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transracial adoption process

Adoption: The Process

     Adoption is metamorphosing into a radical new process that is both sweeping the nation and changing it. But this process is not an easy one, there are many steps to go through. Through research it is made a lot easier. Adoption is a also a highly visible example of a social institution that has benefits from and been reshaped by both the Internet and the exponential growth of alternative lifestyles, from single to transracial to gay. It is accelerating our transformation into a more multicultural society; even as it helps redefine out understanding of "family." The process includes three main steps including a type of adoption, the techniques for location a baby for adoption, arranging a successful adoption, the steps at the hospital, and lastly the legal issues in adoption.
     There are many types of adoption in California, more then any other in the country. The reasonable amount of time it takes to adopt a child is about a year. "Independent adoption is an alternative to agency adoption and is the means by approximately 85 percent of all newborns are adopted in California. Since that is the most popular that is the type that I am going to concentrate. The reason that it is the most popular is because of four factors. The first is because the independent agency is flexible, secondly it allows the birth mother to personally meet and select adoptive parents, thirdly it allows the adoptive parents to quickly locate the birth mother rather
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then waiting several years for the agency to do it for them, and lastly the child can be placed in the home of the adoptive parents immediately after birth instead of waiting in a foster home. By law the birth mother must personally place the child with the adoptive parents. That does not mean she has to do it physically it just means she must personally select them. The birth mother is permitted to release her child into the adoptive parents custody as soon as the hospital discharges the baby, usually 2-3 days old. Generally when the child is six-eight months old the adoptive parents can go to court to permanently finalize the process. A new birth certificate is prepared after the adoption is granted by the court. Independent adoption fees and costs can vary dramatically. Most adoption attorneys charge between 3,000 to 4,000. The adoption attorney is assisting the adoptive parents in quickly locating a birthmother, obtains background and health information about birth parents, examines the case for potential legal or practical difficulties, and prepares the necessary legal documents and appears in court when necessary.
     The techniques of finding a baby for adoption through an independent agency. First thing that needs to be done is to select and adoption attorney. Things to consider when choosing an attorney is remember like all professionals there are good ones and there are bad ones. Consider the quality of their service, depth of their knowledge, and fairness of their fees. The following groups and individuals can provide you with important insight and inside information regarding finding an attorney. The independent adoption social services offices the office is assigned to you is based upon what county
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you live in, public adoption agencies but they have little relation to independent adoption, private adoption agencies which will have knowledge of local attorneys, physicians may be familiar with adoption attorneys in their community, and adoptive parent associations this is an association formed by adoptive parents which they share information about adoption. Networking is important it refers to "getting the word out" to make as many people aware that you are interested in adopting. When done correctly, it can work effectively. A photo-resume letter is a way to network to birth mothers. This should be done in no formula because you want the birth mother to know you. The letter should be about one page long, you need to include a picture, explain why you are pursuing to adopt, brief description of yourself, and another tip is to hand sign each letter.
     Arranging a successful adoption, finally the waiting pays off- you learn that the birth mother has expressed an interest in you and wants to meet you ... more

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Transracial Adoptions
Thesis:  Transracial adoptees family situation affects many aspects of the adopted childs life, do these children have identity formation difficulties during adolescence and are there any significant differences between adoptees and birth children?

Transracial Adoptees and Families

I. Attachment Issues
A. Trust versus Mistrust
B. Age of child at time of placement
C. Need of Attachment

II. Development Issues
A. Identity versus Role Confusion
B. Age of child at time of placement
C. Need of Attachment

III. Identity  Issues
A. Forming an Identity
B. Biological Birth Information
C. Racial Identification
D. Adoptive Parent Information























                                                                                                                    Applin I

Adoption and Identity

    Being introduced into a new family is only one of many obstacles that lies ahead for those who enter into transracial adoption. With all of the information that is out there would adoptive parents advise others to pursue a transracial adoption? (Simon, 3).   Do children who are adopted lose their social and racial identity, their racial attitudes, and their sense of awareness about racial issues?  Transracial adoption have supporters and non-supporters with feelings that parent-child relationships work best between biological likes, and fears that adoptive parents are not able to love and nurture biological unlikes (Simon, 1). There has been a great deal of research conducted about adoptees and the problems they face with identity formation. Many researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, but others have concluded that there is not a significant difference in identity formation in adoptees and birth children. The following paper will bring out some of the research findings, which have been conducted, and will then attempt to answer the following questions: Do adoptees have identity formation difficulties during adolescence, and if they do, what are the causes?  Has it been shown that there is a significant difference between identity formation of adoptees and birth children?  In order to find the answers to these questions, looking at the attachment, development and identity will need to be looked at altogether.                                        
    Of adopted children tested, the National Adoption Center has reported that fifty-two percent of adoptable children have attachment disorder symptoms. There is uniqueness in being in an transracial-adopted person.  Most obvious is that the children grow up in a family in which they do not look like their parents or other members of their family.
                                                                                                                        Applin II
Their history is a part of them throughout their life because it is so visibly apparent. The adoptive family may ignore or make little effort to incorporate into the family the cultural heritage of the adopted child (Adamec,136). This decision to leave the culture behind, outside the family, does not suggest that the child is neither accepted nor loved or cherished as their own. However, when the adoptive family also adopts and embraces the cultural identity of the child's birth culture, it enriches not only the adopted child but also the entire family and extended family as well.  Another factor is attachment is the childs age when they were adopted.  The older the child when adopted, the risk of social maladjustment was found to be higher (Simon, 188). Most children when adopted at younger ages have a better chance to adjustment normally, than children adopted over the age of ten. An infant learns to trust quicker, than a ten-year old child does, but all of this depends on each case. Developmental theorist Eric Erikson, discusses trust issues in his theory of development. Erikson's first stage of development is Trust versus Mistrust, which states if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust (Myers, 149). For an adopted child, placing the child early in a key ingredient to successful attachment of child to parent and vice versa (Cox, 1). Such an attachment, which is strong among the majority of families throughout the paper, is an important precursor to positive identity and psychological health, both of which are commonplace among the adolescents.  Attachment can occur between adoptive parents and their older child, and it usually is assumed that the bonding process will take time and the older the child, the longer the process will take (Adamec, 60).  This usually takes place in the first                                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                        Applin III
stage of Eriksons developmental stages, but with older children, this can still take place, but will vary in the time ... more

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  • T: Adoption T: Adoption adoption adoption adoption, act by which the legal relation of parent and child is created. Adoption was recognized by Roman law but not by common law. Statutes first introduced adoption into U.S. law in the mid-19th cent., and today it is allowed in all states of the United States and in Great Britain. Adoption is generally a judicial proceeding, requiring a hearing before a judge. Adoption statutes usually provide that the consent of the parents or guardian of the childand that of the child...
  • R: Adoption process R: Adoption process adoption process Adoption: The Process Adoption is metamorphosing into a radical new process that is both sweeping the nation and changing it. But this process is not an easy one, there are many steps to go through. Through research it is made a lot easier. Adoption is a also a highly visible example of a social institution that has benefits from and been reshaped by both the Internet and the exponential growth of alternative lifestyles, from single to transracial to gay. It is accelerating our ...
  • A: Transracial Adoptions A: Transracial Adoptions Transracial Adoptions Thesis: Transracial adoptees family situation affects many aspects of the adopted childs life, do these children have identity formation difficulties during adolescence and are there any significant differences between adoptees and birth children? Transracial Adoptees and Families I. Attachment Issues A. Trust versus Mistrust B. Age of child at time of placement C. Need of Attachment II. Development Issues A. Identity versus Role Confusion B. Age of child at time of placem...
  • N: Transracial Adoption Many adoptions are being take N: Transracial Adoption Many adoptions are being take Transracial Adoption Many adoptions are being taken place in America today. These adoptions are not always of the same race, transracial adoption is very popular among eager couples who are willing to adopt. Transracial adoption is the adoption of a child of one race by a couple of another race. Adopting children from different races has brought up many controversies and the government has had to step in. There are mixed views on the case of transracial adoption, some believe it is culturally da...
  • S: Martin Luther King S: Martin Luther King Martin Luther King One of the worlds best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence in...
  • R: Who Am I? R: Who Am I? Who Am I? Who Am I? The amount of research that has been conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity development is enormous. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees as birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following questions: Do ad...
  • A: Adoption And Identity Formation A: Adoption And Identity Formation Adoption And Identity Formation There has been an enormous amount of research conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity formation. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees and birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following question...
  • C: Biracial Adoption C: Biracial Adoption Biracial Adoption Interracial Adoption Adoption is the complete and permanent transfer of parental rights and obligations, usually from one set of legal parents to adoptive parents(Ademec 27). Not until the late 19th century did the U.S. legislative body grant legal status to adoptive parents. This is when children and parents started to gain rights and support from the government. Through the years new laws have been passed and amended to keep the system fair to all adoptive parents. In 1994, C...
  • I: Martin Luther King I: Martin Luther King Martin Luther King One of the worlds best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence in...
  • A: Transracial Adoptions A: Transracial Adoptions Transracial Adoptions Thesis: Transracial adoptees family situation affects many aspects of the adopted childs life, do these children have identity formation difficulties during adolescence and are there any significant differences between adoptees and birth children? Transracial Adoptees and Families I. Attachment Issues A. Trust versus Mistrust B. Age of child at time of placement C. Need of Attachment II. Development Issues A. Identity versus Role Confusion B. Age of child at time of plac...
  • L: Who Am I? L: Who Am I? Who Am I? Who Am I? The amount of research that has been conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity development is enormous. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees as birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following questions: Do ad...
  • None Provided4 None Provided4 None Provided4 While reading the September 1999 issue of Social Work: Journal of the National Association of Social Workers, I came across an article entitled Symbolic Interactionism, African American Families and the Transracial Adoption Controversy. It was written by Leslie Doty Hollingsworth PhD, the assistant professor in the school of social work at the University of Michigan. The article claims that by using symbolic interactionism, it can be seen that African Americans are a unique and ...
  • Adoption1 Adoption1 Adoption1 Are parents those who give birth to a child or those who care for a child? Does nature or nurture make a woman a mother? As more and more heartbreaking tugs-of-war between biological and adoptive parents surface, anyone searching for a baby has good reason for concern Baby Jessica was raised from infancy by adoptive parents, Jan and Roberta DeBoer. For two and a half years Jessica was at the heart of one of the most bitter custody battles in America, caught between the parents in Michi...
  • Handbook for Adoption Handbook for Adoption Handbook for Adoption Having children is a real task. However, adopted children presents a bigger challenge to many people. Adopted children have many issues with who they are due to a lack of a blood bond with their adopted parents. Over the years, there have been many questions raised about adoptees and their problems with identity formation. Many of top the researchers on this subject agree on the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while many other researchers concl...
  • Adoption and Idenity Adoption and Idenity Adoption and Idenity There has been an enormous amount of research conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity formation. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees and birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research, which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following questions: Do adop...
  • Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Martin Luther King One of the world\'s best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence i...
  • International Adoption International Adoption International Adoption The birth of a girl has never been a cause for celebration in China, and stories of peasant farmers drowning newborn girls in buckets of water have been commonplace for centuries. Now, however, as a direct result of the one-child policy, the number of baby girls being abandoned, aborted, or dumped on orphanage steps is unprecedented. Adopting Internationally Adoption is procedure by which people legally assume the role of parents for a person who is not their biological ch...
  • Racial Difference In Intelligence Racial Difference In Intelligence Racial Difference In Intelligence Is there a racial difference in Intelligence? Is There a Racial Difference in Intelligence? Starting with birth, most Americans are consistently measured and their abilities consistently assessed. While no clear definition of intelligence has been adopted universally, in general, definitions stress either an ability to adapt to environment, the capacity to learn, or the ability to think abstractly. Like the word love, intelligence remains a term we all have a ...
  • Adoption: Nature Or Nurture? Adoption: Nature Or Nurture? Adoption: Nature Or Nurture? Adoption: Nature or Nurture? By Clay Cooper 12/2/00 Are parents those who give birth to a child or those who care for a child? Does nature or nurture make a woman a mother? As more and more heartbreaking tugs-of-war between biological and adoptive parents surface, anyone searching for a baby has good reason for concern(Casey 119). Baby Jessica was raised from infancy by adoptive parents, Jan and Roberta DeBoer. For two and a half years Jessica was at the heart of one...
  • Transracial Adoptions Transracial Adoptions Transracial Adoptions i Thesis: Transracial adoptees family situation affects many aspects of the adopted childs life, do these children have identity formation difficulties during adolescence and are there any significant differences between adoptees and birth children? B. Age of child at time of placement B. Age of child at time of placement A I Being introduced into a new family is only one of many obstacles that lies ahead for those who enter into transracial adoption. With all of the infor...
  • None Provided4 None Provided4 None Provided4 Kristin McOlvin Commentary While reading the September 1999 issue of Social Work: Journal of the National Association of Social Workers, I came across an article entitled Symbolic Interactionism, African American Families and the Transracial Adoption Controversy. It was written by Leslie Doty Hollingsworth PhD, the assistant professor in the school of social work at the University of Michigan. The article claims that by using symbolic interactionism, it can be seen that African ...
  • Biracial Adoption Biracial Adoption Biracial Adoption Interracial Adoption Adoption is the complete and permanent transfer of parental rights and obligations, usually from one set of legal parents to adoptive parents(Ademec 27). Not until the late 19th century did the U.S. legislative body grant legal status to adoptive parents. This is when children and parents started to gain rights and support from the government. Through the years new laws have been passed and amended to keep the system fair to all adoptive parents. In 1994, C...
  • From the Apostle Paul to Martin Buber: Martin Luth From the Apostle Paul to Martin Buber: Martin Luth MLK From the Apostle Paul to Martin Buber: Martin Luther King\'s use of Historical and Religious Figures in his Letter From Birmingham Jail In his Letter From Birmingham Jail, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is addressing his fellow clergymen in response to their accusations of his unwise and untimely activities. Like most other reformers, he finds his greatest rationalization and defense from the word of God. Considering the religious affiliation of his audience, King appeals to the clergymen by i...
  • Abortion Abortion abortion In 1991 a study was conducted using 916 respondents to find attitudes towards transracial adoption. . 71% of those surveyed believed that race should not be a factor in who should be allowed to adopt a child. However, those respondents in a highest age category, such as 64 or older, were 63% less likely to approve of transracial adoption, compared to the younger age category. African-American women were 84% less likely than African-American men to approve of transracial adoption. Caucas...
  • Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Martin Luther King One of the worlds best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethic...