V United States 1944


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v united states 1944 Telecommunications Advances

Today, telecommunications technology affects lives to a greater degree than ever
before. Communication has evolved over many years from the earliest attempts at
verbal communication to the use of sophisticated technology to enhance the
ability to communicate effectively with others. Every time a telephone call is
made, a television is watched, or a personal computer is used, benefits of
telecommunication technologies are being received. The concept of
telecommunications may be defined as the transmission of information from one
location to another by electronic means. Telecommunications is using electronic
systems to communicate. Life is changing constantly and has been changing faster
since the rapid advancements in telecommunication. Because of continuing
attempts to find better and more efficient ways to communicate, the process of
communication has steadily improved. Many of these improvements were made
without the use of electronic technology. Human beings earliest attempts at
communication were through nonverbal means such as facial expressions and
gesturing. The use of these nonverbal signs, prehistoric people were able to
communicate emotions such as fear, anger, and happiness. More specific motions,
such as pointing, allowed them to convey more information . Verbal communication
probably started with a series of disorganized but meaningful sounds (grunts and
snarls). These sounds slowly developed into a system of organized, spoken
language that truly allowed humans to share information (Croal 59). Writing,
which is the use of symbols to represent language, began with early cave
drawings, progressed to picture writings such as hieroglyphics, and finally
evolved into the handwritten language we use today (Croal 61). As civilization
developed, people found it necessary to communicate their ideas to one another
over greater distances. The earliest method of transporting information was to
carry it from place to place; but as the development of commerce made speed an
essential part, greater effort was expended to increase the rate at which ideas
were transmitted (Croal62). The search for rapid transport of information led to
the formation of the pony express in 1860 (Cozic 77). Although the pony express
required several weeks to carry mail from the East Coast to the West Coast, it
was a vast improvement over the earlier methods. The pony express was not the
only time humans teamed up with animals to attempt to improve communications.
Dogs and pigeons were used to carry messages, especially during wartime . Most,
if not all, of the early forms of communication had two significant problems.
Both the speed at which information could be effectively communicated and the
distance over which information could be sent were severely limited. With the
advancements in forms of electronic communication, these problems were solved.
It was even before the pony express that a true technological breakthrough was
made. In 1844, the first electronic transmission occurred when Samuel Morse
developed a system of dots and dashes to symbolize letters of the alphabet. A
transmission device called the telegraph was used to send the coded signals over
wires. The telegraph was to become the primary method of reliable and rapid
communication during the American Civil War . It took quite a few years to link
the major cities of America by telegraph wires, but by 1861 the pony express was
replaced . Telegraphic communication became a major part of Americas business
and military history. One of the early telegraph companies, Western Union,
became the dominant carrier. Today, Western Union, through the use of modern
technology, transmits information twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
Actual voice communication over distance finally became possible in 1876 when
Alexander Graham Bell held the first telephone conversation with his assistant,
Thomas Watson . This alternative to written communication rapidly helped the
telephone become the worlds most important communication tool. By 1866 the
first successful attempt to link Europe and America by undersea cable had been
accomplished. This cable was capable of carrying telegraph data only . The
telephone today remains a vital tool, and like the telegraph, the telephone is
constantly being improved by modern technology . By 1900, the goal of
communication technologists was to find a method of transmitting messages over
long distances without the need for wires. That dream became reality in 1901
when Gugliellmo Marconi and two assistants stood on a hill in Newfoundland and
listened carefully to their receiver. Faintly they heard the Morse code
dot-dot-dot, the letter s. the signal had traveled 1,700 miles from
Cornwall, England, and it represented the first successful wireless
transmission. This success led Marconi to form Marconi Wireless Telegraphy
Company. It was not until the Titanic disaster in 1912, however, that wireless
transmissions became commercially profitable. As ... more

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A Timeline of the Holocaust

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. In 1933
approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed.
Although Jews were the primary victims, hundreds of thousands of Roma (Gypsies) and at least 250,000 mentally or physically disabled persons were also victims of Nazi genocide.
As Nazi tyranny spread across Europe from 1933 to 1945, millions of other innocent people were persecuted and murdered. More than three million Soviet prisoners of war were
killed because of their nationality. Poles, as well as other Slavs, were targeted for slave labor, and as a result, almost two million perished. Homosexuals and others deemed
"anti-social" were also persecuted and often murdered. In addition, thousands of political and religious dissidents such as communists, socialists, trade unionists, and Jehovah's
Witnesses were persecuted for their beliefs and behavior and many of these individuals died as a result of maltreatment.

The concentration camp is most closely associated with the Holocaust and remains an enduring symbol of the Nazi regime. The first camps opened soon after the Nazis took power
in January 1933; they continued as a basic part of Nazi rule until May 8, 1945, when the war, and the Nazi regime, ended.

The events of the Holocaust occurred in two main phases: 1933-1939 and 1939-1945.

I. 1933-1939:

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was named Chancellor, the most powerful position in the German government, by the aged President Hindenburg who hoped Hitler could lead the
nation out of its grave political and economic crisis. Hitler was the leader of the right-wing National Socialist German Workers Party (called the Nazi Party for short); it was, by 1933,
one of the strongest parties in Germany, even though * reflecting the country's multi-party system * the Nazis had only won a plurality of 33 percent of the votes in the 1932 elections to
the German parliament (Reichstag).

Once in power, Hitler moved quickly to end German democracy. He convinced his cabinet to invoke emergency clauses of the Constitution which permitted the suspension of
individual freedoms of the press, speech, and assembly. Special security forces * the Special State Police (the Gestapo), the Storm Troopers (S.A.), and the Security Police (S.S.) *
murdered or arrested leaders of opposition political parties (communists, socialists, and liberals). The Enabling Act of March 23, 1933, forced through a Reichstag already purged of
many political opponents, gave dictatorial powers to Hitler.

Also in 1933, the Nazis began to put into practice their racial ideology. Echoing ideas popular in Germany as well as most other western nations well before the 1930s, the Nazis
believed that the Germans were "racially superior" and that there was a struggle for survival between them and "inferior races." They saw Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and the
handicapped as a serious biological threat to the purity of the "German (Aryan) Race,"[footnote #1] what they called the "master race."

Jews, who numbered around 500,000 in Germany (less than one percent of the total population in 1933), were the principal target of Nazi hatred. The Nazis mistakenly identified
Jews as a race and defined this race as "inferior." They also spewed hatemongering propaganda which unfairly blamed Jews for Germany's economic depression and the country's
defeat in World War I (1914-1918).

In 1933, new German laws forced Jews to quit their civil service jobs, university and law court positions, and other areas of public life. In April 1933, a boycott of Jewish businesses
was instituted. In 1935, laws proclaimed at Nuremberg stripped German Jews of their citizenship even though they retained limited rights. These "Nuremberg Laws" defined Jews
not by their religion or by how they wanted to identify themselves but by the blood of their grandparents. Between 1937 and 1939, new anti-Jewish regulations segregated Jews
further and made daily life very difficult for them: Jews could not attend public schools, go to theaters, cinemas, or vacation resorts, or reside, or even walk, in certain sections of
German cities. ... more

v united states 1944

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