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to the development of computing history of intel




The microprocessor has changed our lives in so many ways that it is difficult to recall how different things were before its invention.  During the 1960’s, computers filled many rooms.  Their expensive processing power was available only to a few government labs, research universities, and large corporations.  Intel was founded on July 18,1968 by engineers, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Andrew Grove, and Arthur Rock.  Rock became Chairman, Moore was President, Noyce was Executive Vice President in charge of product development and worked with Moore on long range planning, and Grove headed manufacturing.  The purpose of the new company was to design and manufacture very complex silicon chips using large-scale integration (LSI) technology.  Moore and Grove’s vision was to make Intel the leader in developing even more powerful microprocessors and to make Intel-designed chips the industry standard in powering personal computers.  Moore and Noyce wanted to seek Intel because they wanted to regain the satisfaction of research and development in a small growing company.  Although the production of memory chips was starting to become a commodity business in the late 1960’s, Moore and Noyce believed they could produce chip versions of their own design that would perform more functions at less cost for the customer and thus offer a premium price.  Intel’s unique challenge was to make semiconductor memory functional.  Semiconductor memory is smaller in size, provides great performance, and reduces energy consumption.  This first started when Japanese manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to design a set of chips for a family of high-performance programming calculators.  Intel’s engineer, Ted Hoff, rejected the proposal and instead designed a
Single-chip, a logic device that retrieved its application instruction from semiconductor memory.
There was a problem with this new chip Busicom owned it.  Intel was convinced to repurchase the rights to the product.  Intel then offered to return Busicon’s $60,000 investment in exchange for the rights of the product.  The Japanese agreed after struggling with the financial troubles.
Intel’s first microprocessor, the 4004, was introduced in 1971.  This $200 chip delivered as much computing power as the first electronic computer, the ENIAC.  After the 4004, Intel introduced the 8008 microcomputer, which processed eight bits of information at a time.  The 4004 and 8008 began to open new markets for Intel products.  Today, affordable computing power is available to designers of all types of products, producing creativity and innovation.  
In 1981, Intel microprocessor family had grown to include the 16-bit 8086 and the 8-bit 8088 processors.  These two chips created 2,500 winning designs in the year.  A product from IBM was one of those designs, which became the first PC.  Intel was convinced IBM to choose the 8088 as the brains of its first PC.  Because of IBM’s intelligent decision, the PC business grew to tens of millions of units every year.  In 1982, Intel introduced the 286 chip.  It contained 134,000 transistors and provided 3 times the performance of other 16-bit processors during the time.  The 286 were the first microprocessor that offered software compatibility with its predecessors.
In 1985, the Intel 386 hit the market.  The 386 could perform more than five million instructions every second.  Compaq’s DESKPRO 386 was the first PC based on the new microprocessor.
In 1989, Intel 486 processor was ready to hit the market.  This new chip resulted in 1.2 million transistors and the first built-in math coprocessor.  This chip was faster than the original 4004.
In 1993, Intel introduced the Pentium processor, which set new performance standards with up to five times the performance of the Intel 486 processor.  The Pentium processor uses 3.1 million transistors to perform up to 90 MIPS, about 1,500 times the speed of the original 4004.
In 1995, Intel’s first processor in the P6 family, the Pentium Pro processor, was introduced.  It included 5.5 million transistors and contained a high-speed memory cache to accelerate performance.  The Pentium Pro processor was a popular choice for multiprocessor sewers and high performance workstations.
Intel introduced the Pentium II processor in May 1997.  It contains 7.5 million transistors packed into a unique Single Edge Contact Cartridge and delivers high performance.   Intel offers Pentium II processors for Mobil PC, carrying new levels of performance and computer capabilities.
In April 1998, Intel introduced the ... more

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linux vs nt1




Will Linux replace Windows NT as the server OS of choice?
"Linux is ready, or at least poised, to take on Windows NT for market dominance of server operating systems", said T. W. Burger Owner, Thomas Wolfgang Burger Consulting June 2000.
It is the competitive choice for the user wanting a cheap, versatile, scalable, and reliable server solution. This article examines how Linux is ready to meet or exceed all user requirements that NT provides and why Linux should be the preferred alternative to NT. Included are the steps, requirements, options, and costs involved. Linux will soon surpass NT in most if not all network service applications. It is an open source, multi-vendor, and multi-platform server operating system solution. It is stable, versatile, and powerful, and it can be free. Anything Windows NT can do, it can do as well and often better; and the Justice Department is not trying to break up any Linux shops.
When Linux was publicly released in 1991, creator Linus Torvalds and his team had been developing a system they and others could afford and use on the Intel 386 processor. The emphasis was on a networked desktop design that used and promoted Open Source Computing -- the sharing of source code so that others could adapt, adopt, and improve the original product. Open source has caused Linux to be developed into the contender for not only microcomputer OS dominance but for dominance of network server OS software. Presently, Linux is a weak alternative for the desktop market due to the momentum of the installed base of Microsoft Windows 95/98 products and lack of a clear marketing methodology. The dependence on the Windows desktop/workstation OS may be insurmountable. Server OS may yet be another story. Server OSs provide file storage and other network services that the user does not directly interact with. Linux offers the power, functionality, and performance range required of a network server OS to satisfy the needs of users ranging from the home office do-it-yourselfers to enterprise administrators.
A network operating system is software that provides centralized services to a group of linked computers. The group may be only one other computer or several hundred. A server OS satisfies three categories of demand. A personal or home office server provides network functions to two to five users. This level of service can be handled by all newer desktop operating systems like standard Linux, Windows 3.11 for Workgroups, Windows NT Workstation and Windows 95/98, Macintosh OS, BeOS, QNX, and any microcomputer flavor of Unix. A small business server handles under 50 users and an enterprise server 50 or more. Novell Netware, Windows NT, and other scalable server solutions will handle various numbers of small business user loads. At a certain point a business will require an enterprise server product. This OS will be capable of handling massive user traffic and provide a total solution: a comprehensive set of software tools that will allow a business to be run using computers. An enterprise OS will be run on a minicomputer such as the HP9000 or a super-microcomputer with large data processing capacity like a multi-processor Alpha Chip-based machine. Enterprise computing is a term describing a set of software tools with a network OS at its core. Enterprise computing provides not only a place to store and share files but everything required for a business to gather and manipulate information throughout the business as well as Internet access for customer support and business-to-business data flow. An enterprise computing product is generally made up of the network OS and components that provide one or more of the following: file service, print service, Web page hosting, Internet access/firewall, mail service, backup, and database, and/or SQL database services. A server is, as the name implies, a provider of computing resources. It is part of a client-server network configuration that generally has one of two topologies. The first is Thin Server, which is a specifically tasked network appliance that does very little processing for the connected Fat Clients, which are workstations that carry out all or most of the processing. An example would be a simple file server connected to a network of word processing stations. The second network design is Fat ... more

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  •  : Linux vs nt1 : Linux vs nt1 linux vs nt1 Will Linux replace Windows NT as the server OS of choice? Linux is ready, or at least poised, to take on Windows NT for market dominance of server operating systems, said T. W. Burger Owner, Thomas Wolfgang Burger Consulting June 2000. It is the competitive choice for the user wanting a cheap, versatile, scalable, and reliable server solution. This article examines how Linux is ready to meet or exceed all user requirements that NT provides and why Linux should be the preferred alt...
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