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the chamber of Breaks

HYDRAULIC BRAKES
Brake Hydraulic System Principles & Service Tips.
Author/s: Bob Freudenberger
Issue: Sept-Oct, 1999
Everyone who works on brakes MUST know these concepts and procedures
In the early days of the automobile, some very clever engineering was employed to apply brakes mechanically. For example, the Italian Bugatti routed the cables over the top of the front axle so that the twisting action generated by stopping added force to the shoe cam lever.
No matter how ingenious the design, however, there was always a major drawback: Nothing could insure that braking force would be exactly equal at any pair of wheels, so there was a good chance that stepping on the pedal would cause swerving and skidding. This made the idea of hydraulically actuated brakes attractive--according to Pascal's Law, pressure at all points in a closed hydraulic system must necessarily be the same--but it took many years to develop dependable systems. The first car of any consequence to carry four-wheel hydraulic brakes was the. 1921 Dusenberg of the U.S.
Basic idea
On the most basic level, all brake hydraulic systems share the same principle: Muscle strength amplified by leverage and perhaps a power booster displaces fluid from the master cylinder and causes pressure to increase all through the circuits. This overcomes the retracting springs in drums and the seals' elasticity in disc calipers and pushes the friction material against the rotating member.
That much is obvious, but the subtleties of modern designs that provide proper performance in the real world deserve some explanation. Hence this article, which also includes important service information every mechanic should know about.
Dual master
Although it has been in use for decades all over the world, the dual (also called "split" or "tandem") master cylinder is still widely misunderstood, so we had better explain its construction and operation. A typical late-model specimen will be of the composite variety (aluminum with a plastic reservoir), but iron one-piece units are still around in abundance. Two pistons ride in the bore, and here is where we encounter some confusing terminology. The rear piston is the primary, and the one in the front is the secondary. This apparent misnaming resulted because the rear piston is the first to receive the force of the driver's leg.
Each piston has a primary seal at its front and a secondary at its rear, so you will be hearing such combinations as primary piston secondary seal, secondary piston secondary seal, etc. The primary seals are the most important because they trap the fluid that is about to be squeezed into the lines. The primary piston's secondary seal keeps fluid from escaping out of the back of the cylinder (commonly into a booster), and the secondary piston's secondary seal acts as a barrier to make two essentially separate cylinders out of one.
In normal braking, the push rod from the pedal or booster forces the primary piston forward. No pressure is created until the primary seal covers the compensating or vent port from the reservoir. Once it does, fluid is trapped in the chamber between the pistons and becomes, for all intents and purposes, a solid column. Pressure is routed from this chamber to two wheels. The trapped fluid and the primary piston coil spring both bear on the secondary piston, moving it forward and creating pressure in the chamber ahead of the secondary piston's primary seal, to which the line to the other two wheels is attached.

Continued from page 1
When the pedal is released, a partial vacuum occurs in both pressure chambers because the fluid's inertia and viscosity prevent it from returning from the lines immediately. In order to re-arm the brakes instantaneously, the primary seals are designed to allow fluid to flow one way (forward) from behind each seal into the pressure chambers.
The replenishing ports allow fluid to move freely between the chambers behind both pistons' primary cups and the reservoir according to demand and expansion and contraction from temperature changes.
Second chance
If a hose should rupture or one of the brake lines should become perforated from corrosion resulting in a catastrophic loss of fluid in half the system, the other half will still provide a means of decelerating the vehicle, albeit with a lower pedal and reduced stopping power.
Both pistons have extensions which project out ... more

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NAJHL Hockey League


The Springfield Statesmen Hockey Organization will play in the North American
Junior Hockey League (NAJHL). The NAJHL is a Division A junior hockey league,
which is the highest level of junior hockey, consisting of eight teams located
in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. The league is comprised
predominantly of players 16 -20 years old. Each team in the league plays a
twenty- game schedule. In addition, league members play in a mid-season all-star
game and in a league tournament that culminates the season by declaring a league
champion. The team will play its home games in the Ice Palace, leased from the
City of Springfield. The Ice Palace has a maximum capacity of 3,000 people. It
includes four locker rooms, eight restroom facilities, an arcade room, an
athletic training facility, a weight room, and a large room available for
private functions. Description of the Community The City of Springfield, which
hosts the team, has a population of 110,000; plus an additional 559,000 within a
60-mile radius. The largest age group for both men and women is 35-44. The
city's government is a municipality with a mayor and 10 aldermen that represent
an area of the city. Springfield is the state capital of Illinois and therefore
houses many of the state's agencies. Its economic base depends upon state and
federal agencies, three major hospitals, three colleges, and two state
universities (University of Illinois at Springfield and Southern Illinois
University School of Medicine). The cost of living in Springfield has an index
of 97.4; the national average is an index of 100. Thirty-five percent of the
households in Springfield earn between $25,000 and $49,000. The three main
industries providing employment are the public sector, services, and retail
trade. Springfield has an unemployment rate of 5.4%. Thirty-three percent of
Springfieldians have a high school diploma and fourteen percent have a
bachelor's degree. Springfield has 36 public schools and 29 non-public schools
employing over 2,600 teachers. The YMCA, YWCA, Boys and Girls Club of America,
and the Springfield Rotary Club offer social service to the community.
Springfield offers 6 museums (including the Illinois State Museum), two zoos, a
minor league baseball team, and numerous state and national historic sites.
Parks offered include seven parks in the Springfield Park District, a wildlife
sanctuary, botanical gardens, and Lincoln's New Salem State Park. The Illinois
Symphony Orchestra, Springfield Chamber Orchestra, Springfield Muni Opera, and
Springfield Theatre Center house the city's performing arts. Natural resources
of the area include Lake Springfield and the Sangamon River. Numerous highways
and Interstates 55 and 72 allow for travel in and out of the city. Capital
Airport provides air service to the community with service provided by American
Eagle, Great Lakes, United Express, and Trans World Express. Five trunkline
railroads serve Sangamon County and Amtrak provides passenger service.
Intra-city bus service is available via the Springfield Mass Transit District,
and Greyhound provides interstate bus service (Greater Springfield Chamber of
Commerce, 1999). Target Population The athletic services provided by the
Springfield Statesmen Hockey Organization (SSHO) serves primarily 16-20 year old
hockey players seeking an opportunity to eventually play for a major college or
professional hockey team. Players will be recruited and drafted from national
and international midget (a younger group of players) leagues, with players
coming from as far away as Europe and Russia to play. Due to the expenses to
play the sport most players come from upper-middle and upper class families. The
entertainment services provided by the team serves an audience of all ages.
Working class families provide the largest audience base. Special seating will
be provided for families as well as group ticket pricing. A private room is
available for larger parties. The facility is handicapped accessible, and
smoking is prohibited in the arena. Financing The SSHO is financed primarily by
player fees (players must pay $5,000 each to play in the league), ticket sales,
and advertising sales. Additional funding will come from concession sales, team
merchandise sales, booster club fundraisers, and team fundraisers (the Summer
Golf Outing with the team and a Silent Auction of team memorabilia). Legal Basis
for Service The SSHO is a for-profit corporation, incorporated in the State of
Illinois and registered with the Federal Government as a for-profit corporation.
Annually, the major shareholders for the team file taxes with the Illinois
Department of Revenue and the Internal Revenue Service. PURPOSE STATEMENT
SPRINGFIELD STATESMEN HOCKEY ORGANIZATION The primary purpose of the SSHO is to
enhance the development of its players through top-quality coaching, extensive
practice time, and a rigorous game schedule. The Organization is committed ... more

the chamber of

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