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two ways The Magyars

The Magyars
The Medieval Period in European History saw several waves of barbarians
which helped shape the face of European society.  The nomadic tribes of people that lived
a migratory life, while other groups were founding civilizations with permanent living
centers, are today referred to as barbarians.  Two great empires, the Chinese and the
Roman, ruled on the extreme edges of the enormous Eurasian continent and were
separated by vast distances.1  The people that existed between the two empires and
roamed the large wasteland were called barbarians.2  They did not have a permanent
living center and therefore raided settled towns and cities for food and riches.  Because of
there roaming ways and raiding tactics, barbarians were feared and hated in the Medieval
World.  The word barbarian is presently associated with being backwards, uneducated,
or indecent; in one word, uncivilized.  These wandering people lived in family orientated
groups called clans, which combined together to form a tribe.  Tribes depended on one
another for protection.  Among these barbarian groups where a traveling people known as
the Magyars.  The Magyars had a major impact on the Carpathian Basin in Central Eastern
Europe, and directly affected the picture of the European landscape that we have today.
The magyars are a mysterious peoples whose origins and connections are highly
debated among scholars and historians.  The first place to begin when searching for
origins, is the language.  The Magyar language is a branch of the Finno-Ugrian family of
languages, most nearly related to Finnish, although supplemented by numerous Turkic
words.3  The language is very unique and their is no other like it in the world.  Popular
2
belief places the origin of the people themselves somewhere in the Orient.  The Old
Magyar Fatherland was probably situated in the ancient Orient, which we call the
Near-East, and played an important role in Mesopotamian lands.4  Linguistic evidence
places the Magyars among the ancient Egyptians.  Contemporary records speak of a
Makari Queen5 from the XXth dynasty; between 1080-940 BC6  Egyptian Kings of the
XIXth dynasty forced the Magyars out of Africa for good.  From their the people
dispersed, moved around the European landmass, including Hungary, and mixed with
other peoples.7  Much of the Finno-Ugrian peoples mainly dispersed in the widespread
region on the west side of the Ural Mountains.8  It was in this region that the Magyars
were exposed to the Turks.  Their language was enriched with Turkic elements while
maintaining its basic Finno-Ugric characteristics.  It is difficult to pinpoint the exact
location of the Magyars during this period because of their nomadic ways.
By the end of the 5th century the Magyars had begun their southward migration
from the Urals and settled east of the Sea of Azov.9  Here they were again under the
influence of Turkic neighbors.  During this period the Magyars patterned themselves after
the Turkic model, becoming a well-disciplined, conquering race.  During the second half
of the 9th century, the warring Turkic Pechenegs put forth pressure on the Magyars
feeding grounds, forcing them to begin their historic westward migration.  Following a


3
Pecheneg attack, the Magyar tribes united under one leader, rpd, who led his people
out of their exposed position in Etelkz and into the Carpathian Basin.10  The seven
Magyar tribal chieftains elected a leader from among them.  After rpd was elected, he
had to lead them in a swearing with ritual drinking of mixed blood to unify them and make
their claim as head of the nation valid.
In 894, Sviatopluk sent envoys to the Magyars for help against the
Frankish-Bulghar confederation, while the Bulghars wanted an alliance with the
Pechenegs.  The Magyars joined forces with Sviatopluk and attacked the Franks in
Pannonia.  During this period the weaknesses of the lands were made out by the Magyars,
and that same year they were back, raiding Pannonia for themselves.11  In late 895 or early
896 the Magyars crossed the Carpathian mountains for good through the Verecke pass
and launched a military campaign that would come to be known as the Conquest12.  The
Pechenegs crossed over the river Don and took the Magyars by surprise, causing them to
flee to the Transylvanian mountains for protection.  Most of the Magyar forces were off
fighting the Bulgars.  Upon their return, with reinforcements, they ousted the Pechenegs
from the Great Plain and Transylvania.  They fought and gained possession of the Alfld.
During this time Moravian rule governed the area.  The Germans and Moravians united
against the Magyars, but by 900 AD Frankish rule in Pannonia had vanished.13  In 907 a
Bavarian army was ... more

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Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism

Amidst the chaos of political instability and constant warring of the Zhou era, arose many intellectual thinkers that brought such a profound impact in the fields of politics, religion, and philosophy.  Even to this day, their influence can be seen on the many matters of China.  Confucianism became the paramount school of thinking and later significant philosophies such as Daoism and Legalism gained immense recognition as well.  Each party had their own proposals for creating an idealistic political society where the many problems they faced in their everyday lives could be eliminated.  All three approaches were very distinct but at the same time, they contained similarities as well.  In my reasoning, I find that Confucianism and Daoism could be paralled in many ways to find several common grounds.  On the other hand, Legalism goes on to take a more unique approach which was much different from the previous two.  
Confucius was born in 551 B.C.E, to a poor family of the lower nobility.  Throughout his life, he relentlessly tried to gain an office with a prominent ruler of the time who was willing to adopt his various concepts.  Unfortunately, Confucius died in 479B.C.E., before such a change ever took place.  However, he succeeded in winning over a handful of devote followers who continued his legacy and Confucianism later went on to become one of the most influential thought systems of Chinese history.  Of his followers, Mencius and Xunzi became one of the most renown.  Since Confucius did not succeed in completing a manual of his views, these followers had to derive their own interpretations of the system, which now formulate, the Analects.  The Analects portray an idealized gentleman, and his various duties in terms of the society, family and rituals.  Confucius explains about the way (Dao) which he believed, that if the people accepted its terms and were willing to abide, they would succeed in creating a utopian society.
By the beginning of the Common Era, another philosophy emerges and gains wide acceptance among the commoners.  Daoism, just like the predecessor and also as the name implies, puts emphasis on the way that a certain individual is to abide to.  Even though the two systems had different concepts about the way, the common denominator of both schools was to achieve total harmony in society.  Confucianism focuses mainly on social order while Daoism puts its central; focus on being one with the nature.
If an individual can practice five things anywhere in the world, he is a man of humanity...reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence and kindness (Ebrey 19).  Confucius gentleman has to possess these fine qualities to achieve success.  On the other side of the token, Daoism emphasized the need for similar entities.  Laozi explains: For minds, the depth is good.  In social relations, human-heartedness is good.  In speaking, the trustworthiness is good.  In government order is good (Ebrey 28).  Both systems, through through different approaches, promote peace and goodwill among the family, society and with neighboring states.
Both Confucianism and Daoism accept the presence of a supernatural entity but do not provide a clear explanation on it.  Both thought systems consider it mostly as a mystery that the human mind cannot fully comprehend or alter.  Confucius put great importance in conducting numerous rituals for various occasions.  He found it to be an essential part for the well being of society.  He said, when superiors love ritual, the people are easy to direct (Ebrey 22).  Xunzi provides a more elaborate explanation.  He said Ritual conduct is the perfection of decorum...Sages comprehend it, gentleman comfortably carries them out, officials preserves them and the common people consider them custom (Ebrey 25).  The same sense of mystery or vagueness can be sensed in Daoism.  Laozi said, The way that can be discussed is not the constant way...nameless is the source of Heaven and earth...Their identity can be called a mystery (Ebrey 27).
Both Confucianism and Daoism disfavored a harsh government.  Confucius urged to lead the people with virtue and rituals as opposed to government policies and punishment.  He believed that the ruler should gain respect through his deeds rather that achieving it through his status and authority.  Likewise, Daoism disliked the emphasis of status being displayed in ... more

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