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the depression the Treaty of Versailles

The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919.  It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921.  Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later.  On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on the Germans were causes enough for war.  Historians argue that this and the international fallout that resulted most notably with the United States were simply too powerful to avoid war at all.  The ramification of the Treaty sent the German economy into a severe depression and planted the seeds needed to sprout revenge and uprising such as the world had never seen before.
 Estimates for the costs of the war for the Allied Powers fluctuated between ten billion and one hundred billion dollars.  Ultimately, the Allied Powers settled on the astronomical sum of thirty-three billion dollars which the German government was mandated to pay but simply did not have the funds to do so.  In addition to paying reparations, Germany had to severely limit military spending and personnel, relinquish land previously gained in the World War, and was barred from having any air force at all.  The lack of American involvement, which was sorely needed at this time, had significant impacts on the actions of other key states.  Sudden American withdrawal from the Treaty of Versailles sent France into a panic and their subsequent occupation of the Ruhr Valley in Germany.  This action dealt a harsh blow to the Germany and British-French relations.  The former came into economic conflict with France, creating hyper-inflation, and throwing Germany into a severe depression.  Wheelbarrows of money were necessary to buy loaves of bread until the Deutsche Mark became so devalued that the bills were burned to provide heat to those living in poverty.  
Following this collapse in German currency, a desperate and vulnerable Germany capitalized on the breakdown of relations between Britain and France and United States isolationism to begin rebuilding.  This included rearmament that was in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.  The dictator behind this proposed revitalization in economic and military strength was Adolf Hitler.  Current economic hardship made Germany ripe for the rise of a dictator.  Hitlers timing was impeccable and he perhaps never would have gained such prominence in the German government if it was not for his propaganda that the weary and desperate German people needed so badly to recover from their depression.  The depression however, was not contained within German borders.  The politics of the era, most notably Americas isolationist policy contributed to world wide economic collapse.  This was the result of then President Woodrow Wilsons inability to persuade Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and become a co-signer with the other Allied Powers.  The major failure in Wilsons pitch came in his proposal of the Fourteen Point Plan.
The Fourteen Point Plan outlined Wilsons view of what the post-WWI world should look like, providing for the liberation of certain peoples and territories.  Presented to Congress on January 8, 1918, strong debate ensued over the proposal of the fourteenth and final provision; a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.  Congress voted against what Wilson dubbed the League of Nations, the failed basis of todays United Nations.  Although the U.S. proposed the League, they were the most notable nation that failed to join.  The U.S. subsequently retreated to a policy of isolationism and combined with a rebuilding and weakened Europe, there was little opposition to Hitlers rise to power and continued violation of the Treaty of Versailles.  
The rest of the world exercised a policy of appeasement, allowing Hitler to make small advances in Europe hoping that he would be satisfied with what he was given.  He became emboldened as each of his new advances into Europe met little to no opposition in the international community.  He ... more

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alcohol vs. marijuana

Alcohol Vs. Marijuana

Alcohol and marijuana are two drugs commonly used and abused in the United States.  Alcohol is the number one abused drug, while marijuana is number one among illegal drugs.  While alcohol remains legal, and marijuana illegal, this does not necessarily mean that the alcohol is better for you.  There have been many arguments where people suggest that marijuana should be legal because alcohol is more deadly.  On the other hand, there are alcoholics who would tell a pothead that smoking weed is bad for you.  Both substances are very bad for your health and should not be heavily used by anyone.
Marijuana has an immediate effect during and for about 2 hours after smoking.  With alcohol, users feel slight effects after just one drink, and recover depending on the amount the person drank, how much they weigh, and how much they had to eat before ingesting the alcohol.  Immediate effects of use are slurred speech, decreased inhibitions, poor judgment, and lack of motor coordination.  Marijuana causes red eyes, dry mouth, increased appetite, slowed reaction, paranoia, hallucinations, decreased social inhibitions, and memory loss.  Drinking heavy amounts of alcohol can lead to a coma or even death.  A person would have to smoke 40,000 times the amount to get high to overdose, so it is practically impossible.  Alcohol is responsible for over 100,000 deaths per year.  Marijuana kills less than 10,000 per year.
Among the deaths caused by alcohol, drinking and driving is number one.  Not only is it number one among alcohol related deaths, it is also one of the main causes of death and injury in the United States.  Alcohol impairs judgment and vision, and causes speeding and reckless driving.  On the other hand, there has been debate over the effect of marijuana on driving.  One study by a computer software company reported that people who smoked a small amount of marijuana drove faster and with fewer collisions in a driving computer game.  Another study said that marijuana causes abnormally slow driving, proneness to distraction, and increases the time it takes to react, therefore greatly impairs your ability to drive.  
Long-term effects of alcohol are liver cirrhosis, stomach ailments, impotence, vitamin deficiency, increased stroke risk, decreased mental performance, heart disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis, and various forms of cancer.  Alcohols effects on the brain are loss of coordination, poor judgment, slowed reflexes, distorted vision, memory lapses, and even blackouts.  Long-term effects of marijuana are mouth, throat, and lung cancer, increased heart rate, decrease in testosterone levels for men, increased testosterone levels for women, diminished sexual pleasure, increased blood pressure, increased stress, decreased motivation, and respiratory problems.  The THC in marijuana damages the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed, making it hard to remember things.
Both substances can lead to dependence, especially alcohol.  If one abuses alcohol for to long and becomes dependent, they are considered to be an alcoholic.  There has been debate on whether marijuana is addictive.  Some experts believe that since there are no obvious withdrawal symptoms, it is not considered to be an addictive drug.  Others claim that it is addictive because it takes the place of natural "feel good" chemicals in the brain, so people become physically addicted.  Alcoholism on the other hand, is considered a disease.  Ten percent of people who drink will become alcoholics.  There seems to be a genetic factor associated with alcoholism.  Biological children of alcoholics have a greater chance of becoming alcoholics themselves than a child who is adopted into a family with a history of alcoholism.  If an alcoholic abruptly stops drinking, he will go through withdrawal symptoms known as alcohol withdrawal syndrome.  The symptoms are nausea, tremors, sweating, anxiety, depression, weakness, hallucinations, and even death.
Despite the talk about alcohol abuse and alcoholism, alcohol can actually be good for you.  If one drinks in moderation (2-6 drinks per week in two or more sittings) it can lessen the chance of heart disease by thinning your blood.  There are no known health benefits associated with moderate marijuana use.  Both drugs have serious health effects when used heavily, but it seems that alcohol more detrimental to your health.
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  • T: Alcoholism T: Alcoholism Alcoholism What is Alcoholism? The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or occupational responsibilities. This dependence on alcohol has only been diagnosed as a medical disorder recently in the medical field. Like many other diseases, it has a predictable course and is influenced environmentally and sometimes genetically. The disease ca...
  • H: Treaty of Versailles H: Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921. Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later. On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on t...
  • E: alcohol vs. marijuana E: alcohol vs. marijuana alcohol vs. marijuana Alcohol Vs. Marijuana Alcohol and marijuana are two drugs commonly used and abused in the United States. Alcohol is the number one abused drug, while marijuana is number one among illegal drugs. While alcohol remains legal, and marijuana illegal, this does not necessarily mean that the alcohol is better for you. There have been many arguments where people suggest that marijuana should be legal because alcohol is more deadly. On the other hand, there are alcoholics who would...
  •  : Narrative of the Captivity of : Narrative of the Captivity of Narrative of the Captivity of The Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is a personal account, written by Mary Rowlandson in 1682, of what life in captivity was like. Her narrative of her captivity by Indians became popular in both American and English literature. Mary Rowlandson basically lost everything by an Indian attack on her town Lancaster, Massachusetts in 1675; where she is then held prisoner and spends eleven weeks with the Wampanoag Indians as they travel ...
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  • E: Jerome David Salinger, born in E: Jerome David Salinger, born in Jerome David Salinger, born in Jerome David Salinger, born in New York City on January 1, 1919, may not have written many novels in which he is recognized for. Although, he did write one novel, which brought him fame. In many of Salingers short stories and especially his most well-known novel he writes about how the main character falls from his or her own innocence then rises to face their challenges. In J.D. Salingers , Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield goes through a fall from his in...
  • P: A Timeline of the Holocaust P: A Timeline of the Holocaust A Timeline of the Holocaust The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. Although Jews were the primary victims, hundreds of thousands of Roma (Gypsies) and at least 250,000 mentally or p...
  • R: Great depression 8 R: Great depression 8 Great depression 8 The Great Depression of the 1930's was a worldwide phenomenon composed an infinite number of separate but related events. The Great Depression was a time of poverty and despair caused by many different events. Its hard to say what caused this worldwide depression because it's all based on opinion as opposed to factual data. There are many contributing factors but not one specific event can be pin pointed for starting the depression. It is believed that some events contribut...
  • E: To Kill A Mockingbird Summary E: To Kill A Mockingbird Summary To Kill A Mockingbird Summary The book To Kill a Mockingbird is a story of life in an Alabama town in the 30's. The narrator, Jean Louise Finch, or Scout, is writing of a time when she was young, and the book is in part the record of a childhood, believed to be Harper Lees, the author of the book.. The story begins as Scout describes her family history and her town, Maycomb during the time of the Great Depression. Atticus is a prominent lawyer and the Finch family is reasonably well off in ...
  • S: minimum wage S: minimum wage minimum wage By Brandon kingsley Should Minimum wage be increased? Introduction For many decades now, there has been heated debates concerning minimum wages and increases in those wages. Most people have a tendency to assume that when the minimum wage is increased people will benefit. They do not stop to think of the consequences that come from minimum wage increases. The general population merely assumes that people should make an adequate amount of income and never stop to consider the consequ...
  • S: final project S: final project final project Broadway Tavern Customer Satisfaction A Project Report Presented to the Faculty of the Greenville College in partial fulfillment of the requirement For the degree of Bachelor of Science with a Major in Organizational Leadership by Richard Starr Micheal Taylor Goal 27 April 20, 2001 This is to certify that the report prepared By: Richard Starr Entitled: Broadway Tavern Customer Satisfaction Has been accepted by the faculty of Greenville College. Signed: Primary Instructor: _________...
  • I: Teen Alcoholism I: Teen Alcoholism Teen Alcoholism Teen Alcoholism: Problems for Americas Youth In 1991, a study by the United States Surgeon Generals office stated that 8 million out of the 20.7 million young people in grades 7 through 12 drank alcoholic beverages every week. It went on to say that 454,000 of those youngsters reported weekly binges (Claypool 21). In the United States and all over the world underage teens are drinking, and it may be because they just dont know about alcohol and its effects (Monroe ...
  • O: Alcohol on Academics O: Alcohol on Academics Alcohol on Academics Alcohol, when consumed in reason, can be fine. But when it is taken in great quantities it can be very detrimental to a student. Heather Wilson and Jeremy Foster wrote a perspective on drugs and alcohol in a book aimed to warn people about the dangers of alcohol and drugs. Here is there account. During parents weekend, she, her roommate, and their parents went to her best friend's room and found her soaked in blood and tears on the dorm-room floor. Heather's friend had a his...
  • N: American Slavery N: American Slavery American Slavery The purpose of this report was for me to research and explore the connection between African American women and music. Since prior to the slave decades, music has been an integral part of African American society, and served as a form of social, economic, and emotional support in African American communities in the past and present. This paper will cover three different types of secular music that emerged during the slave days, through the civil war, reconstruction, and ...
  •  : Electroshock Therapy : Electroshock Therapy Electroshock Therapy Electroshock therapy what is it? How does it work? What is it used for and what comes from it? This paper will answer all of these questions and will also try to prove that electroshock therapy is useful and not as bad as it appears to be. Electroshock therapy is an old process of ridding schizophrenia, and depression, and suicidal tendencies. It is used when people with major depression are taking too many anti depressant drugs, cant take the side-effects of their medicati...
  • T: Ivf - in vitro fertilisation T: Ivf - in vitro fertilisation Ivf - in vitro fertilisation 10, 000 Australian couples are treated with IVF each year. The expensive and rather risky program (costing around $4000 excluding overheads) allows infertile couples to achieve pregnancy when conventional therapy has failed or is unacceptable. The procedure involves placing eggs that have been fertilised in a cultured dish directly into the uterus. A successful procedure will go as follows: - Couples are counselled about their situation and informed on the procedure,...
  • H: manic depression H: manic depression manic depression MANIC DEPRESSION Estimates say that about 2 and a half million Americans suffer from manic depressive illness. Also called bipolar disorder, this mental illness involves episodes in which a persons mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. A person may experience pressure and racing thoughts and speech, and often uncontrolled reckless behavior. Two thirds of those who suffer from bipolar illness have numerous episodes of recurrences of alternating phases. Most people...
  • E: Haley Daividson (Strategy) E: Haley Daividson (Strategy) Haley Daividson (Strategy) 1. William Harley and Arthur Davidson wanted to take the work out of riding bicycles in 1901. After being joined by the Arthur brothers, Walter and William, they came up with the idea of putting a motor and a bicycle together. Many engine changes were made before the builders were satisfied. In 1903, they created the first Harley-Davidson motorcycle and produced three that year. Harley built its first building in 1907 on Juneau Avenue in Milwaukee. That same year, 150 ...
  • Insomnia Insomnia Insomnia Insomnia How many times during the night do we toss and turn, check the clock, and find it ticking away and tell ourselves, If I could fall asleep right now I would get at least five hours of sleep? But, sleep doesn't come so we continue to toss and turn. This happens to many people and may suffer from a disorder known as insomnia. People who suffer from this disorder have many complaints, and many have similar symptoms. Symptoms can vary from stress to pain to always feeling tired. I...
  • Genetic engineering 3 Genetic engineering 3 Genetic engineering 3 Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate. The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoub...
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  • Bi polar disorder Bi polar disorder Bi polar disorder Bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this disorder can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder, however, despite the amount of people suffering from it, we are still waiting for explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are aware is that bipolar disorder severely und...
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  • Great Depression Great Depression Great Depression The Great Depression was the worst economic slump ever in U.S. history, and one which spread to virtually all of the industrialized world. The depression began in late 1929 and lasted for about a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; however, the main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920's, and the extensive stockmarket speculation that took place during the latter part...
  • Abortion Abortion Abortion Abortion Life or Death Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for huma...