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tor Robinson Jeffers

Anna Liberatore
Mr. Emerson
AP English
11 April 2001
Robinson Jeffers
On January 10th, 1887, John Robinson Jeffers, most well known as simply Robinson
Jeffers, was born outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  His parents were somewhat of an
odd fit.  His father, Dr. William Hamilton Jeffers, was an extremely intelligent yet reserved,
reclusive person who married a happy upbeat woman who was 23 years younger than
himself (Coffin).  Despite their age and personality differences, Dr. Jeffers and Annie
Robinson Tuttle had a secure marriage.  Dr. Jefferss widespread education resulted in a
vast knowledge of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and the Old Testament.  Dr. Jeffers was
eager to pass on his knowledge to Robinson.  So, when Robinson was only five years old,
Dr. Jeffers began to teach him Greek (Academy of American Poets).  Also starting at a
young age, Robinson traveled throughout Europe.  From age eleven to fifteen, Robinson
attended several different European boarding schools: in Zurich, Leipzig, Geneva, Vevey,
and Lausanne (Coffin).  Though Dr. Jeffers was responsible for Robinsons frequent
transfers, his reasoning is unknown.  At each school, Jeffers was seen by his peers as
reclusive and pensivemuch like his father.  In 1903, when Jeffers was 16, he relocated
yet another time with his family to Pasadena, California where he enrolled at Occidental
College as a junior.  Here, Jeffers succeeded immediately and immensely in courses
such as biblical literature, Greek, and astronomy.  Jeffers natural ambition to learn and
his knowledge of numerous languages impressed everyone around him.  As a result,
Jeffers made life-long friends and took up hikinga hobby that he would enjoy for the
rest of his life (Brophy 2).
Right after graduating from Occidental College with a BA in literature at age 18,
Jeffers enrolled at the University of South California as a literature major (Brophy 2).  
During his first year at USC, Jeffers met his future wife, Una Call Kuster, who was married
to a Los Angeles attorney.  In 1906, Jeffers went with his family to live in Europe.  At this
time, he attended the University of Zurich where he took courses in philosophy, history,
Old English, and Spanish poetry.  When fall came, Jeffers returned to the University of
Southern California as a medical student (Academy of American Poets).  Jeffers
remained a medical student for three years, a long time considering Jeffers was enrolled
in 9 different schools or programs in 13 years.  In 1910, Jeffers decided to leave USC and
transferred to the University of Washington to study forestry.
 Though Jeffers only earned a BA in his many years at different universities, he
benefited from his diverse education in many aspect of his life.  Obviously, his literary and
linguistic knowledge improved his poetry.  The influence of his medical training persists
in the physiological imagery and descriptions that permeate his poetry; while his studies
of forestry served him daily . . . as he tended the hundreds of trees that he planted
around his house (Butterfield 414).
Despite Jeffers frequent changes in location, school, and study, his love for Una
Call Kuster did not falter.  After meeting Una in 1905, eight years of confusion, emotional
storm and struggle, and parental disapproval followed for them until 1913, when Una was
divorced, quite unacrimoniously (Butterfield 414).  On August 2nd, 1913, Robinson and
Una were married.  Like Jeffers, Una was diversely educated and intelligent.  She earned a
masters degree in philosophy and was an expert lecturer on Irish music, architecture,
and art, and was an avid reader and a book reviewer for a small California magazine
(Brophy Internet).
While living in La Jolla for a few months after getting married, Una and Jeffers
planned on moving to Lyme Regis, England where Jeffers would pursue a career in
writing.  But in 1914 they decided against going abroad due to the commencement of
World War I and Unas pregnancy.  The beginning of the war caused him great angst
because he was torn between an idealism that drove him toward enlistment despite
domestic ties and the beginning of a philosophical pacifism (Brophy 3).  Also very
painful for Jeffers was the death of his first daughter, Maeve, one day after she was born
(Zaller xiii).
In September of 1914, Una and Jeffers moved to Carmel, ... more

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OPERA IN SECOLUL al XIX-lea





Referat la Istoria Muzicii, anul II, semestrul I


                                                                         Diana Damsa








           Opera s-a dezvoltat in Italia ncepnd cu anul 1597 şi s-a răspndit rapid n Europa. Deşi la origini opera avea mai degrabă o formă literară, modalitatea de bază a intepretării fiind recitatul, textul cntat avnd o linie melodică slabă, aproape inexistentă, in secolul al XIX-lea devine o formă primordial melodică, piesa de rezistenţă fiind aria solo lung n timpul căruia acţiunea este suspendată şi prin intermediul căruia intepretul exprimă filosofia vieţii sau deplnge cruzimea soartei. Esenţial melodice, ariile au calitatea de a opri spectacolul in loc şi sunt plasate la sfrşitul aproape fiecărei scene.


Partea recitativă a operei a fost rezervată dialogurilor, acompaniate de cteva acorduri de clavecin n părţile n care acţiunea se desfăşura lent, şi de ntreaga orchestră n momente de maximă trăire emoţională.


n această perioadă aria era de tip da capo, construită dintr-o secţiune principală, o secţiune secundară şi apoi reluarea secţiunii principale. Partea a treia nu insista deloc pe elementele intrigii, ci era menită să pună n valoare calităţile vocale ale interpretului, devenind unul din principalele motive pentru punerea n scenă a unei opere. Interpreţii căutau să nfrumuseţeze ct mai mult această parte, ajungnd la o ornamentaţie vocală att de elaborată, nct aducea publicul n delir.


Cei mai faimoşi interpreţi erau castraţii, bărbaţi castraţi n copilărie pentru a-şi păstra vocea de soprană. n combinaţie cu puterea bărbatului adult, vocea de soprană devenea extrem de strălucitoare şi de flexibilă. cucerind admiraţia publicului, precum a reuşit celebrul Farinelli. Bărbaţilor soprane le-au fost distribuite rolurile cele mai importante n opera seria pnă n secolul XIX, cnd au fost nlocuiţi cu tenori. Opera seria devenise un spectacol plin de artificii, ca şi subiectele tratate. De altfel  episoade din istoria antică erau tratate cu multă imaginaţie şi aveau un grad mic de plauzabilitate. Cu toate acestea, aceasta a fost forma n care opera italiană a cucerit Europa. De altfel, opera era interpretată n ntregime in italiană compozitorul german Handel şi chiar reformatori precum Gluk sau marele Mozart, au compus operă italiană. Francezii si-au dezvoltat o tradiţie proprie ntemeiată de Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1759), originar din Italia (numele său real fiind Giovanni Battista Lulli), care şi-a dat seama că opera trebuia să fie adaptată pe placul curţii regale franceze.


           Pe la mijlocul secolului al XVIII-lea, opera seria a nceput să fie rivalizată de opera buffa, forma italiană a operei comice. Construită pentru a avea un efect dramatic şi un nţeles, această formă a operei avea ca eroi oameni obişnuiţi chiar dacă uneori personajele erau puse n situaţii dificile, trăiau sentimente reale (spre deosebire de opera seria) şi aveau vicii familiare publicului lăcomia, vanitatea, etc. Ofeind o alternativă tradiţionalismului, opera buffa a avut o influenţă considerabilă şi n afara Ialiei.


           n decursul secolului al XVIII-lea diferenţele ntre cele două genuri opera seia şi opera buffa au nceput să se estompeze, ncepnd să fie admise şi n opera seria pesonaje şi scene umoristice. Ariile au devenit mai puţin dominante, accentul fiind pus pe ansamblu grup de personaje cntnd mpreună, dar de multe ori exprimnd puncte de vedere diferite. Toate acestea, mpreună cu alte schimbări care au intervenit n forma şi conţinutul operei au facut-o mai flexibilă şi mai interesantă. La nceputul anilor 1800 castraţii au nceput să dispară.


n ciuda tuturor realizărilor anterioare, secolul al XIX-lea a fost era de aur a operei. Bel-cantoul arta de a cnta frumos a fost o tendinţă caracteristică operei italiene din anii 1810 1840. Melodia şi cntul frumos contau mai mult dect povestea, libretul. Arta interpretării şi cntăreţul reprezentau elementul principal. Operele erau destinate la modul declarativ divertismentului. Publicul nu era atras att de veridicitatea situaţiilor dramatice ct de puritatea unei voci, capabile să facă spectatorii să vibreze, accentund de pildă notele grave, lungind mult aceeaşi notă sau ridicnd foarte sus acutele, sau ntrecndu-se n vocalize. Italienii se dădeau n vnt după aceste isprăvi vocale cu care i obişnuiseră castraţii, care au dominat scena lirică pe tot parcursul secolului al XVIII-lea. Opera de belconto era n mare măsură o operă cu formulă fixă, concepută n grabă, avnd la bază ndeosebi cavatina şi cabaletta. Cavatina, lentă şi lirică, avea ... more

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