

volatile organic chemicals Global warming and the greenhouse effect

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

Recently, global warming has moved to a serious scientific issue.  Because sunlight is constantly falling on the earth, the law of physics say that the planet has to radiate the same amount of energy back into space.  Infrared radiation is sent out by the earth through the atmosphere, where molecules (carbon dioxide) hold outgoing radiation for a while, warming the surface.1  The molecules are kind of like glass in a greenhouse  which is why this process of warming is called the greenhouse effect.
The greenhouse effect has been operating since the beginning of time.  Without the effect, the surface of the earth would be -20 degrees Celsius, oceans would have frozen, and there would be no life on earth.   The Washington Post has reported that the earth is warmer than it has been in 1,200 years.2  Recently, the summer of 1999 set records for heat in much of the United States.  The average world temperature has increased one degree Fahrenheit over the last 120 years, making the world hotter than it has been in 100,000 years.  From the beginning of the industrial revolution, concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased by 30%, concentrations of methane have doubled, and nitrous oxide has risen by 15%.  The increases of these chemicals have enhanced the heat trapping capability of the atmosphere of the earth.  Sulfate aerosols, cool the atmosphere because they reflect light back into space, but sulfates do not live long in the atmosphere.  
Scientists still do not know what exactly is heating up the earth.  Some say the earth is going through a natural cycle because the earth has gone through cold periods as well as hot periods.  Mounting evidence is saying that humans are to blame for the rise in temperatures over the past 120 years.  When we burn fossil fuel, oil, gasoline, and natural gas to run power plants, cars, and heat homes, we produce carbon dioxide.  An increase in carbon dioxide magnifies the greenhouse effect.  All this energy accounts for 80% of society’s carbon dioxide emissions, 25% of methane emissions, and 20% of nitrous oxide emissions.  In 1994, the U.S. emitted one fifth of all the greenhouse gases in the earth.  Carbon dioxide amounts are now 360 parts per million today, verses 315 per million parts in 1958, when modern technology started, and 270 per million parts in pre-industrial times.  Scientists cannot actually predict what the climate will be like in the future, though.  James E. Hansen, a director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, says that scientists know too little about the climate to make accurate predictions.   "The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change," Hansen wrote in a journal, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  
Many people believe that carbon dioxide is nothing to worry about.  And many scientists are turning away from the debate about whether human-induced global warming is taking place.  It is true that Earth’s ocean, plants, soil, and animals naturally release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  And other gases such as methane and water vapor trap solar radiation like the way a greenhouse traps the sun’s warmth.  Human activities are adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than are being naturally recycled.  This is what scientist believe is causing global warming.
And what are the effects of global warming?  Rising temperatures are expected to raise the sea level and change local climate conditions.  By changing these conditions, the climate could alter forests, water supplies, and crop yields.  This could also threaten human health, and harm many ecosystems of animals.  Deserts could expand into range lands and many National Parks could be altered.  And many of the most important impacts depend upon whether rainfall will increase or decrease.  The rate of climate change is also much more important than how much the change will be because the rate will determine whether humans and ecosystems can adapt to survive.  A decreased day and night temperature and night warming may happen when an increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases takes place.  
Emissions are a major problem contributing to the greenhouse effect.  These gases ... more

volatile organic chemicals

Research on Volatile Organic Chemicals

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Volatile Organic Chemicals" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Volatile Organic Chemicals essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Volatile Organic Chemicals and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Volatile Organic Chemicals

Find essay on Volatile Organic Chemicals

photochemical smog




Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the
majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulfur dioxide produced from the burning of coal can
combine with fog to create industrial smog. In high concentrations, industrial smog can be extremely toxic to humans and other living organisms. London is world famous for its episodes of industrial smog. The most famous London smog event occurred in December, 1952 when five days of calm foggy weather created a toxic atmosphere that claimed about 4000 human lives. Today, the use of other fossil fuels, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity instead of coal has greatly reduced the occurrence of industrial smog. However, the burning of fossil fuels like gasoline can create another atmospheric pollution problem known as photochemical smog.
Photochemical smog is a condition that develops when primary pollutants (oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds created from fossil fuel combustion) interact under the influence of sunlight to produce a mixture of hundreds of different and hazardous chemicals known as secondary pollutants. Development of photochemical smog is typically associated with
Specific climatic conditions and centers of high population density.  Cities like Los Angeles, New York, Sydney, and Vancouver frequently suffer episodes of photochemical smog.

One way in which the production of photochemical smog is initiated is through the photochemical reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to form ozone. There are many sources of photochemical smog, including vehicle engines (the number one cause of photochemical smog), industrial emissions, and area sources (the loss of vapors from small areas such as a local service station, surface coatings and thinners, and natural gas leakage).

Vehicle engines, which are extremely numerous in all parts of the world, do not completely burn the petroleum they use as fuel. This produces nitrogen dioxide which is released through the vehicle exhaust along with a high concentration of
hydrocarbons. The absorption of solar radiation by the nitrogen dioxide results in the formation of ozone (O3). Ozone reacts with many different hydrocarbons to produce a brownish-yellow gaseous cloud which may contain numerous chemical
compounds, the combination of which, we call photochemical smog.

Both types of smog can greatly reduce visibility. Even more importantly, they pose a serious threat to our health. They form as a result of extremely high concentrations of pollutants that are trapped near the surface by a temperature inversion. Many of the components which make up these smogs are not only respiratory irritants, but are also known carcinogens.

There are many conditions for the development of photochemical smog:

1.  A source of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds.

2.  The time of day is a very important factor in the amount of photochemical smog present.

  Early morning traffic increases the emissions of both nitrogen oxides (NOx)
and Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN) as people drive to work.
  Later in the morning, traffic dies down and the nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds begin to react forming nitrogen dioxide, increasing
its concentration.
  As the sunlight becomes more intense later in the day, nitrogen dioxide is broken down  and its by-products form increasing concentrations of ozone.
  At the same time, some of the nitrogen dioxide can react with the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce toxic chemicals.
  As the sun goes down, the production of ozone is halted. The ozone that
remains in the atmosphere is then consumed by several different reactions.

3. Several meteorological factors can influence the information of photochemical smog. These conditions include :

  Precipitation can alleviate photochemical smog as the pollutants are washed out of the atmosphere  with the rainfall.
  Winds can blow photochemical smog away replacing it with fresh air. However, problems may arise in distant areas that receive the pollution.
  Temperature inversions can enhance the severity of a photochemical smog episode. Normally, during the day the air near the surface is heated and as it warms it rises, carrying the pollutants with it to higher elevations. However, if a temperature inversion develops pollutants can be trapped near ... more

volatile organic chemicals

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • V: Air pollution V: Air pollution Air pollution Air pollution You cant escape from it. Everybody has to breath, and when air isnt clean you health is affected. Air pollution is problem of all of us. You might think that you are healthy because you eat, and do only healthy things, so you cannot be sick, or get cancer, allergies or even die. Everybody is affected by air pollution. At the first, what is air pollution? The air pollution is contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. Weve got many pollutants...
  • O: Global Warming And The Greenhouse Effect O: Global Warming And The Greenhouse Effect Global Warming And The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Recently, global warming has moved to a serious scientific issue. Because sunlight is constantly falling on the earth, the law of physics say that the planet has to radiate the same amount of energy back into space. Infrared radiation is sent out by the earth through the atmosphere, where molecules (carbon dioxide) hold outgoing radiation for a while, warming the surface.1 The molecules are kind of like glass in a ...
  • L: Photochemical smog L: Photochemical smog photochemical smog Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulfur dioxide produced from the burning of coal can combine with fog...
  • A: Photochemical Smog A: Photochemical Smog Photochemical Smog Photochemical Smog Gifted Chemistry IB Alternative Assessment 1997 March 19 Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smo...
  • T: Evironmentalism T: Evironmentalism Evironmentalism Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon\'s 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think a...
  • I: Study Of Environmental Issues Associated With Indu I: Study Of Environmental Issues Associated With Indu Study Of Environmental Issues Associated With Industrialization Study of Environmental Issues Associated with Industrialization Although our industrial ways seem to be a very progressive step into the future, there are many flaws to the way many things are today. Things have definitely changed over the past century, as we can currently do things much more efficiently then before. The cost of this efficiency may seem inexpensive in many ways, however we do not realize that the cost of these new t...
  • L: photochemical smog L: photochemical smog photochemical smog Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulfur dioxide produced from the burning of coal can combine with fog...
  • E: Air pollution E: Air pollution Air pollution Air pollution You can\'t escape from it. Everybody has to breath, and when air isn\'t clean you health is affected. Air pollution is problem of all of us. You might think that you are healthy because you eat, and do only healthy things, so you cannot be sick, or get cancer, allergies or even die. Everybody is affected by air pollution. At the first, what is air pollution? The air pollution is contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. We\'ve got many pollutants, w...
  •  : Water Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we t : Water Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we t Water Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we think? The following essay will be looking at the factors that cause pollution, and the effect that pollution has on our world today. It will also investigate what it has in store for the future if things do not improve. It will also explore some of the methods used to treat and clean-up wastewater, and oil spills. Today, the industrialization of Canada is severely affecting this nations lakes, streams, and rivers. If something is not done to impr...
  • O: Air Pollution O: Air Pollution Air Pollution Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid...
  • R: Effects of drugs on pregnet women R: Effects of drugs on pregnet women Effects of drugs on pregnet women Pregnant women that smoke cigarettes on a daily basis can greatly harm their fetus. The Tobacco smoke in cigarettes greatly reduces fetal growth through the presence of nicotine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, cadmium and various other aromatic hydrocarbons, but the two most dangerous chemicals that are found in cigarettes are nicotine and carbon monoxide. Nicotine causes the babies heart rate to speed up, reduces placental vascularisation, constricts the pl...
  • G: Acid rain 4 G: Acid rain 4 Acid rain 4 The Acid Rain Pain With scientists and so-called experts on the environment disagreeing on so many issues, it is easy for the public to be lost in the fray of what is truth and what is media hype. Though the term acid rain has been present in our society since the early 1970s, many people are not exactly clear on what it is what causes it, and the detrimental effects acid rain has on our environment. More confusing than all of the facts and scientific theories surrounding acid r...
  • A: Te water we drink A: Te water we drink Te water we drink Three Medical Doctors wrote the book, The Water We Drink: Water Quality and Its Effects on Health. Their names are Joshua I. Barzilay, M.D., Winkler G. Weinberg, M.D., and J. William Eley, M.D. In order to put the issue of drinking water quality and its effects on health into perspective, the book is divided into three parts. It first reviews the history of water, disease, and sanitation. The next section deals with health issues. At the conclusion of the book are chapters rega...
  • N: AIR POLLUTION N: AIR POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. One of many forms of pollution, air pollution occurs inside homes, schools, and offices; in cities; across continents; and even globally. Air pollution makes people sick, it causes breathing problems and promotes cancer, and it harms plants, animals, and the ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of acid...
  • I: Solutions for trash and landfi I: Solutions for trash and landfi Solutions for trash and landfi Introduction Did you know? Americans use enough cardboard each year to make a bale as big as a football field and as high as the World Trade Center Towers. We even throw away so much aluminum every three months that we can rebuild our entire commercial air fleet. Each person, yes, included you, in America creates about 4.4 pounds of trash every single day. Did you also know? That it takes 100 years for tin to break down, 500 years for aluminum, and glass takes on...
  • C: gateway drugs C: gateway drugs gateway drugs Gateway Drugs and Common Drug Abuse The oldest known written record of drug use is a clay tablet from the ancient Sumerian civilization of the Middle East. This tablet, made in the 2000s B.C., lists about a dozen drug prescriptions. An Egyptian scroll from bout 1550 B.C. names more than 800 prescriptions containing about 700 drugs. The ancient Chinese, Greek and Romans also used many drugs. The Greeks and Romans used opium to relieve pain. The Egyptians used castor oil as a laxa...
  •  : Sick Buildings:Bad Air : Sick Buildings:Bad Air Sick Buildings:Bad Air English IV 10 Dec, 2000 Sick Buildings, Bad Air Many people across the United States and other countries have been plagued with mysterious ailments after spending time in certain types of buildings. Buildings which rely on the mechanical recycling of air (with no fresh air intake) have been shown to create levels of contaminants, toxic gases, and other factors which cause conditions harmful to the human body. Sick buildings are having adverse effects on our society. ...
  • C: Ozone Depletion C: Ozone Depletion Ozone Depletion Ozone Depletion The worlds ozone is depleting on a daily base. Individuals and industries are to blame. If we dont slow down what is being introduced to the atmosphere, the effects on humans and the earth will be devastating. We must stop killing the earths ozone by watching what CFCs get released, car pooling to control automobile emissions, and stop industries from polluting our atmosphere. The problems with a depleting ozone layer are an increase in skin cancer, global war...
  • H: Gateway drugs H: Gateway drugs gateway drugs Gateway Drugs and Common Drug Abuse The oldest known written record of drug use is a clay tablet from the ancient Sumerian civilization of the Middle East. This tablet, made in the 2000s B.C., lists about a dozen drug prescriptions. An Egyptian scroll from bout 1550 B.C. names more than 800 prescriptions containing about 700 drugs. The ancient Chinese, Greek and Romans also used many drugs. The Greeks and Romans used opium to relieve pain. The Egyptians used castor oil as a laxati...
  • E: Enviromental effect on todays car E: Enviromental effect on todays car enviromental effect on todays car As time approaches the 21st century, the automobile has become our major source of mass transportation. Everything about our culture and society has developed around this necessary form of travel. However, along with this necessity comes the issue of pollution to the environment. These great gasoline powered vehicles have contributed greatly to the impurity of our environment. The two prominent alternative fueled vehicles yet brought up are the Electric car (EV)...
  • M: Acid rain 4 M: Acid rain 4 Acid rain 4 The Acid Rain Pain With scientists and so-called experts on the environment disagreeing on so many issues, it is easy for the public to be lost in the fray of what is truth and what is media hype. Though the term acid rain has been present in our society since the early 1970s, many people are not exactly clear on what it is what causes it, and the detrimental effects acid rain has on our environment. More confusing than all of the facts and scientific theories surround...
  • I: Photochemical Smog I: Photochemical Smog Photochemical Smog Photochemical Smog Gifted Chemistry IB Alternative Assessment 1997 March 19 Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the sm...
  • C: What are We Breathing C: What are We Breathing What are We Breathing Poor air quality is the culprit for the consequences that are being suffered by many human and plant communities. Air pollution, smog, or acid rain; it may be called whatever you like, it is the effects that it is causing that are important. Although many people associate smog with Los Angeles, it is not the only area that has been effected by poor air quality. Many national parks, aquatic systems, and other populated areas are showing major signs of air pollution. A large...
  • A: Airports & Pollution A: Airports & Pollution Airports & Pollution Airports and Pollution Abstract How do airports affect the environment and the area surrounding an airport? Transportation through the air is an ever-growing portion of the way people get to their destinations these days. But how many people know about the forms of pollution that occur at an airport. Noise pollution, water pollution, and air pollution are some of the effects at airports and the area around them that are occurring today. Airports and Pollution The many effect...
  • L: Superfund Contamination L: Superfund Contamination Superfund Contamination In contemplating my topic to write about I was having a mild amount of difficulty, not too much but you could say I was confused. Then I heard a knock at the door, when I answered I was given a pamphlet that informed me of the contamination present in out water. One of the issues involved talked of superfund contamination clean up, this was new to me so to the internet I went. After researching Superfunds, I found that dangers to the environment are much closer to home th...