The Photon Is


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the photon is Mitochondrial dna

G proteins, named after the fact they bond with guanine nucleotides, are largely responsible for intercellular communications within the human organism.  These transmissions regulate such functions as hormone secretion, muscle contaction, and even cognition.  These transmissions take place because of chemical reactions between enzymes that bind with the G proteins and change into enzymes that trigger other chemical reactions.  These chemical reactions induce cellular changes to occur by increasing a certain enzyme or chemical, thus changing the production or consumption of another chemical.
Epinephrine, starts the reactions by stimulating effectors, called adenlyl cyclase, which in turn produces a second messanger, cyclic AMP.  The cyclic AMP triggers the activation of adrenylyl cyclase.  This communication would not be possible if not for the guanine nucleatides that allow the binding of the enzymes to occur.  Not only does epinephrine trigger the chemical reactions by bonding to the guanine nucleotides, but they also trigger the production GDP by reducing GTP to its subserviant level.
Not all effectors are triggered by simply hormones.  Cells in the retinal area of the eye are triggered by photons that strike rhodopsin.  When the rhodospin it activates the G protein, transductin, to travel to the effector enzyme, and thus regulates the levels of soduim ions (Na+).  The eye cells become hyperpolarized, thus producing a negative charge, signaling visual data to the brain.
The two afore mentioned receptors are just hundreds that exist in the human body.  All the receptors employ the help of G proteins to produce such signals.  G proteins regulate the transfer of signals by transfering and connecting chains of proteins, known as alpha, beta, and gamma.  The combinations of the protein chains leads to an abundance of codes, with over one thousand combinations possible.
Before encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma subuntis, the three chains are bound together with the GDP unit.  When the G protein enables the coding, the GDP detaches and sets out to work.  The coding proteins then untangle, and code into their various functions.  The G proteins therefore are simply timing and switching units, that trigger reactions to assume various functions. ... more

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the laser beam

Laser stands for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers work by producing an intense beam of bright light that travels in one direction. The laser has the unique ability to produce one specific color or wavelength of light, which can be varied in its intensity and pulse duration. The newest laser systems have become remarkably precise and selective, allowing treatment results and safety levels not previously available. All lasers contain an energized substance that can increase the intensity of light that passes through it. This substance is called the amplifying medium and it can be a solid, a liquid or a gas.
Einstein can be considered as the father of the laser. 80 years ago he postulated photons and stimulated emission and won the Nobel Prize for related research on the photoelectric effect. This section discusses the historical evolution from microwave lasers to optical lasers and finally to x-ray lasers and lasers discovered in space. Some theorists were on the right track, especially Planck, who proposed that nature acted by using "quanta" of energy. But it was the young, unknown Albert Einstein who explained everything and started the field of quantum mechanics with his paper on the photoelectric effect. Einstein showed that light does not consist of continuous waves, nor of small, hard particles. Instead, it exists as bundles of wave energy called photons. Each photon has an energy that corresponds to the frequency of the waves in the bundle. The higher the frequency (the bluer the color), the greater the energy carried by that bundle.
Einstein's Nobel Prize was not awarded for either one of his relativity theories - the Nobel Committee thought them too speculative at the time. Rather Einstein won the prize for explaining the photoelectric effect. Two of Einstein's 1905 papers were on the theory of atoms and molecules, yet there were still many scientists in 1905 who did not believe in atoms or molecules.
There are many lasers such as the carbon dioxide laser or CO2 laser, and many forms of this too. In contrast to the old carbon dioxide lasers, the newest generation of the CO2 laser delivers short bursts of extremely high-energy laser light. In a neodymium YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the amplifying medium is a rod of yttrium aluminum garnate (YAG) containing neodymium ions. In a dye laser, it is a solution of a fluorescent dye in a solvent such as methanol. In a helium-neon laser, it is a mixture of the gases helium and neon.  In a laser diode, it is a thin layer of semiconductor material sandwiched between other semiconductor layers. The factor by which the intensity of the light is increased by the amplifying medium is known as the gain. The gain is not a constant for a particular type of medium. It depends critically upon the wavelength of the incoming light, the length of the amplifying medium and also upon the extent to which the amplifying medium has been energized.
In order to increase the intensity of the light, we would need to energize the amplifying medium, or in other terms, pumping. There are several ways of pumping an amplifying medium. When the amplifying medium is a solid, pumping is usually achieved by irradiating it with intense light. This light is absorbed by atoms or ions within the medium and raises them into higher energy states. Often, the pumping light comes from xenon-filled flash tubes that are positioned alongside the amplifying medium. Passing a high voltage electric discharge through the flash tubes causes them to emit an intense flash of white light, some of which is absorbed by the amplifying medium. A laser that is pumped in this way will have a pulsed output. Pumping an amplifying medium by irradiating it with intense light is usually referred to optical pumping.
In some cases, the source of the pumping light is another laser. Gaseous amplifying media have to be contained in some form of enclosure or tube and are often pumped by passing an electric discharge through the medium itself. The mechanism by which this elevates atoms or molecules in the gas to higher energy states depends upon the gas that is being excited and is often complex. ... more

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