Varieties Of Quartz


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varieties of quartz fiberoptics ENDOSCOPY

Fiber optics produced by special methods from silica glass and quartz which replaced copper wire is very useful in telecommunications, long distance telephone lines and in examining internal parts of the body (endoscopy). Equipment for photography is available with all current fiber-optic endoscopes. Through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the fiber can propagate within the core for great distances with remarkably little attenuation or reduction in intensity.
In general, the methods of fiber production fall into three categories; (a) the extrusion method for synthetic fibers; (b) hot drawing of fibers from molten bulk material through an orifice; and (c) drawing of uncoated, coated and multiple fibers from assemblies of rods and tubes fed through a hollow cylindrical furnace.
Three forms of fiber optics components have been proposed for the improvement of the image quality, field angle and photographic speed of various types of optical systems. These fiber optics elements, in the form of a field flattener, a conical condenser and distortion corrector, can be used separately or combined into a single unit called a Focon.
Gnmzde bakr tellerin yerini alan silikon camndan ve kristalinden retilen fiber optikler, telekomnikasyonda, uzun mesafeli telefon hatlarnda ve insan vcudunun i ksmlarn inceleyen endoskopilerde kullanlmaktadr. Fotoraf ekipmanlarnda da btn fiber-optik endoskoplara kullanlmaktadr. Tam i yansma  olarak bilinen ilem yoluyla, fiberin iinde toplanan k nlar, uzun mesafeler boyunca iddetinde kk bir azalma ve bozulmayla yol alabilmektedir.
Genellikle, fiber retimleri kategoridedir; Sentetik fiber retiminde dna karma  methodu; Erimi dkme maddelerden azlarna doru oluan fiberlerin scak izimleriyle,  kaplanm,kaplanmam veya kark fiberlerin izimleriyle.
eit olan fiber optik paralar; grnt kalitesini,  eitli optik sistemlerdeki alan as ve fotografik hzlar gelitirmek iin dnlmtr. Bu fiber optik elemanlar; alan dzletirici, konik younlatrc ve sapma dzenleyici ekillerindedir ve ayr  veya Focon ad verilen nite iin birlemi olarak kullanlabilirler.
Figure 2.1Photograph of the earliest bundle of uncoated aligned fibers    Page 7
Figure 3.1Core of a step index fiber    Page 8
Figure 3.2Schematic diagram of a typical fiber drawing    Page 9
Figure 3.3Preform manufacturing apparatus used in Silica-Quartz   Page 11
Figure 3.4Comparison of static,dynamic and spitial filtering imagery   Page 12
Figure 4.1 Field flattener system of photography   Page 13
Figure 4.2 Showing the image transmission through a conical fiber bundle   Page 14
Figure 4.3 Fiber optics distortion correctors   Page 14
Figure 4.4 Limiting resolution of Focon system   Page 15
Figure 5.1 Single lens reflex camera   Page 16
3.3  WHAT IS ENDOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY?
5. ENDOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
5.1        COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY WITH FIBRE-OPTIC ENDOSCOPES
5.3        CLOSED CIRCUIT COLOUR TELEVISION ENDOSCOPY
5.4        GASTRO-CAMERA EXAMINATION
The technology of fiber drawing for nonoptical applications is old and fairly standard. Very-small-diameter glass and quartz fibers were made as early as by Faraday. In the early stages of the production of glass fibers on an industrial scale, the main application of the fibers was envisaged in the textile industry. More recently, they have been used for insulation against sound, heat and electricity. Presently, very fine fibers are being made of materials such as glass, quartz, nylon, polystyrene, polymethylcrylate. Of these, glasses, quartz and plastics are preferred for optical use because of their higher visible light transmission, longer thermal working range, better surface characteristics and mechanical strength. Furthermore, it has been shown that glass fibers can have greater tensile strength than can be expected from the bulk material.
The conduction of light along transparent cylinders by multiple total internal reflections is a fairly old and well known phenomenon. It is entirely possible that grecian and other ancient glassblowers observed and used this phenomenon in fabricating their decorative glassware. In fact, the basic techniques used by the old Venetian glassblowers for making millifiore form an important aspect of present-day fiber optics technology. However, the earliest recorded scientific demonstration of this phenomenon was given by John Tyndall in 1870. In demostration Thyndall used an illuminated vessel of water and showed that, when a stream of water was allowed to flow through a hole in the side of the vessel, light was conducted along the curved path of the stream.
In 1951 when A.C.S. van Heel in Holland and H.H. Hopkins and N.S. Kapany studied on the transmission of images along an aligned bundle of flexible glass fibers. But it was the year 1956 that Kapany first applied the term fiber optics to this field and described ... more

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Fiber Optics
Fiber optics produced by special methods from silica glass and quartz which
replaced copper wire is very useful in telecommunications, long distance
telephone lines and in examining internal parts of the body (endoscopy).

Equipment for photography is available with all current fiber-optic endoscopes.

Through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the
fiber can propagate within the core for great distances with remarkably little
attenuation or reduction in intensity. In general, the methods of fiber
production fall into three categories; (a) the extrusion method for synthetic
fibers; (b) hot drawing of fibers from molten bulk material through an orifice;
and (c) drawing of uncoated, coated and multiple fibers from assemblies of rods
and tubes fed through a hollow cylindrical furnace. Three forms of fiber optics
components have been proposed for the improvement of the image quality, field
angle and photographic speed of various types of optical systems. These fiber
optics elements, in the form of a field flattener, a conical condenser and
distortion corrector, can be used separately or combined into a single unit
called a "Focon". BOĞAZİİ NİVERSİTESİ MAKİNA

MHENDİSLİĞİ DEPARTMANI MALZEME DERSİ DNEM PROJESİ

YAZ OKULU 2000 ZET Gnmzde bakır tellerin yerini alan silikon camından
ve kristalinden retilen fiber optikler, telekomnikasyonda, uzun mesafeli
telefon hatlarında ve insan vcudunun i kısımlarını
inceleyen endoskopilerde kullanılmaktadır. Fotoğraf ekipmanlarında
da btn fiber-optik endoskoplara kullanılmaktadır. Tam i yansıma
olarak bilinen işlem yoluyla, fiberin iinde toplanan ışık
ışınları, uzun mesafeler boyunca şiddetinde kk
bir azalma ve bozulmayla yol alabilmektedir. Genellikle, fiber retimleri
kategoridedir; Sentetik fiber retiminde dışına ıkarma
methodu; Erimiş dkme maddelerden ağızlarına doğru oluşan
fiberlerin sıcak izimleriyle, kaplanmış,kaplanmamış
veya karışık fiberlerin izimleriyle. eşit olan
fiber optik paraları; grnt kalitesini, eşitli optik
sistemlerdeki alan aısı ve fotografik hızları geliştirmek
iin dşnlmştr. Bu fiber optik elemanları; alan dzleştirici,
konik yoğunlaştırıcı ve sapma dzenleyici şekillerindedir
ve ayrı veya "Focon" adı verilen nite iin birleşmiş
olarak kullanılabilirler. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Photograph of the
earliest bundle of uncoated aligned fibers Page 7 Figure 3.1 Core of a step
index fiber Page 8 Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of a typical fiber drawing Page

9 Figure 3.3 Preform manufacturing apparatus used in Silica-Quartz Page 11

Figure 3.4 Comparison of static,dynamic and spitial filtering imagery Page 12

Figure 4.1 Field flattener system of photography Page 13 Figure 4.2 Showing the
image transmission through a conical fiber bundle Page 14 Figure 4.3 Fiber
optics distortion correctors Page 14 Figure 4.4 Limiting resolution of Focon
system Page 15 Figure 5.1 Single lens reflex camera Page 16 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

INTRODUCTION 2. HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS 3. WHAT IS FIBER OPTICS? 3.1 WHAT IS

SILICA? 3.2 WHAT IS QUARTZ? 3.3 WHAT IS ENDOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY? 4. ENDOSCOPIC

PHOTOGRAPHY ELEMENTS 4.1 FIELD FLATTENER 4.2 CONICAL CONDENSER 4.3 DISTORTION

CORRECTOR 4.4 FOCON RESOLUTION 5. ENDOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES 5.1 COLOUR

PHOTOGRAPHY WITH FIBRE-OPTIC ENDOSCOPES 5.2 CINE- ENDOSCOPY 5.3 CLOSED CIRCUIT

COLOUR TELEVISION ENDOSCOPY 5.4 GASTRO-CAMERA EXAMINATION 6. CONCLUSION 7.

REFERENCES 8. APPENDIX 1. INTRODUCTION The technology of fiber drawing for
nonoptical applications is old and fairly standard. Very-small-diameter glass
and quartz fibers were made as early as by Faraday. In the early stages of the
production of glass fibers on an industrial scale, the main application of the
fibers was envisaged in the textile industry. More recently, they have been used
for insulation against sound, heat and electricity. Presently, very fine fibers
are being made of materials such as glass, quartz, nylon, polystyrene,
polymethylcrylate. Of these, glasses, quartz and plastics are preferred for
optical use because of their higher visible light transmission, longer thermal
working range, better surface characteristics and mechanical strength.

Furthermore, it has been shown that glass fibers can have greater tensile
strength than can be expected from the bulk material. 2. HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS

The conduction of light along transparent cylinders by multiple total internal
reflections is a fairly old and well known phenomenon. It is entirely possible
that grecian and other ancient glassblowers observed and used this phenomenon in
fabricating their decorative glassware. In fact, the basic techniques used by
the old Venetian glassblowers for making millifiore form an important
aspect of present-day fiber optics technology. However, the earliest recorded
scientific demonstration of this phenomenon was given by John Tyndall in 1870.

In demostration Thyndall used an illuminated vessel of water and showed that,
when a stream of water was allowed to flow through a hole in the side of the
vessel, light was conducted along the curved path of the stream. In 1951 when

A.C.S. van Heel in Holland and H.H. Hopkins and N.S. Kapany studied on the
transmission of images along an aligned bundle ... more

varieties of quartz

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  • Fiber Optics Fiber Optics Fiber Optics Fiber optics produced by special methods from silica glass and quartz which replaced copper wire is very useful in telecommunications, long distance telephone lines and in examining internal parts of the body (endoscopy). Equipment for photography is available with all current fiber-optic endoscopes. Through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the fiber can propagate within the core for great distances with remarkably little attenuation or reduction ...
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