The Magma Expands


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the magma expands The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of the

It is impossible to briefly run through all the problems of a hypothesis advanced, so only its main assumptions almost unsupportable by factual evidence are given in the present paper. In my opinion, the hypothesis as a whole is provable. It can partly be proved by knowledge of today and expected in the future.

1. The Origin and the Structure of our Universe

I suppose that the Universe we can observe and cognize consists of self-developing hierarchically co-subordinate and genetically relative systems of cosmic bodies. Each of the systems is distinguished by the qualitative state of substance composing its bodies but main evolution mechanisms are common to all the systems.

What is common to all the systems? The central most massive body of every system is a parental body for its younger members. The central massive body of every system at intervals conceives in its interiors new cosmic bodies to put them into initial (circum-parental) orbits. In other words, the central body of every system stimulates newborn bodies to move under their own momentum (along a straight line) and to rotate about its axis due to its own gravitational attraction force. But the central gravitating body constantly and intensely loses its mass (photon and corpuscular). So, the orbits of newborn bodies are (must be) spiral-like rather than closed due to the law of universal gravitation. It means that newborn bodies move away from their parental body that is every system expands.
It should be noted that every cosmic body is imponderable, i.e. it undergoes gravitational interaction with other bodies.

What is the cause? The cause is that imponderability is provided by a certain orbital rate of the body controlled by the law of universal gravitation. The rate depends on radius of the body orbit relative to the system's central body: the more is the orbit radius, the less orbital rate the body needs to be imponderable. It can be seen from the motion of the Solar System's planets, satellites of giant planets and from the Earth's artificial satellites launched by man. The motion of both artificial satellites and cosmic bodies is governed by the same laws.

I suppose that our Universe consists of hierarchically relative systems as follows:
The first system: the Origin - the central gravitating body of our Universe, and its born nuclei of super-galaxies (the Origin is not considered in the present work).

The second system: nuclei of super-galaxies and their born nuclei of galaxies.

The third system: nuclei of galaxies and their born stars.
The fourth system: stars and their born planets including giant planets, comets, meteorites.
The fifth system: giant planets and their born satellites, comets, meteorites.
One specific feature of the system hierarchy should be noted. The central parental body of every system mentioned has its own sphere of gravity response predetermined by its mass. Radius of the Earth's gravity response sphere is known to be 930 thous km. The Sun and the Earth show nearly equal gravity response to interplanetary stations at the boundary of this sphere. If a station comes out of the sphere of the radius mentioned, it is already subject to gravity response of the Sun. The Sun, with its own sphere of gravity response to planets is, in its turn, involved into the sphere of gravity response of the Milky Way Galaxy's nucleus, etc.

It should be noted that systemic structure of the Universe (not the origin of systems) was suggested as early as the mid-18th century by Immanuel Kant and Johan Lambert independently of each other. So I as if turn back to the past but do not consider this a regress. Why? Because this idea of our Universe provides explanation for many problems which could not be explained by a non-systemic relativistic model of the expanding Universe best known as Big-Bang Model.

2. Formation Mechanism of Cosmic Bodies

Gravitational forces are commonly used by theorists to construct condensation or accretion models of the formation of cosmic bodies (galaxies, stars, planets). It should be admitted, that gravitation is incapable of producing cosmic bodies if the law of universal gravitation holds. An idea that gravitation can produce the Earth's sphere was called into question as long ago as by Newton. He proved that ... more

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Acid Rain


     Acid rain forms when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with
moisture
in the atmosphere to produce rain, snow, or another kind of precipitation.
This
kind of pollution may also be suspended in fog or deposited in a dry form.
Acid
rain is most common in North America and Europe.  Acid rain has also been
detected in other areas of the world such as tropical rain forests of
Africa.
Canada has placed limitations on the sulfur emissions.  The United States
has
not, so the emissions may still drift into Canada.
     The acid rain cycle begins with hundreds of power plants burning
millions of tons of coal. Burning coal produces electricity for us.  Coal
is
made of carbon, but the coal that we mine is not pure carbon.  It is mixed
with
other minerals.  Two of these are sulfur and nitrogen.  Then the coal is
burned
some of the sulfur changes into sulfur dioxide and nitrogen changes into
nitrogen oxide. These escape in to the air as poisonous gases.  Some
smokestacks
release chemicals like mercury, arsenic, and aluminum.  Some of these
minerals
are changed in to gases and others become tiny specks of ash.  As these
chemicals drift, they may change again.  They may react with other
chemicals in
the air.  When sulfur dioxide combines with water, the result is sulfuric
acid.
When nitrogen oxide gas combines with water, the result is also another
acid.
When the clouds releases rain or other precipitation, the acid goes with
it.
This is called acid rain.
     The level of acid is measured in pH levels.  The pH scale begins at 0
and ends with 14.  A reading lower than 7 is called acidic, and a reading
higher
than 7 is called basic.  Seven is neutral. Normal rain is slightly acidic
with a
pH level of about 6.5.  Rain with a pH of 5.5 is then times more acidic
than
normal rain and rain with  pH of 4.5 is a hundred times more acidic than
normal
rain. In parts of the country, rain with pH levels of 4.5 to 5.0 is common.
     An English scientist named Robert Angus Smith discovered acid rain in
1872, but no other scientist continued this study. Then in 1961 the Sweden
wanted to know why the fish in their lakes were dying.  Svante Odn
discovered
that the reason was acid rain.  After Odn's discovery, other scientist
began to
study acid rain too.
     Acid rain has destroyed plant and animal life in lakes, damaged
forests
and crops.  It has also endangered marine life in coastal waters, eroded
structures, and contaminated drinking water. It can kill fish, frogs, and
insects in lakes.  Acid rain can also be harmful to humans.  It can hurt
their
lungs and make it harder for them to breath.  Acid fog can be particularly
harmful to people with respiratory problems.  Acid rain can corrode stones
and
some metals.  Higher acid levels can be dangerous to our drinking water.
Some
water pipes are made of lead, and when the water is acidic, it can dissolve
the
metal.  Then the metals end up in the water we drink.

Acid Rain Legislation


     Acid rain is a destructive force as a result of nature and man
colliding.
It is formed through harmful industrial emissions combining with contents
of
the earth's atmosphere; a dangerous combination.  This prompted governments
throughout North America to take action.  Many laws and regulations have
been
implemented, yet the question still remains, "Should tougher legislation be
implemented to force industries to reduce acid rain emissions?"

     To decide whether tougher legislation should be implemented, one must
first understand the details of what exactly acid rain is.  Acid rain is a
result of mankind's carelessness.  It travels a long one of the most
efficient
biogeochemical cycles on earth, the Hydrologic Cycle.  This allows acid
rain to
distribute itself further away from it's source causing more than local
problems.
 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is released by fossil fuels when they undergo
combustion.
Power plants and other fossil fuel burning industrial areas release various
forms of nitrous oxides (Nox).  These two chemical compounds combine with
the
water in the atmosphere to form what is known as acid rain.

     The main reason that has prompted legislation of industrial emissions
from governments is because of the negative effects they can have on the
environment.  Acid rain is harmful to the environment because of it's low
pH.
It can harm the biotic components of earth, and also the abiotic
components.
It's high acidity degrades soil to the point where it cannot support any
type of
plant life.  Trees in forests are killed over long-term exposure.  When
these
trees are killed, an imbalance in the hydrologic cycle can occur.  Without
living trees to consume the precipitate, it must be consumed ... more

the magma expands

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  • H: The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of H: The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of the It is impossible to briefly run through all the problems of a hypothesis advanced, so only its main assumptions almost unsupportable by factual evidence are given in the present paper. In my opinion, the hypothesis as a whole is provable. It can partly be proved by knowledge of today and expected in the future. 1. The Origin and the Structure of our Universe I suppose that the Universe we can observe and cognize consists of self-developing h...
  • E: Acid Rain E: Acid Rain Acid Rain Acid rain forms when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere to produce rain, snow, or another kind of precipitation. This kind of pollution may also be suspended in fog or deposited in a dry form. Acid rain is most common in North America and Europe. Acid rain has also been detected in other areas of the world such as tropical rain forests of Africa. Canada has placed limitations on the sulfur emissions. The United States has not, so the emissions may stil...
  •  : Saint helens : Saint helens saint helens Many things can happen before, during, and after a volcanic eruption. A volcanic eruption is an extraordinary thing. You never know what is going to turn out as in the end. Before a volcanic eruption you may notice that the scenery slightly changes. The volcano is covered with lakes, streams, homes, old growth trees, along with many private homes and hotel resorts. Convection currents that move the plates, and cause movements make earthquakes and volcanoes. One of the many things th...
  • M: Saint Helens M: Saint Helens Saint Helens Tracie Knowlton 7th period Many things can happen before, during, and after a volcanic eruption. A volcanic eruption is an extraordinary thing. You never know what is going to turn out as in the end. Before a volcanic eruption you may notice that the scenery slightly changes. The volcano is covered with lakes, streams, homes, old growth trees, along with many private homes and hotel resorts. Convection currents that move the plates, and cause movements make earthquakes and volcanoes...
  • A: The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of A: The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of The New Hypothesis for the Origin and Evolution of the It is impossible to briefly run through all the problems of a hypothesis advanced, so only its main assumptions almost unsupportable by factual evidence are given in the present paper. In my opinion, the hypothesis as a whole is provable. It can partly be proved by knowledge of today and expected in the future. 1. The Origin and the Structure of our Universe I suppose that the Universe we can observe and cognize consists of self-developing h...
  • G: Acid Rain G: Acid Rain Acid Rain Acid rain forms when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere to produce rain, snow, or another kind of precipitation. This kind of pollution may also be suspended in fog or deposited in a dry form. Acid rain is most common in North America and Europe. Acid rain has also been detected in other areas of the world such as tropical rain forests of Africa. Canada has placed limitations on the sulfur emissions. The United States has not, so the emissions may stil...
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