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the republic of ireland terrorism



[Category]:

Social Issues

[Paper Title]:

terrorism

[Text]:

Over the past Century, terrorism has evolved from random killings to massive
plans for terrorist groups. To understand terrorism you must first describe it.
There have been many different definitions of terrorism. The one that truly
describes it is; Terrorism can not specifically describe terrorism because
people will interpret it differently. Many experts believe that terrorism is an
abstract concept with no essence, a single definition cannot account for all the
possible uses of the term, many different definitions share common elements, the
meaning of terrorism derives from the victim of target. Even with no definite
conclusion terrorism can be divided into 5 categories: Simple Violence or
threatened violence intended to produce fear or change. Legal Criminal violence
violating legal codes and punishable by the state. Analytical Specific political
and social factors behind individual terrorist acts. State-sponsored Terrorist
groups used by small states and the Communist bloc to attack western interests.
State Power of the government used to terrorize its people into submission. With
the definitions described one can now put a terrorist organization into a
specific group. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an analytical
terrorist group, even though they can be part of each. The PLO was created in
1964 during a meeting known as the Palestinian Congress. This was an effort to
give a voice to the many Palestinians that were located in refugee camps in
Lebanon. The leader of the group is one of the most recognized terrorists in the
world, Yasser Arafat. It did not take long for sub-divisions to break off of the
PLO. Most of these groups felt they could better achieve Palestinian liberation.
The most notable of these groups were the Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine, Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Popular
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command, and al-Fatah.
The PLO changed its main theory to the destruction of the state of Israel in
1967. This caused massive terrorist acts against Israel, which resulted in
hundreds of casualties on both sides. In 1974 the PLO changed into not just a
terrorist group to a group which included political elements. Some members of
the PLO did not like this idea and founded another sub-division called the
Rejectionist Front. At this time Arafat took over all control of the PLO. Arafat
provided support for highjacking a major cruise ship. With help from the PLF
they took the passengers hostage. In cowardly act members shot to death a
wheelchair-bound Jewish man named Leon Klinghoffer. This formed a new meaning to
the world terrorist. After many years of terrorism, Arafat ceased all terrorist
acts by the PLO on September 9, 1993. This was the end of the PLO and all their
sub-divisions. Another major terrorist organization is the Provisional Irish
Republican Army (PIRA). This group was founded in 1969 under the armed wing of
Sinn Fein. "Sinn Fein is a legal political movement dedicated to removing
British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Activities that the
PIRA carried out were bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and
robberies. Before its 1994 cease-fire, targets included senior British
Government officials, British military and police in Northern Ireland, and
Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary groups. Since breaking its cease-fire in
February 1996, IRA's operations have included bombing campaigns against train
and subway stations and shopping areas on mainland Britain, British military and
Royal Ulster Constabulary targets in Northern Ireland, and a British military
facility on the European Continent." The PIRA had a few different names,
the Provo's and the IRA. They, the Catholics, wanted Britain out of Northern
Ireland and were going to anything to achieve their goal. Here is the group
structure for many if not all terrorist organizations: I. Command II. Active
cadre III. Active supporters IV. Passive Supporters I. Command - the leadership,
makes policy and plans while provides general direction. II. Active cadre - the
terrorists, responsible for carrying out the mission of the organization. III.
Active supporters - largest internal group and most important. They keep
terrorists in the field by providing safe houses, intelligence, logistical
needs, and maintain communications channels. IV. Passive supporters - difficult
to identify and characterize, represent a favorable element of the political
climate. Most people think that most terrorist acts are taking people hostage.
This is not the case. Only 2 % of all terrorist acts are hostage situations. The
most acts terrorists participate in are bombings; they account for 46% of
terrorist acts. The rest of the numbers are like this; attacking - 24%,
assassinations - 10, highjacking - 12, kidnapping ... more

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Michael Collins Biography Figh

Fighting Spirit

It was in County Cork, Ireland, 1890 when 75 year old "Michael Collins" watched his wife bring into the world his 8th child, "Michael Collins junior." "Michael" was the youngest of 8 siblings and in the short 6 years "Michael" new his father he and his siblings were strongly influenced and encouraged by him to become involved in poetry, reading, and other curriculum activities. As Michael grew older he became increasingly involved in sports and particularly enjoyed wrestling, Michael's involvement in wrestling brought out his best and strongest quality, his fighting character which he uses throughout his life. After the loss of his father at the age of just six, "Michael" became interested in the Irish nationalist movement and his teacher "Denis Lyons" a member of the Irish Republican Brothers (IRB) became a immediate inspirational figure to look up to. Along with other role models and Michael's keen interest for reading, at just 11 he was subscribed to the "The United Irishman" a nationalist magazine edited by "Arthur Griffith" who later went on to became the founder of Sinn Fein, a nationalist party that still exists to this day.

In July 1906, at the age of 15, Michael Collins immigrated to London; he did not take long to become involved in a strong Irish community in London and also became involved in the Gaelic Athletic Association. He easily found work in London moving from job to job, and when he was 18, before moving back to Ireland he found himself involved in a group called the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB). Back in Ireland and away from work Collins started writing about Irish history and current political events and this was about the time the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) introduced "The Home Rule Bill", before the House of Commons in April 1912. With the proposal of the Home Rule Bill, the Ulster Unionists feared that the Protestant culture would lose out to the Catholic nationalist majority. In fear of this Sir Edward Carson, organized the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and threatened to set up a provisional government in Belfast if Home Rule was to be introduced. Seeing the threat, nationalists in Dublin responded by forming the Irish Volunteers with the help of the IRB. Despite this persistent feuding the outbreak of the First World War, the UVF and the Irish Volunteers came together to protect Ireland from invasion.

On Easter day April 24th 1916, approximately 2000 Volunteers succeeded in taking over several main buildings in the Dublin in a attempt to proclaim the Independence of Ireland. It was named the Easter Rising and for 5 days the Irish Volunteers seized and barricaded themselves in the main buildings of Dublin. Bitter Street fighting developed in Dublin and on the 5th day of the Easter rising several buildings came under attack by the British forces and the Irish Volunteers were forced to surrender. Fifteen leaders of the uprising were executed, and the surviving volunteers including Michael Collins were sentenced to British jails. Later that year the British Government released the volunteers and Michael returned to Ireland and quickly found work as a secretary of the Irish National Aid and Volunteer Dependants Fund.

Michael became involved in Sinn Fein a nationalist political party and Collins was responsible for "Eamon de Valera" being elected for president of the political party. He also he recruited spy's to spy on British intelligence in Ireland, which later proved to be a invaluable source of information for Collins. Early in 1918 Collins was arrested for making a speech against conscription in Legga, and was jailed but he applied for bail and once granted bail he went on the run. Sinn Fein had now aimed to achieve "international recognition of Ireland as an independent Irish Republic" and had declared War of Independence.

In 1920 Collins was left in control of the guerrilla warfare strategy, which was proving enormously successful and the Irish Volunteers became known as the IRA (Irish Republican Army). With the help of his right hand man, Joe O'Reilly and his spies who were consistently informing Collins of developments within the British forces, Collins developed a squad, for the purpose of executing British agents. ... more

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