The Electric Franklin


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the electric franklin Atomic Bomb

The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be... Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through radiation exposure. We here at Outlaw Labs do not recommend using this file beyond the realm of casual or academic curiosity. ============================================================================ ----------------------- -+ Table of Contents +- ----------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ A). Development (The Manhattan Project) B). Detonation 1). Hiroshima 2). Nagasaki 3). Byproducts of atomic detonations 4). Blast Zones II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion ------------------------------ A). Fission (A-Bomb) & Fusion (H-Bomb) B). U-235, U-238 and Plutonium III. The Mechanism of The Bomb ------------------------- A). Altimeter B). Air Pressure Detonator C). Detonating Head(s) D). Explosive Charge(s) E). Neutron Deflector F). Uranium & Plutonium G). Lead Shield H). Fuses IV. The Diagram of The Bomb ----------------------- A). The Uranium Bomb B). The Plutonium Bomb ============================================================================ -------------------------------- File courtesy of Outlaw Labs -------------------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ On August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb. The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of 'enriched' uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma. A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H.C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes. Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. [For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3.] Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion. Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud ... more

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Garbage problem in USA




Can America Win its Battle with Garbage?
Today’s generation have been taught to be wasteful.  We produce enormous quantities of waste, then try to bury it or burn it and forget it.  But it cannot be forgotten.  It washes up on our beaches, it reappears as air pollution, it creeps into our water supply; it comes back to haunt us.  A throw-away society is not a sustainable society.
A garbage crisis is at hand.  As a nation, we have begun to worry that the growing mounds of wastes will only continue to increase as the means of disposal become further restricted.  Government agencies and public officials are urgently trying to find a solution.  The waste dilemma has become the centerpiece of the politics of garbage.
The mood of the crisis manifests itself in countless ways, including attempts to export the problem, here or abroad.  Numerous municipalities, counties, and states, particularly those with heavier concentrations of industry and greater urban density, have attempted to send their waste to less dense, often poorer areas.  This has created a garbage war between states.  California seeks to dispose in Arizona, New York looks to Vermont, and Minnesota makes a move on Iowa.   New Jersey, especially, has been an active exporter, probing the possibilities of dumping its waste in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia.  These states though constrained by the commerce clause of the Constitution, have nevertheless sought to pass legislation to halt New Jersey’s aggressive export policy.
But it is the city of Philadelphia and the saga of its ash barge that provides perhaps the striking example of this form of garbage imperialism.  During the 1980s, Philadelphia sought to rely on incineration to reduce the amount of its municipal trash embarked for distant landfills.  As a consequence, local officials were stuck with a new, and more difficult problem:  how to dispose of the city’s incinerator-generated ash, particularly after residents sued to compel the city to remove thousands of tons of ash residue piled up near the city’s main incinerators.  Some of the ash had been shipped to Virginia, Ohio and other states, but it was rejected because of local protests.  With its land-based disposal options under attack, the city finally arranged with two private companies to ship the ash abroad.  A cargo ship named the Khian Sea traveled all around the world and not one country would let the ash be disposed of in their land.  The ash barge after a long time voyage eventually dumped the ash in the Indian Ocean.
The Philadelphia experience has become the rule rather than the exception in the costly and sometimes bizarre search to dump the trash.  Exporting scandals—in which incinerator ash or other wastes are either unloaded illegally or under questionable circumstances—have taken place in a number of African and Latin American countries, such as Nigeria and Guinea-Bissau, and even in England, which has become a haven for garbage, because of its relatively lax standards.
The solid waste dilemma is not limited to the issue of garbage export.  It ultimately raises questions about the source, volume, and nature of the wastes that are being generated.  Policy-makers have placed a special emphasis on disposal technologies as they seek a solution they hope will be sufficiently risk-free and cost-effective.
Despite the enormous industrial changes of the early 1900s and the resulting growth and change in the waste stream, the garbage issue appeared to be under control.  Solid waste management continued to be an exercise in developing new, more comprehensive disposal technologies, primarily land based.  Land disposal offered a number of advantages.  The availability of cheap real estate at the outskirts of the growing cities and suburbs of the 1940s and 1950s allowed such methods to be developed at a relatively low cost.  This abundant underdeveloped land also meant, it was assumed, that landfills could easily handle any increase in volume brought by a rapidly changing waste stream.  By expanding landfill capacity, public officials assumed they could ignore waste generation issues.  Expanding landfills became a yardstick of productivity.  
Most landfills in this period were little more than open pits.  By the end of the 1950s, policy makers began promoting a more refined, and presumably environmentally benign, method of disposal, the sanitary ... more

the electric franklin

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  • H: Atomic Bomb H: Atomic Bomb Atomic Bomb The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be... Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through ra...
  • E: Garbage problem in USA E: Garbage problem in USA Garbage problem in USA Can America Win its Battle with Garbage? Todays generation have been taught to be wasteful. We produce enormous quantities of waste, then try to bury it or burn it and forget it. But it cannot be forgotten. It washes up on our beaches, it reappears as air pollution, it creeps into our water supply; it comes back to haunt us. A throw-away society is not a sustainable society. A garbage crisis is at hand. As a nation, we have begun to worry that the growing mounds of wastes...
  •  : Ben Franklin : Ben Franklin Ben Franklin A Universal Man When one takes a look at the world in which he currently lives, he sees it as being normal since it is so slow in changing. When an historian looks at the present, he sees the effects of many events and many profound people. Benjamin Franklin is one of these people. His participation in so many different fields changed the world immensely. He was a noted politician as well as respected scholar. He was an important inventor and scientist. Particularly interesting is h...
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  • T: Atomic Bomb T: Atomic Bomb Atomic Bomb The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be... Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through ra...
  • R: FDR R: FDR FDR: FDR's Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world's most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- * Copyright DueNow.com Inc. * [Category]: History [Paper Title]: FDR [Text]: FDR's Influence as pre...
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  • F: Roosevelt F: Roosevelt Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt, (1882-1945), 32nd of the United States. Roosevelt became president in March 1933 at the depth of the Great Depression, was reelected for an unprecedented three more terms, and died in office in April 1945, less than a month before the surrender of Germany in World War II. Despite an attack of poliomyelitis, which paralyzed his legs in 1921, he was a charismatic optimist whose confidence helped sustain the American people during the strains of economic crisis ...
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  • A: Ben Franklin A: Ben Franklin Ben Franklin Ben Franklin There was a man named Josiah Franklin. He owned a candle and soap shop in Boston, Massachusetts. The sign for the shop was shaped like a blue ball. Josiah had children, but there were often not living at home. Josiah invited guests to his home to talk and teach his children, but the guests were not aware that they were invited to teach the Franklin children. Both Josiah and his wife felt strongly about educating their children; they took their childrens' education very ...
  • N: Thesis- To research the wonderful life of Benjamin N: Thesis- To research the wonderful life of Benjamin Thesis- To research the wonderful life of Benjamin Franklin. It is also to understand what it took for Franklin to be such a famous and respectable man. When one takes a look at the world in which he currently lives, he sees it as being normal since it is so slow in changing. When an historian looks at the present, he sees the effects of many events and many wise people. Benjamin Franklin is one of these people. His participation in so many different fields changed the world immensely. He was a ...
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  • I: FDRs influence as president I: FDRs influence as president FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelts Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen ...
  • N: U.S. HISTORY 1920-1940 N: U.S. HISTORY 1920-1940 U.S. HISTORY 1920-1940 U.S. HISTORY 1920 - 1940 During this time period of American history, the country could not have been more contrasting than from 1920 through 1940. The twenties were a period of fun, partying, and economic security hence the term roaring twenties. While the nineteen thirties were known as the time of the Great Depression. From 1920 to 1940 our country saw five presidents, the first flight around the world, the completion of the worlds largest dam, a depression, prohibi...
  • A Proud Filipino American A Proud Filipino American A Proud Filipino American America is considered a melting pot of different ethnic groups. By today\'s standard, American culture is the result of a variety of races integrating their own cultural beliefs into American society. Throughout the years, the United States has seen a massive increase of people migrating from Asian countries; they make up 3.6 percent of the U.S. population, a 199 percent increase from 1980 when they constituted only 1.5 percent of the population (Ng). Like other imm...
  • Dams Dams dams * Grade 10 Geography Units 12, 13, 14 Essay - Effects of Dam Building Many people have already dammed a small stream using sticks and mud by the time they become adults. Humans have used dams since early civilization, because four-thousand years ago they became aware that floods and droughts affected their well-being and so they began to build dams to protect themselves from these effects.1 The basic principles of dams still apply today as they did before; a dam must prevent water from bein...
  • Benjamin franklin 3 Benjamin franklin 3 Benjamin franklin 3 The phrase true American does not have a definition, although the word American does. The definition of American is belonging to or characteristic of America. It is hard to relate Benjamin Franklin to this definition of an American, but it does apply to many of his characteristics. Franklins loyalty to America shows greatly throughout his life in his writings and jobs. Franklins many jobs included being an inventor, politician, author, statesman, philosopher, soldier,...
  • A Century of Physics A Century of Physics A Century of Physics By the end of the nineteenth century after more than two thousand years of intellectual struggle that began with the Greek philosophers, physical scientists had reason to believe that they were beginning to understand the universe. Their theories of matter and energy, of electricity and magnetism, of heat and sound and light were confirmed in laboratories throughout the world with increasing precision. Experimentation was the method and mathematics the language of a powerful...