The Evolutionary Process


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Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate.  The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer.  However, science, in the past, has always remained distant.  Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do.  For the last decade, science has made vast improvements in genetics, monitored by the Human Genome Project.  The goal of this organization is to identify and understand the entire genetic constitution.  "They have the daunting task of identifying and mapping all of the eighty thousand genes, in human DNA, they are making new discoveries weekly" (Reuterlinkextra).  With these discoveries comes many implications, In reviewing the literature genetic engineering needs to be banned because of the social, religious, ethical, and legal implications.
The first step to understanding genetic engineering is to know the start of its creation.  Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process, when an Austrian Monk named Gregor Mendel developed the basics of how genetics work.  Using this, scientist studied the characteristics of organisms for the next one hundred years following Mendel's discoveries.  These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, genes (Stableford 16).  For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, the other brown.  The same child could also receive from its mother two brown genes.  The conclusion is that the child would have a three out of four chance of having brown eyes and a one out if four chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
Inside every person is Deoxyribonucleic acid or more commonly known as DNA.  DNA exist as two long, fine strands of DNA spiraling into the famous figure of the double helix.  The discovery of DNA is attributed to three scientist, Francis Crik, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey.   All were given the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962  (Lewin 1).
Each strand of DNA is composed of millions of the essential chemical building blocks of life, chemical bases. "There are four bases Adenine (A), Thiamin (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).  These bases can only be paired in certain order, (A) only with (T), (G) only with (C), and vice versa" (Barnes 180).  The order of in which these bases occur determine the information available, much as specific letters combine to form words in a sentence.  
DNA resides in the nucleus of all of our cells, except the red blood cells.  In each nucleus, there are forty-six molecules of coiled, double stranded DNA. Each one of these molecules is housed in a structure called a chromosome.  Inside each chromosome are genes. Genes are the chemical message of heredity.  "Genes constitute a blueprint of our possibilities and limitations, the legacy of generations of our ancestors, our genes carry the key to our similarities and uniqueness" (Genetic).  Genes are made up of the chemical bases Adenine, Thiamin, Guanine, and Cytosine.  These base in a certain order makes up codes, these codes determine if you are short, tall, fat, skinny, and etc.
The sex cells are half of the forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three to be exact.  In these cells, by random only certain genes are carried by the cells.  When the sex cell from a man, sperm, and a sex cell from a woman, an egg, combine their genetic information and a new life is created with the traits from its parents.  
Genetic engineering is isolating and removing a desired gene from a strand of DNA.  In genetic engineering, many different apparatuses are used in removing the gene.  One way DNA can be broken up is by ultra-high frequency sound waves, but this procedure is highly inaccurate way of isolating a desirable trait (Stableford 26).  A more accurate way of obtaining the desired trait is the use of restriction enzymes.  These enzymes chemically cut the DNA at a particular location on the strand.  Now that the trait is cut out, it ... more

the evolutionary process

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Evolution

Two major mechanisms drive evolution. The first is natural selection, a process causing heritable traits that are helpful for survival and reproduction to become more common in a population, and harmful traits to become more rare. This occurs because individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce, so that more individuals in the next generation inherit these traits.[1][2] Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random changes in traits, and natural selection of those variants best-suited for their environment.[3] The second major mechanism is genetic drift, an independent process that produces random changes in the frequency of traits in a population. Genetic drift results from the role probability plays in whether a given trait will be passed on as individuals survive and reproduce. Though the changes produced in any one generation by drift and selection are small, differences accumulate with each subsequent generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms. This process can culminate in the emergence of new species.[4] Indeed, the similarities between organisms suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pool) through this process of gradual divergence.[1]  Evolution in organisms occurs through changes in heritable traits) particular characteristics of an organism. In humans, for example, eye color is an inherited characteristic, which individuals can inherit from one of their parents.[14] Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism's genome is called its genotype.[15]  The complete set of observable traits that make up the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits come from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.[16] As a result, not every aspect of an organism's phenotype is inherited. Suntanned skin results from the interaction between a person's genotype and sunlight; thus, suntans are not passed on to people's children. However, people have different responses to sunlight, arising from differences in their genotype; a striking example is individuals with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not tan and are highly sensitive to sunburn.[17]  Heritable traits are propagated between generations via DNA, a molecule which is capable of encoding genetic information.[15] DNA is a polymer composed of four types of bases. The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specify the genetic information, in a manner akin to a sequence of letters specifying a text or a sequence of bits specifying a computer program. Portions of a DNA molecule that specify a single functional unit are called genes; different genes have different sequences of bases. Within cells), the long strands of DNA associate with proteins to form condensed structures called chromosomes. A specific location within a chromosome is known as a locus). If the DNA sequence at a locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles. If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism. However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes.  An individual organism's phenotype results from both its genotype and the influence from the environment it has lived in. A substantial part of the variation in phenotypes in a population is caused by the differences between their genotypes.[19] The modern evolutionary synthesis defines evolution as the change over time in this genetic variation. The frequency of one particular allele will fluctuate, becoming more or less prevalent relative to other forms of that gene. Evolutionary forces act by driving these changes in allele frequency in one direction or another. Variation disappears when an allele reaches the point of fixation) when it either disappears from the population or replaces the ancestral allele entirely.[20]  Variation comes from mutations in genetic material, migration between populations (gene flow), and the reshuffling of genes through sexual reproduction. Variation also comes from exchanges of genes between different species; for example, through horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, and hybridization) in plants.[21] Despite the constant introduction of variation through these processes, most of the ... more

the evolutionary process

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  • T: Genetic Engineering T: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n...
  • H: Genetic engineering 3 H: Genetic engineering 3 Genetic engineering 3 Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate. The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • E: Evolution E: Evolution Evolution Two major mechanisms drive evolution. The first is natural selection, a process causing heritable traits that are helpful for survival and reproduction to become more common in a population, and harmful traits to become more rare. This occurs because individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce, so that more individuals in the next generation inherit these traits.[1][2] Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random chan...
  •  : Human Evolution : Human Evolution Human Evolution Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms established on earth and have been expanded and modified through theorized changes in form and function. Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens sapiens, or human beings. Humans evolved from apes because of their similarities. This can be shown in the evidence that humans had a decrease in the size of the face and teeth that evolved. Early humans are classified in ten...
  • E: Dualism E: Dualism Dualism I believe that the popular or ghost in the machine form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central poin...
  • V: Creation and evo V: Creation and evo creation and evo Ever since the publication of Charles Darwin\'s The Origin of Species was published there has been an ongoing debate between science and religion. Scientists have formulated many theories as to the origins of man and to the creation of the earth, whereas religious groups have one main creation theory, based on the Genesis story of The Bible. These theories, however, are not the cause of the debate because the different theories are simply myths meant to explain the unknown-- t...
  • O: Gender Roles O: Gender Roles Gender Roles Gender Roles Children learn from their parents and society the conception of feminine and masculine. Much about these conceptions is not biological at all but cultural. The way we tend to think about men and women and their gender roles in society constitute the prevailing paradigm that influences out thinking. Riane Eisler points out that the prevailing paradigm makes it difficult for us to analyze properly the roles of men and women in prehistory we have a cultural bias that ...
  • L: Coevolution, With Particular Reference To Herbivor L: Coevolution, With Particular Reference To Herbivor Coevolution, With Particular Reference To Herbivory COEVOLUTION with particular reference to herbivory BIOL 0106 ASSESED COURSEWORK RORY AULD JANUARY 2000 COEVOLUTION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO HERBIVORY Of all the extant organisms in the world, it is believed that terrestrial plants and their natural enemies constitute more than forty percent. Moreover, plants exhibit a remarkable diversity of supposedly defensive characteristics including trichomes, spines, silica, secondary chemical compo...
  • U: Genetics U: Genetics Genetics Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • T: Genetic engineering. 2 T: Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic Engineering: Science Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science. Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but ...
  • I: Interview with an alien I: Interview with an alien Interview with an alien Interview with an Alien Ida Kannenberg, an elderly lady, lives in Hillsboro, Oregon, where she and her husband own and operate a successful antique shop. Although she is now nearly [eighty], she continues to travel all over the world searching out and buying antiques for their shop. She is highly energetic, well- educated, and interested in a wide variety of subjects. Mrs. Kannenberg\'s first physical UFO encounter took place in 1940, during a night when she was out on th...
  • O: Man And Society O: Man And Society Man And Society In this paper I will try to explain the puzzle of whether individuals are products of society or society is a product of individuals. I believe that in general, and in the beginning, the answer to this question, is that society is a human product. I will start by presenting early man, the hunter and gatherer as an early form of society, but lacking critical qualities of a society. Then I will continue to support my theory by analyzing the beginning of known society some three and...
  • N: Charles Darwin N: Charles Darwin Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin, as he was known in full, brought many interesting ideas to the world of science. He was credited for developing the evolutionary theory by natural selection and also for discovering a species of frog while in South America. Darwin has many followers of his theory of evolution but there are many people who are trying to disprove his theory. These people have showed that their different theories prove Darwin could not have been correct in every aspect of his t...
  • A: Self A: Self self The self of every human being is a construct of numerous elements, both internal as well as external. According to Baumeister Personal identity is a crucial interface between the private organism and society. The identity represents an important means by which the physical being takes its place in society so as to communicate and interact with other people (191). Many things influence and shape someones identity and sense of self. Those of us in transition from adolescence to adulthood...
  • R: Identification of Self R: Identification of Self Identification of Self The self of every human being is a construct of numerous elements, both internal as well as external. According to Baumeister Personal identity is a crucial interface between the private organism and society. The identity represents an important means by which the physical being takes its place in society so as to communicate and interact with other people (191). Many things influence and shape someones identity and sense of self. Those of us in transition from adoles...
  • Y: Penguins Y: Penguins Penguins The penguin (Sphenisciformes) has been a fascination to numerous people including scientists and researchers alike. They have distinctive characteristics and an interesting classification system. Their eating habits, unique way of breeding and predators are just a way of everyday life that fascinates scientists and researchers. The species status still remains in danger and can hopefully be helped. This unusual bird stands on short legs and walks with a clumsy waddle. These birds cannot...
  •  : Adaptation : Adaptation Adaptation Adaptation Adaptation is when an organism accomadates to sudden changes in its environment. Its when it alterates its behavior or its body structure to make it more suitable for the new conditions. When an organisms environment changes that organism must adjust to the changes or it will not survive for much longer. Without adaptation most organisms on Earth would be extinct. Adaptation starts when environmental conditions suddenly change in an organisms environment. When this happ...
  • P: Is Psychology a Science? P: Is Psychology a Science? Is Psychology a Science? Is Psychology a Science? In order to answer this question it is important to understand the definitions of both psychology and science. The word \'psychology\' comes from the Greek \'psyche\' (or soul) and \'logos\' (or study), which came to be known as the \'study of the soul\'. The American Heritage Dictionary defines psychology as: 1. the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes 2. the science of human and animal behavior. In its pure defi...
  • R: Transformation of Marriage R: Transformation of Marriage :Transformation of Marriage: Abstract The marriage revolution has been a controversial issue since the dawn of time, and all that are and have been involved with matrimony are aware of the issues of the future. There can be no denying that the culture of marriage has changed. This very course is itself a great example of this fact. Much like any other sociological subject of any real concern, there are many opinions related to this issue. This paper will attempt to highlight marriage seen as ...
  • O: Predator/prey relationships O: Predator/prey relationships predator/prey relationships The relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms that are utilized by various examples of prey, and the influence between predators and prey concerning evolution and population structure. Symbiosis is the in...
  • C: Human Evolution C: Human Evolution Human Evolution Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms established on earth and have been expanded and modified through theorized changes in form and function. Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens sapiens, or human beings. Humans evolved from apes because of their similarities. This can be shown in the evidence that humans had a decrease in the size of the face and teeth that evolved. Early humans are classified in ten...
  • E: Biblical Errors E: Biblical Errors Biblical Errors Although the key to the Christian religion, the Bible should only be used for the morals it teaches, and not as a religious document. In an effort to collapse a building, removing or damaging the foundation successfully renders the rest of the structure useless. Each story of the building relies on the stability of each story below it, until at last the building relies entirely upon its foundation. In arguing the validity of the Christian bible, much of the same logic may be pres...
  • S: The Basic Dilemma of the Artist S: The Basic Dilemma of the Artist The Basic Dilemma of the Artist Sam Vaknin\'s Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites The psychophysical problem is long standing and, probably, intractable. We have a corporeal body. It is a physical entity, subject to all the laws of physics. Yet, we experience ourselves, our internal lives, external events in a manner which provokes us to postulate the existence of a corresponding, non-physical ontos, entity. This corresponding entity ostensibly incorporates a dimensio...
  • S: Brave New World S: Brave New World Brave New World Title: Brave New World Significance of Title: In Shakespeare\'s The Tempest, in act 5 scene 1, on line 204, Mira states: How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, That has such people in\'t! To say the least, this book has quite a few references to Shakespeare. This segment in particular is used, because the setting of the book is of a brave new world\' where almost everything is different from our current situation, and outwardly, every member of the society seems conten...
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