Looking for essays on the force of? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
The Medieval Period in European History saw several waves of barbarians
which helped shape the face of European society. The nomadic tribes of people that lived
a migratory life, while other groups were founding civilizations with permanent living
centers, are today referred to as barbarians. Two great empires, the Chinese and the
Roman, ruled on the extreme edges of the enormous Eurasian continent and were
separated by vast distances.1 The people that existed between the two empires and
roamed the large wasteland were called barbarians.2 They did not have a permanent
living center and therefore raided settled towns and cities for food and riches. Because of
there roaming ways and raiding tactics, barbarians were feared and hated in the Medieval
World. The word barbarian is presently associated with being backwards, uneducated,
or indecent; in one word, uncivilized. These wandering people lived in family orientated
groups called clans, which combined together to form a tribe. Tribes depended on one
another for protection. Among these barbarian groups where a traveling people known as
the Magyars. The Magyars had a major impact on the Carpathian Basin in Central Eastern
Europe, and directly affected the picture of the European landscape that we have today.
The magyars are a mysterious peoples whose origins and connections are highly
debated among scholars and historians. The first place to begin when searching for
origins, is the language. The Magyar language is a branch of the Finno-Ugrian family of
languages, most nearly related to Finnish, although supplemented by numerous Turkic
words.3 The language is very unique and their is no other like it in the world. Popular
belief places the origin of the people themselves somewhere in the Orient. The Old
Magyar Fatherland was probably situated in the ancient Orient, which we call the
Near-East, and played an important role in Mesopotamian lands.4 Linguistic evidence
places the Magyars among the ancient Egyptians. Contemporary records speak of a
Makari Queen5 from the XXth dynasty; between 1080-940 BC6 Egyptian Kings of the
XIXth dynasty forced the Magyars out of Africa for good. From their the people
dispersed, moved around the European landmass, including Hungary, and mixed with
other peoples.7 Much of the Finno-Ugrian peoples mainly dispersed in the widespread
region on the west side of the Ural Mountains.8 It was in this region that the Magyars
were exposed to the Turks. Their language was enriched with Turkic elements while
maintaining its basic Finno-Ugric characteristics. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact
location of the Magyars during this period because of their nomadic ways.
By the end of the 5th century the Magyars had begun their southward migration
from the Urals and settled east of the Sea of Azov.9 Here they were again under the
influence of Turkic neighbors. During this period the Magyars patterned themselves after
the Turkic model, becoming a well-disciplined, conquering race. During the second half
of the 9th century, the warring Turkic Pechenegs put forth pressure on the Magyars
feeding grounds, forcing them to begin their historic westward migration. Following a
Pecheneg attack, the Magyar tribes united under one leader, rpd, who led his people
out of their exposed position in Etelkz and into the Carpathian Basin.10 The seven
Magyar tribal chieftains elected a leader from among them. After rpd was elected, he
had to lead them in a swearing with ritual drinking of mixed blood to unify them and make
their claim as head of the nation valid.
In 894, Sviatopluk sent envoys to the Magyars for help against the
Frankish-Bulghar confederation, while the Bulghars wanted an alliance with the
Pechenegs. The Magyars joined forces with Sviatopluk and attacked the Franks in
Pannonia. During this period the weaknesses of the lands were made out by the Magyars,
and that same year they were back, raiding Pannonia for themselves.11 In late 895 or early
896 the Magyars crossed the Carpathian mountains for good through the Verecke pass
and launched a military campaign that would come to be known as the Conquest12. The
Pechenegs crossed over the river Don and took the Magyars by surprise, causing them to
flee to the Transylvanian mountains for protection. Most of the Magyar forces were off
fighting the Bulgars. Upon their return, with reinforcements, they ousted the Pechenegs
from the Great Plain and Transylvania. They fought and gained possession of the Alfld.
During this time Moravian rule governed the area. The Germans and Moravians united
against the Magyars, but by 900 AD Frankish rule in Pannonia had vanished.13 In 907 a
Bavarian army was ... more
Find essay on The Force Of
Treaty of Versailles
The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921. Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later. On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on the Germans were causes enough for war. Historians argue that this and the international fallout that resulted most notably with the United States were simply too powerful to avoid war at all. The ramification of the Treaty sent the German economy into a severe depression and planted the seeds needed to sprout revenge and uprising such as the world had never seen before.
Estimates for the costs of the war for the Allied Powers fluctuated between ten billion and one hundred billion dollars. Ultimately, the Allied Powers settled on the astronomical sum of thirty-three billion dollars which the German government was mandated to pay but simply did not have the funds to do so. In addition to paying reparations, Germany had to severely limit military spending and personnel, relinquish land previously gained in the World War, and was barred from having any air force at all. The lack of American involvement, which was sorely needed at this time, had significant impacts on the actions of other key states. Sudden American withdrawal from the Treaty of Versailles sent France into a panic and their subsequent occupation of the Ruhr Valley in Germany. This action dealt a harsh blow to the Germany and British-French relations. The former came into economic conflict with France, creating hyper-inflation, and throwing Germany into a severe depression. Wheelbarrows of money were necessary to buy loaves of bread until the Deutsche Mark became so devalued that the bills were burned to provide heat to those living in poverty.
Following this collapse in German currency, a desperate and vulnerable Germany capitalized on the breakdown of relations between Britain and France and United States isolationism to begin rebuilding. This included rearmament that was in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The dictator behind this proposed revitalization in economic and military strength was Adolf Hitler. Current economic hardship made Germany ripe for the rise of a dictator. Hitlers timing was impeccable and he perhaps never would have gained such prominence in the German government if it was not for his propaganda that the weary and desperate German people needed so badly to recover from their depression. The depression however, was not contained within German borders. The politics of the era, most notably Americas isolationist policy contributed to world wide economic collapse. This was the result of then President Woodrow Wilsons inability to persuade Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and become a co-signer with the other Allied Powers. The major failure in Wilsons pitch came in his proposal of the Fourteen Point Plan.
The Fourteen Point Plan outlined Wilsons view of what the post-WWI world should look like, providing for the liberation of certain peoples and territories. Presented to Congress on January 8, 1918, strong debate ensued over the proposal of the fourteenth and final provision; a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. Congress voted against what Wilson dubbed the League of Nations, the failed basis of todays United Nations. Although the U.S. proposed the League, they were the most notable nation that failed to join. The U.S. subsequently retreated to a policy of isolationism and combined with a rebuilding and weakened Europe, there was little opposition to Hitlers rise to power and continued violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
The rest of the world exercised a policy of appeasement, allowing Hitler to make small advances in Europe hoping that he would be satisfied with what he was given. He became emboldened as each of his new advances into Europe met little to no opposition in the international community. He ... more
What long should essays be?
Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.
What makes an effective essay?
An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.
What should be included on an essay?
A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.
What They say About Free Essay
I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling
T: A Seperate Peace
A Seperate Peace Nathan Gourley Pd2 4/25/00 In John Knowles book A Separate Peace he communicates how the war in him was taking its toll on him. He uses the characters in a complicated plot to show the destructive forces of war. The characters, Gene and Finny, are the opposing forces in a struggle between the reality of war (World War II) and a separate peace. A peace away from the real war and the awful things that come from it. Through their relationship, which is a struggle on both sides, Kno...
H: The Magyars
The Magyars The Magyars The Medieval Period in European History saw several waves of barbarians which helped shape the face of European society. The nomadic tribes of people that lived a migratory life, while other groups were founding civilizations with permanent living centers, are today referred to as barbarians. Two great empires, the Chinese and the Roman, ruled on the extreme edges of the enormous Eurasian continent and were separated by vast distances.1 The people that existed betwe...
E: Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921. Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later. On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on t...
: Israel Past & Present
Israel Past & Present Israel Past & Present After World War II, Jewish refugees moved to Palestine to escape the countries which had persecuted them for years. The Israelis met conflict while re-settling in Palestine. The Palestinians felt as though the Israelis were unjustly staking claims on Palestinian lands. The Israelis felt as though they had rights bestowed by God to Palestinian lands. Israelis also argued the fact that the Palestinians as a group never really had a homeland. These confli...
F: Great Wall
Great Wall The Great Wall of China To the northwest and north of Beijing, a huge, serrated wall zigzags it's way to the east and west along the undulating mountains. This is the Great Wall, which is said to be visible from the moon. This massive wall has not only been one of the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World, but it has also been inspiration for many artists, and writers. The building of the Great Wall is one of the biggest tragedy?s, but through this tragedy arose triumph with the wall, be...
Breaks HYDRAULIC BRAKES Brake Hydraulic System Principles & Service Tips. Author/s: Bob Freudenberger Issue: Sept-Oct, 1999 Everyone who works on brakes MUST know these concepts and procedures In the early days of the automobile, some very clever engineering was employed to apply brakes mechanically. For example, the Italian Bugatti routed the cables over the top of the front axle so that the twisting action generated by stopping added force to the shoe cam lever. No matter how ingenious the des...
R: Sir William Wallace
Sir William Wallace The Help of Sir William Wallace Sir William Wallace is one of Scotlands greatest generals and was a great help towards the freedom of Scotland because he brought patriotism to the minds of his fellow Scotsmen in order fight for the freedom for which was nearly taken away by the their English neighbors. He would ride through Scotland gathering clans both from the high and lowlands. Over the years after his death, Scots have proclaimed Sir William Wallace as their countries ...
C: Same Sex Unions
Same Sex Unions The question of same-sex unions and their legitimacy in many different societies is a topic that has been hotly debated for centuries. One society in particular is pre-modern Europe. Noted author and historian Dr. John Boswell looks extensively at the topic of same-sex unions in his book Same Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. Dr. Boswell argues extensively in his book that the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches not only sanctioned unions between partners of the same sex, but ac...
Heliocentrism The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a center; appearing as if seen from the sun's center.(Webster,447) The heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now known as the Copernican Revolution. Heliocentrism was proven true by the discoveries of Galileo, Kepler, an...
: Damnation of a Canyon
Damnation of a Canyon The Damnation of a Canyon By Edward Abbey Not many people know of the used-to-be 150-mile excursion that the Glen Canyon had to offer. Not many people know how to sail a raft down a river for a week. Not many people know how to interact with nature and the animals that come with it. We seem to come from a world that is dependent on time and consumed in money. Edward Abbey is what you would call an extreme environmentalist. He talks about how it was an environmental disaster...
O: Genetically Altered Food
Genetically Altered Food Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality, make less use of c...
F: Egyptian Religions
Egyptian Religions No other country- not even China or India had such a long history as Ancient Egypt. For nearly, 3,000 years before the birth of Jesus, the Egyptians had already a high developed civilization. The Egyptians lived in an orderly government; they built great stone structures; most of important of all they established an acquired religion. For the Egyptians there was no break between their religious beliefs and their daily life. Even their culture would all lie at the bottom compar...
Irony Moll Flanders
Irony Moll Flanders I love but hate, I laugh without a smile, I am ridiculous and respected, hypocrite and honest, a nonsense with reason , a convict and a gentleman. Isn't that the world we live in ? He is using a subtle form of humour by saying things that he does not mean. This situation is odd or amusing because it involves a contrast. Irony kills, laughs, denounces, argues but is hidden behind words to look not so politically incorrect. Daniel Defoe was one of those who wanted to denounce s...
Voices by dacia maraini - book
Voices by dacia maraini - book Repeated images of Angela Bari living an imprisoned life in Voices by Dacia Maraini play an important role in book. The internal and external forces surrounding Angela Bari lead her to a life of confinement and domination. If Angela Bari had broken away from her confinement she may have prevented her untimely death by exposing the ill ways of her stepfather, Glauco Elia. Angelas secretiveness, self-doubt, and compliance with others lead her to victimization. It is...
Air Force History
Air Force History 1- The position of Chief Master Sergeants of the Air Force occupies the top enlisted grade, and has great responsibility and prestige in the Air Force. The objective of this background paper is to inform on the career progression, awards, and decorations of the former Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Thomas N. Barnes. In the first main point, I will trace the former CMSAF military career from Non-Commissioned Officer to Senior Non-Commissioned Officer Tier. Secondly, I wi...
Battle of vicksburg
Battle of vicksburg Battle of vicksburg The Vicksburg Campaign was one of the most decisive campaigns of the Civil War and also one of the greatest campaigns in history. Vicksburg, Mississippi, perched upon a steep bluff along the east bank of the Mississippi River was of strategic importance to the north and south. The opening of the Mississippi River to Northern shipping was of prime importance to the Union. It would help them move troops from camp to camp, divide the confederacy down the midd...
Bureacracy in japan
Bureacracy in japan Bureacracy in Japan Ever since its establishment in 1955, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has maintained its one-party rule, and it continues to hold the highest executive power, being the prime ministership, and the cabinet. The LDP's one party rule has shaped the Japanese political economy by creating very close ties between the political, bureaucratic, and industrial/business structure. This has been done through the auspices of institutions such as Ministry of Agricult...
A Timeline of the Holocaust
A Timeline of the Holocaust The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. Although Jews were the primary victims, hundreds of thousands of Roma (Gypsies) and at least 250,000 mentally or p...
Oedipus the King Sophocles
Oedipus the King Sophocles THE GREEK THEATRE 2) Is Oedipus a Tragic Hero? Answer this question demonstrating specific understandings of the concepts of Tragedy and the Tragic Hero. In the Greek play, King Oedipus written by Sophocles, certain characteristics, which determine the traits of a tragic hero, reveal themselves as the play unfolds. These traits enable readers to enjoy a more enhanced reading of the play and also serve to evoke a particular response from the reader. Readers acknow...
America America is the stereotype for countries wounded by salutary neglect and looking to set themselves free. All countries do not decide to become separate from their mother overnight, it is a long, drawn-out process that requires many actions and reactions, plus unity and nationalism. The American Colonies were strained to the limit before they became one to battle injustice. England had put forth too many acts and duties against it's American colonies for them not to rebel. For example, the...
How applicable is a critical e
How applicable is a critical e The word nation has been in use since the 13th century and was attributed more to a race group than a political formation. As there is an obvious merger of the two there is difficulty in showing where the modern sense of the political meaning came into play. The confusion of the two has continued with a difference between nation-state and the arguments surrounding nationalists and nationalism. From the early 17th century the adjective nation wa sused in a complimen...
International charter of human
International charter of human International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms History After the war crimes committed by the Germans in the holocaust that occurred during World War II, the United nations decided to create a document guaranteeing respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people, regardless of race, sex, language, or religion. This document was called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration was voted in on December 10, 1948, which is now c...
Emperor Constantine I
Emperor Constantine I The emperor Constantine has been called the most important emperor of the late antiquity. The many great events of his reign laid foundations that would affect the future of Europe and Western Civilization for centuries to come. His recognition and support of Christianity was one of the most important moments in world history. Moving the government of the Roman Empire to Constantinople and founding New Rome was one of the most significant decisions ever made by a Roma...
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is one of the
Fbi The Federal Bureau of Investigation is one of the most crucial elements of law enforcement and combating of criminal activity in the United States. It works both in domestic crime, and lawlessness abroad, as well. Without it, our country wouldnt be nearly as safe as we consider it to be. The FBI did not just start out as the juggernaut of crime fighting that is today, however. It began very humbly not that long ago, at the turn of the 20th century, when the need arose for a higher power i...
Facts that lead to poverty: th
Facts that lead to poverty: th Poverty occurs in most parts of the world. Nevertheless, the more serious and problematical poverty takes part in the third world and the southern parts of the globe. First of all, we have to clearly define the word poverty. In a broad sense, it means that people within this poverty region are poor or have a lower average income per capita than other regions. To a deeper approach, we refer poverty as people have low educational backgrounds, lack of food suppl...