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tuskegee institute African Americans
African Americans

Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks declined from 19.3 in 1790 to 9.7 in 1930. A modest percentage increase has occurred since that time. Over the past 300 and more years in the United States, considerable racial mixture has taken place between persons of African descent and those with other racial backgrounds, mainly of white European or American Indian ancestry. Shades of skin colour range from dark brown to ivory. In body type black Americans range from short and stocky to tall and lean. Nose shapes vary from aquiline to extremely broad and flat; hair colour from medium brown to brown black; and hair texture from tightly curled to limp and straight. Historically, the predominant attitude toward racial group membership in the United States has been that persons having any black African ancestry are considered to be black. In some parts of the United States, especially in the antebellum South, laws were written to define racial group membership in this way, generally to the detriment of those who were not Caucasian. It is important to note, however, that ancestry and physical characteristics are only part of what has set black Americans apart as a distinct group. The concept of race, as it applies to the black minority in the United States, is as much a social and political concept as a biological one. Blacks Under Slavery: 1600-1865 The first Africans in the New World arrived with Spanish and Portuguese explorers and settlers. By 1600 an estimated 275,000 Africans, both free and slave, were in Central and South America and the Caribbean area. Africans first arrived in the area that became the United States in 1619, when a handful of captives were sold by the captain of a Dutch man-of-war to settlers at JAMESTOWN. Others were brought in increasing numbers to fill the desire for labour in a country where land was plentiful and labour scarce. By the end of the 17th century, approximately 1,300,000 Africans had landed in the New World. From 1701 to 1810 the number reached 6,000,000, with another 1,800,000 arriving after 1810. Some Africans were brought directly to the English colonies in North America. Others landed as slaves in the West Indies and were later resold and shipped to the mainland. Slavery in America The earliest African arrivals were viewed in the same way as indentured servants from Europe. This similarity did not long continue. By the latter half of the 17th century, clear differences existed in the treatment of black and white servants. A 1662 Virginia law assumed Africans would remain servants for life, and a 1667 act declared that "Baptism do not alter the condition of the person as to his bondage or freedom." By 1740 the SLAVERY system in colonial America was fully developed. A Virginia law in that year declared slaves to be "chattel personal in the hands of their owners and possessors . . . for all intents, construction, and purpose whatsoever." In spite of numerous ideological conflicts, however, the slavery system was maintained in the United States until 1865, and widespread antiblack attitudes nurtured by slavery continued thereafter. Prior to the American Revolution, slavery existed in all the colonies. The ideals of the Revolution and the limited profitability of slavery in the North resulted in its abandonment in northern states during the last quarter of the 18th century. At the same time the strength of slavery increased in the South, with the continuing demand for cheap labour by the tobacco growers and cotton farmers of the Southern states. By 1850, 92 percent of all American blacks were concentrated in the South, and of this group approximately 95 percent were slaves. Under the plantation system gang labour was the typical form of employment. Overseers were harsh as a matter of general ... more

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Black Leaders Of 20th Century


BLACK LEADERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY


In the time after the fall of radical black reconstruction of the nineteenth century, African Americans were being oppressed by rural farming, civil rights, economical advancement and sharecropping. Booker T. Washington charged the fight for economical and political accommodation with his dream of equal civil rights. Timothy Thomas Fortune was an influential black journalist that fought for the rights of African Americans through literal resistance. The Lonely Warrior, Ida B. Wells was an outspoken voice against lynching throughout America and fought against the oppression of men and woman everywhere.
Booker T. Washington was one of the last great African American leaders born into slavery. Washington emphasized political means and civil rights along with economic means and self-determination. Washington was the founder of the Tuskegee Normal and the Industrial Institute in 1881, for the development of skilled trade. The Instituted was the largest self-black supported Institution in America at the time. The school taught the arts of trade, self-determination and economical independence of sharecropping. Washington gave the Atlanta Compromise Address in 1895, to disclaim the notion of white supremacy and social equality to the south.
Booker T. Washington sought to influence whites, but sought out the solid programs of economical and educational progress for blacks. Washington was one that thought that speaking out against injustice was self-defeating and should be suppressed. Washington founded the National Negro Business League in 1900, helped put a stronghold on substantial black population and did little for black business. As the chief black advisor to President Roosevelt and Taft, Washington devoted much of his time to securing federal jobs and used political power to win over key political figures in the North. He aided many blacks businesses but also hindered the activities of those who spoke against him. He also helped appoint the first black assistant US Attorney General. Many of Washington's ideas and concepts are still being used today in black communities.
Booker T. Washington was in control of many black newspapers that agreed with his views and opinions. Many black leaders such as W.E.B Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter did not see eye to eye with Washington and he was believed to be getting in the way of other black group movements. At this time Washington felt that his leadership in the black community depended on the help of white leaders and his wittiness to use them for what he needed. He secretly tried to overturn the grandfather clause, and (the fact that he could), kept his popularity with the whites. To the end of his life, many blacks started to question his loyalty to the black communities and whites really did not remember him, and only thought of him as a black educator.  
Thought of as the great successor to Frederick Douglass, Timothy Thomas Fortune was an influential black journalist. Fortune was born in Marianna, Florida, in 1856 into slavery, the same year as Booker T. Washington. Timothy was exposed to the harsh realities of white racism and white supremacy. As the South grew to be more than Fortune could take due to racism, he decided to leave and move to New York. He was a self-taught man and attended school for only three months. Fortune spent most of his free time studying and reading books literature, history, law and government. This helped him design his own literary and oratory style of writing. As a journalist and the editor of the "New York Age", "Globe", the "New York Freemen", and the founder of the African American Council, Fortune was known as the spokesman and the defender of civil rights of African Americans in the South as well as the North.  
Fortune was a militant writer and editor, who was named the "Agitator".  He was known for his strong personality, his straight forwardness and harsh opinions. Fortune was one who believed in the fight for black rights and he fought to gain equality for blacks.  In the fight against injustice, Fortune urged women to support of the National African American League to help gain political power and equality. Fortune even hired Ida B. Wells Barnett as an anti-lynching writer for the "Globe". At this time, fortune ... more

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  • T: 3 negros T: 3 negros 3 negros In the period after Reconstruction the position of African Americans in southern American society steadily deteriorated. After 1877 the possibilities of advancements for African Americans disappeared almost completely. African Americans experienced a loss of voting rights and political power created by methods of terrorization such as lynching. The remaining political and economic gains that were made during reconstruction were eventually whittled away by Southern legislation. By the 19...
  • U: African Americans U: African Americans African Americans African Americans Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks de...
  • S: Black Leaders Of 20th Century S: Black Leaders Of 20th Century Black Leaders Of 20th Century BLACK LEADERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY In the time after the fall of radical black reconstruction of the nineteenth century, African Americans were being oppressed by rural farming, civil rights, economical advancement and sharecropping. Booker T. Washington charged the fight for economical and political accommodation with his dream of equal civil rights. Timothy Thomas Fortune was an influential black journalist that fought for the rights of African Americans throu...
  • K: George Washington Carver K: George Washington Carver George Washington Carver \'It is not the style of clothes one wears, neither the kind of automobile one drives, nor the amount of money one has in the bank, that counts. These mean nothing. It is simply service that measures success.\'--George Washington Carver. George Washington Carver paved the way for agriculturists to come. He always went for the best throughout his whole life. He didn\'t just keep the best for himself; he gave it away freely for the benefit of mankind. Not only did he achie...
  • E: Booker T. Washington E: Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro Washington was born on April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia near a cross-roads post-office called Hales Ford. He was an American educator and a black leader. When Booker was a child he worked in coal mines for nine months a year and spent the other three attending school. In 1875 he graduated after working his way through Hampton Institute. In 1881 he became the first president of Tuskegee Institute, a trade school for blacks t...
  • G: Booker T Washington G: Booker T Washington Booker T Washington Booker T. Washington: Fighter for the Black Man Booker T. Washington was a man beyond words. His perseverance and will to work were well known throughout the United States. He rose from slavery, delivering speech after speech expressing his views on how to uplift America\'s view of the Negro. He felt that knowledge was power, not just knowledge of books, but knowledge of agricultural and industrial trades. He felt that the Negro would rise to be an equal in American society...
  • E: Booker T. Washington E: Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington I\'m Booker T Washington In 1881, I founded and became principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. I started this school in an old abandoned church and a shanty. The school\'s name was later changed to Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). The school taught specific trades, such as carpentry, farming, and mechanics, and trained teachers. As it expanded, I spent much of his time raising funds. Under Washington\'s leadership, the institute became famous as a...
  • E: Booker T Washington2 E: Booker T Washington2 Booker T Washington2 Booker T. Washington was born on April 5, 1865. He was born into slavery at the James Burroughs family plantation in Virginia. Nothing is known about Booker T. Washingtons father beyond the fact that he was a white man. After the Civil War Booker T. Washington worked in a salt furnace and attended school 3 months out of the year. At the age of 17, he was accepted into Hampton Institute in Virginia. When Booker T. Washington graduated from the institute, he then entered the...
  •  : the civil rights movement in tuskegee : the civil rights movement in tuskegee the civil rights movement in tuskegee An Analysis of Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee When a person, who is a citizen of this country, thinks about civil rights, they often they about the Civil Rights Movement which took place in this nation during mid 11950s and primarily through the 1960s. They think about the marches, sit-ins, boycotts, and other demonstrations that took place during that period. They also think about influential people during that period such as D...
  • I: Booker t. washington 2 I: Booker t. washington 2 Booker t. washington 2 During the progressive era in the late 1800s, white people were in control of society. The blacks had been freed under the Emancipation Proclamation, but were not being treated equal. Mainly because they were black. But that was not the only reason. Blacks were also not treated equally because they did not possess the intelligence and skills of whites. A great man decided to fight for equality between blacks and whites. His name was Booker Taliaferro Washington. Booker T....
  • N: Booker T. Washington N: Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington: Fighter for the Black Man Booker T. Washington was a man beyond words. His perseverance and will to work were well known throughout the United States. He rose from slavery, delivering speech after speech expressing his views on how to uplift America\'s view of the Negro. He felt that knowledge was power, not just knowledge of books, but knowledge of agricultural and industrial trades. He felt that the Negro would rise to be an equal in American societ...
  • S: Marcus Garvey: A Black Hero S: Marcus Garvey: A Black Hero Marcus Garvey: A Black Hero American Literature March 29, 2004 When most people think of Black Nationalism they think of the Black Panthers or 2-Pac more recently. But what they dont know is that a century ago the world had its first taste of African Americans need for unity. Marcus Garvey was born in Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. in St. Anns Bay, Jamaica in 1887. Garvey had experience with politics when he was 20 he was an active trade unionist and was elected vice president of the compositors b...
  • T: Civil Rights Timeline T: Civil Rights Timeline Civil Rights Timeline Civil Rights Timeline: Jan. 15, 1929 - Dec. 21, 1956 Jan. 15, 1929 - Dr. King is born - Born on Jan. 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Ga., he was the second of three children of the Rev. Michael (later Martin) and Alberta Williams King. Sept. 1, 1954 - Dr. King becomes pastor - In 1954, King accepted his first pastorate--the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. He and his wife, Coretta Scott King, whom he had met and married (June 1953) while at Boston University. Dec. 1, ...
  • I: The Life and Times of Claude McKay I: The Life and Times of Claude McKay The Life and Times of Claude McKay The life and Writings of Claude McKay Introduction Every literary period can be defined by a group of writers. For the Harlem Renaissance, which was an extraordinary eruption of creativity among Black Americans in all fields of art, Claude McKay was the leader. Claude McKay was a major asset to the Harlem Renaissance with his contributions of such great pieces of writings such as If We Must Die and The Lynching. McKay wrote in many different styles....
  • T: The civil rights movement in tuskegee T: The civil rights movement in tuskegee the civil rights movement in tuskegee An Analysis of Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee When a person, who is a citizen of this country, thinks about civil rights, they often they about the Civil Rights Movement which took place in this nation during mid 11950s and primarily through the 1960s. They think about the marches, sit-ins, boycotts, and other demonstrations that took place during that period. They also think about influential people during that period such as D...
  • U: Diversity in Aviation U: Diversity in Aviation Diversity in Aviation Diversity is important to give all races and genders an opportunity to grow with modern civilization. When referring to aviation, diversity is such a great factor that there wouldnat have been an Amelia Earhart, a Bessie Coleman nor a Benjamin O. Davis. You would only have one race, one gender and one country with the knowledge of aviation. In the early nineteen hundreds the field of aviation was primarily studied by one race and one gender. Only after the nineteen tw...
  • T: There are many things that we as a people want to T: There are many things that we as a people want to There are many things that we as a people want to hide from others, as to sayskeletons we have in the closet, those things that would classify us as being inhumane, or barbaric. Sometimes in life, actions or things that we do dictate to others what type of people we happen to be. The US government has a plethora of covert operations and experiments that they continuously want to hide from the public eye, but no other experiment or operation was as deadly, barbaric, inhumane, ominous, unethical,...
  • E: African Americans E: African Americans African Americans Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks declined from 19.3 i...
  • Rosa Parks Rosa Parks Rosa Parks By: Brooke McClain Mcclain 1 The Summary Rosa Parks, born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913 in was raised in an era during which segregation was normal and black suppression was a way of life. She lived with relatives in Montgomery, where she finished high school in 1933 and continued her education at Alabama State College. She married her husband, Raymond Parks, a barber, in 1932. She worked as a clerk, an insurance salesperson, and a tailors assistant at a department store. ...
  • Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington was the first African American whose likeness appeared on a United States postage stamp. Washington also was thus honored a quarter century after his death. In 1946 he also became the first black with his image on a coin, a 50-cent piece. The Tuskegee Institute, which Washington started at the age of 25, was the where the 10-cent stamps first were available. The educator\'s monument on its campus shows him lifting a symbolic veil from the head of a freed...
  • Booker t. washington Booker t. washington Booker t. washington Equality Through Knowledge an essay on the views of Booker T. Washington Born a slave, Booker T. Washington rose to become a commonly recognized leader of the Negro race in America. Washington continually strove to be successful and to show other black men and women how they too could raise themselves. Washingtons method of uplifting was education of the head, the hand, and the heart. From his founding of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 to his death in 1915 Booker T. Washi...
  • Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro Washington was the foremost black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. He also had a major influence on southern race relations and was a dominant figure in black affairs from 1895 until his death in 1915. Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in 1858. As a slave Booker did not have a last name and chose Washington, his stepfather\'s name. After the Civil War Booker, his brother, and his mother moved to Malden, West Virginia w...
  • Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington By: Tim E-mail: TFreem@aol.com Booker T. Washington: Fighter for the Black Man Booker T. Washington was a man beyond words. His perseverance and will to work were well known throughout the United States. He rose from slavery, delivering speech after speech expressing his views on how to uplift America\'s view of the Negro. He felt that knowledge was power, not just knowledge of books, but knowledge of agricultural and industrial trades. He felt that the Negro would rise to...
  • Rosa Parks1 Rosa Parks1 Rosa Parks1 ROSA LOUISE MCCAULEY PARKS (b. Feb. 4, 1913, Tuskegee, Ala., U.S.), black American civil rights activist whose refusal to relinquish her seat on a public bus to a white man precipitated the 1955 Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott, recognized as the spark that ignited the U.S. civil rights Parks attended Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) and made her living as a seamstress. She was active in the National Association of Colored People in Montgomery (1943-56). Parks\'s arr...
  • Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro Washington was born on April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia near a cross-roads post-office called Hales Ford. He was an American educator and a black leader. When Booker was a child he worked in coal mines for nine months a year and spent the other three attending school. In 1875 he graduated after working his way through Hampton Institute. In 1881 he became the first president of Tuskegee Institute, a trade school for blacks that live in Alabama. Wh...