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the tobacco companies Music Business

The music publishing industry at a glance would seem to be those who print sheet music, method books, lead sheets, and all of the texts or notated music that musicians (and those aspiring to be musicians) use.  Years ago, this was what most music publishers did, but as the industry has evolved the process that become much more complex.  Music is not just ink and paper, intellectual material and property to the individual who writes it.  Therefore the song does not become a song when it is written down.  This is not an easy concept to grasp because the song by itself has no physical makeup. A song could exist once it is played for the first time, and songs can even exist inside the mind of a songwriter.  This concept is why the publishing business can be so complex; we are dealing with intellectual property.
The heart of the music publishing business lies in the rights to the original music.  After the music is successful enough to financially support itself the music is printed in mass quantities in a variety of ways.  This could be everything from guitar tabs to choral arrangements for a junior high choir.  The publishers main source of income is through record royalties, performance royalties received from companies like the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI), and the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC) for performances of music copyrighted by the publisher.  These royalties could be from many different types of performances but most are though radio and songs on television.  The success of a songwriter lies in the greatly in the hands of his/her publisher. Normally we hear of a bands success when they are signed with a record deal, but most record companies not only produce and promote an album, they also act as the publisher who, when contracted, owns the rights to the music.   When a publisher own the song it is put in to their catalog.  Merchandise retailers have catalogs of their goods just like publishers have a catalog of songs that they own rights to.  Publishing firms such as Warner/Chappell, BMG Music, MCA Music, and Sony music have catalogs of many styles of music. These companies are referred to as full-line companies.  A broad repertoire allows them to market their music to many audiences.  Most of these full-line companys roots can be traced back to the music of Hollywood and the show music of Broadway.  Publishers today may have thousands of songwriters in its catalog including all styles of music from around the globe.  Representative Warner/Chappell owns, administers, or sub-publishes more that a million copyrights here and abroad.
Todays full-line publishers have many different divisions to their company.  Large publishers handle virtually every aspect of a writers music, its recordings, distribution, sales, promotion, advertising, touring, and legal affairs.  This figure lays out all the divisions a full-line publisher may have.
The administration division is the division that handles the operations of the firm.  All business affairs go through administration. When money is received from or paid to customers the firm the accounting divisions keeps all the financial records of these kinds of operations.  The accounting division also would handle loans given to artist that are signed to the firm under the publishers record label.  When a band records an album under a label they become a liability to the label because money has to be spent to record, produce and promote a artists music.  Full-line publishers front this money and all profits from the artist come back and are split 50-50 with the publisher and the writer. If the artist maintains the rights to their songs the record contract will include a controlled composition clause that calls for a reduced mechanical royalty paid to the artist by the record label.  This clause may reduce the royalty split to 75-25, the larger portion going to the record label.  This clause would not be insisted to artists who place the full rights to works in the hands of the record companys publisher.  The artist remains a liability to the publisher as long as the artist has not made as much money as was invested into them by ... more

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Violence In The Media

Violence in the Media
Monkey see, monkey do has become a well-known saying in todays modern, media warped society, but is it correct? What has the world come to these days? It often seems like everywhere one looks, violence rears its ugly head. We see it in the streets, back alleys, school, and even at home. The last of these, our homes, is a major source of violence. In many peoples' living rooms there sits an outlet for violence that often goes unnoticed. It is the television, and the people who view it are often pulled into its realistic world of violence scenes with sometimes devastating results. Much research has gone into showing why our society is so mesmerized by this big glowing box and the action that takes place within it. Only a mere sixty years ago the invention of the television was viewed as a technological breakthrough with black and white ghost-like figures on a screen so small, hardly anyone could see them. Today that curiosity has become a constant companion to 90% of the American population (Sherrow 26), mainly, children and teenagers. From reporting the news and advertising in order to persuade us to buy certain products, to providing programs that depict violence, television has all but replaced written material. Unfortunately, it is these violent programs that are endangering our present-day society. Violent images on television, as well as in the movies, have inspired people to set spouses on fire in their beds, lie down in the middle of highways, extort money by placing bombs in airplanes, rape, steal, murder, and commit numerous other shootings and assaults. (Brown 78) Most of what is broadcast or transmitted even in the news today is with reference to the chaotic condition of our planet, or something else that society as a whole sees as detrimental or damaging.
The average American child will witness...200,000 acts of media violence by the time that child graduates from high school. (Sherrow 6) Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, James Baldwin wrote in Nobody Knows my Name. But they have never failed to imitate them. (Sherrow 56) This basic truth has all but disappeared as the public increasingly treats teenagers as a robot-like population under sway of an exploitative media. White House officials lecture film, music, Internet, fashion, and pop-culture moguls and accuse them of programming kids to smoke, drink, shoot up, have sex, and kill. A recent report from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) pools evidence from over 2,500 studies within the last decade on over 100,000 subjects from several nations to show that the compiled evidence of the medias influence on behavior is so overwhelming that there is a consensus in the research community that violence in the media does lead to aggressive behavior (Methvin 49). Given that the majority of scientific community agrees that the research findings of the NIMH publication support conclusion of a causal relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior (Wurtzel 21), why is it that the Saturday morning cartoons are the most violent time slot on television? (Methvin 49) And that despite slight variations over the past decade, the amount of violence in the media has remained at consistently high levels (Wurtzel 23).
Despite the negative effects media violence has been known to generate, no drastic changes have been made to deal with this problem that seems to be getting worse. We, as a whole, have glorified this violence so much that movies such as Natural Born Killers and television shows such as Mighty Morphin Power Rangers are viewed as normal, everyday entertainment. Its even rare now to find a childrens cartoon that does not depict some type of violence or comedic aggression. It is this aggression that is rubbing off on our society, and it is this aggression that we are trying to hide. Why is it that like the tobacco companies twenty years ago, the present day television broadcasting companies refuse to consent that violent films and programming can and do have harmful effects on their viewers (Rowland 280) What can be done to combat the stubborn minded broadcasting companies and to reduce the amount of violent scenes that ... more

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