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the panama canal Atomic Bomb

The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be... Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through radiation exposure. We here at Outlaw Labs do not recommend using this file beyond the realm of casual or academic curiosity. ============================================================================ ----------------------- -+ Table of Contents +- ----------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ A). Development (The Manhattan Project) B). Detonation 1). Hiroshima 2). Nagasaki 3). Byproducts of atomic detonations 4). Blast Zones II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion ------------------------------ A). Fission (A-Bomb) & Fusion (H-Bomb) B). U-235, U-238 and Plutonium III. The Mechanism of The Bomb ------------------------- A). Altimeter B). Air Pressure Detonator C). Detonating Head(s) D). Explosive Charge(s) E). Neutron Deflector F). Uranium & Plutonium G). Lead Shield H). Fuses IV. The Diagram of The Bomb ----------------------- A). The Uranium Bomb B). The Plutonium Bomb ============================================================================ -------------------------------- File courtesy of Outlaw Labs -------------------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ On August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb. The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of 'enriched' uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma. A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H.C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes. Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. [For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3.] Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion. Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud ... more

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Operation Just Cause




In 1988 relations with Panama and the U.S. Deteriorated.  The commander of Southern Command, Gen. Frederick F. Woerner increased the number and strength of U.S. forces in Panama.  This was in hopes of deterring the dictator, Noriega, from attacking U.S. citizens or the Panama Canal.  Noriega overturned the results of the election of May 1989.  President Bush was very upset, as a result Bush replaced Gen. Woerner with Gen. Thurman.  Forces continued to buildup and Gen. Thurman pushed for even more troops.  He received an additional taskforce of 22,000 soldiers, 3,400 airmen, 900 Marines, and 700 sailors.  A fighting force this size could easily and quickly achieve operational objectives.  
Relations with Panama grew even worse.  Noriega named himself Maximum Leader.  And on December 15 1989 a state of war was declared with the United States.  Not many people know this but Noriega actually declared war on the United States.  A Panamanian soldier shot three American officers.  On December 17, after reviewing the Facts, President Bush decided to act.  Operation Just Cause began first thing December 20.  Special forces attacked key installations in Panama that day.  U.S. troops moved in to Panama City, to secure the U.S. Embassy and other strong holds.  A battle between the Panimanian Defense Force and U.S. troops erupted in the city.  The U.S. captured the Panimanian Defense Force (PDF) headquarters within three hours.  As Noriega went into hiding and the PDF headquarters was overtaken the PDF collapsed.  The remaining PDF were only in small pockets witch were taken out with little if any problems.  
Objectives to be secured were not only military bases and strongholds, but one objective was to liberate the Marriot Hotel.  This was to ensure that no Americans would be taken hostage.  Noriega was found hiding in a diplomatic compound called the Papal Nunciatura.  U.S. troops played loud rock music to try to get him out.  Unfortunately the only response were complaints from the Vatican and diplomatic community to Pres. Bush.  Noriega was eventually captured and brought back to Florida for trial.
Why Did we get involved?  The panama area and specifically the canal are very important economic as well as strategic location.  At the time the US still had juestiction over the canal area, and it is always important to protect what is physical property of our country.  The United States was also in the midst of a long standing drug war.  With Noriega in power this vital location would allow an easy transportation rout to be established, as well as money laundering opportunities.  
In theory one may dispute that this war was just a practice round for the Gulf War.  This may seem obserd however marines who fought in panama would also later fight in the Gulf giving the marines a leg up with real battle experience.  Not only that but the new hugely successful humvee mechanized calvary unites were used giving needed experience to a soldier who would use this weapon for how knows how many years to come.  We got a lot out of this war that only the battle field can teach.  
It was unfortunate that the United States had to fight this war.  But it gave american boys real battlefield experience which no amount of money can buy in training.  Fighting this war also showed the world that the US would defend its positions, fight an unmoral dictator and succeed.  This is especially important with the fall of the Berlin wall, breaking up the Warsaw Pact and eventually the fall of the Soviet Union.  The US showed that even though there arent 2 superpowers ruling the world there will always be the United States fighting for whats right.



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