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thatcher How Scottish families have changed in the last 100 years
Perhaps the area that has changed the most for Scottish women in the last century is the family and the home. In the first half of the century the norm was for the woman of the house to "service" the male breadwinners within the home and family and to reproduce as their primary roles in life. This included many tasks including preparing meals for the whole family, looking after the family budget (It was usual for the husband to give his wife his pay packet at the end of the week and she would use it to pay the bills and buy the food.) as well as cleaning the house and the doing the whole family's washing, which all together usually equated to (or more than) full time work.
Women were put under heavy strain due to cultural expectations and norms. They were expected to be under their family's beck and call 24 hours a day and while husbands could escape household pressures such as screaming children, by going to the pub with their friends, women could never even dream of that kind of freedom.
Although their family was seen as a woman's main priority in life, many HAD to go out and work, often in factories or working as maids or cleaners (24% of employed women worked in the domestic service). They earned far less than men and were also expected to run the family home single handily. Although the 1911 Census of Scotland reported that only 1/20 of married women worked, the results were mainly linked to the middle class, not the poorer families where the woman was forced to work as their husbands wage wasn't enough to support the family. This was not uncommon, especially as in 1911, women who married between the ages of 22 26, had an average of 6 children (with 20% having 9 or more).
In the first half of the 20th century, Scottish families remained larger than those in England did. One of the theories behind this is that Scotland has a smaller middle class, (who on average, have less children per family) and a higher proportion of Roman Catholics, who do not believe in birth control.
Scottish homes were often very small with many children, and it was also common to find many "live-in" relatives in the home too. Conditions were cramped; in 1911, 50% of the population lived in 2 houses of only 1 or 2 rooms (bearing in mind that the average family size was at least 8). In Wishaw, the average density was 4 or more persons to each room. At the same time almost nobody (including the middle class) had hot water, a bath or a toilet in their home. Even by 1957, 32% still lived in 1 or 2 rooms and 43% had no access to a bath.
It was very difficult for women in the first part of the 20th century as they were stuck in the home keeping it tidy and looking after their family, with no leisure time or distractions (unlike men or children). It wasn't uncommon for women to suffer at the hands of abusive husbands, but unfortunately divorce was almost unheard of.
It is difficult to believe compared to how common it is today, that in 1900 only 142 people sued for divorce in Scotland. However things were made a little easier in the 1920s when "Double Standard" divorce laws were removed, meaning that women could divorce men on the same grounds, and then the divorce act of 1938 introduced a wider range of grounds for divorce, including cruelty. Another victory for Scottish women arrived in 1949 when legal aid was granted for women in divorce cases (this was previously unheard of). Today divorce is very common, making it a lot easier for women to leave unhappy marriages. However it is only very recently that his has occurred, even in 1961, less that 2000 divorces occurred in Scotland, less than 1/6 of the 12,400 Scottish couples that divorced in 1991, 75% of which were initiated by women.

Today life is much easier for women in the home. No longer are women expected to settle down, marry young, have ... more

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Huck Finn Diary's

Huck Finn Journal Entry 5


On February 10, in chapter nine and ten, Huck and Jim have developed somewhat of a friendship. They hide the canoe in a cavern; just in a case there were visitors that had dropped by. Unfortunately, it rains very hard, and the two hide in the cavern. The two find a washed-out houseboat, they find a dead body in the house, the body had been shot in the back. While heading back to the cave, Huck has Jim hide in the canoe, so he would not be seen. The next day, Huck puts a dead rattlesnake near Jim's sleeping place, and its mate comes and bites Jim. Jim's leg swells. A while later, Huck decides to go ashore and to find out what's new. Jim agrees, but has Huck disguise himself as a girl, with one of the dresses they took from the houseboat. Huck practices his girl impersonation, and then sets out for the Illinois shore. In an abandoned shack, he finds a woman who looks forty, and also appears a newcomer. Huck is relieved she is a newcomer, since she will not be able to recognize him.  The two characters share a few important traits in common. One of the most obvious similarities is their confidence in superstition, though superstition was also a part of the society in which they lived, where people thought cannon balls and loaves of bread with mercury could find drowned corpses. The two are from civilization and more generally the white upper class world. Of course, Jims background is much deeper than Huck's. As an African American, he simply is less a part of it. Jim's freedom is endangered by that world; he must hide himself during the day so that he is not taken back to it. Journal Entry 6
Todays Date: 2-18-01
Chapter: 21-25
In these chapters, the use of Shakespeare is funny and tragic. The scene where Huck describes Hamlet's Siloquy to us is comical since its obvious that the Duke has completely confused up the lines. The idea of the King, with his white hair and whiskers, playing fair Juliet also makes a mockery of the plays. In my opinion Boggs death focuses the reader on a serious part of the society. Boggs is shot to death in front of his daughter and with a crowd of people watching. The disrespect shown to Colonel Sherburn is hardly a reason for killing a man directly in front of his own daughter. Twain also makes several pointed comments about the attitude towards blacks when he has Jim talk about his family. Huck comments that he is surprised to find that Jim is almost as concerned about his family as a white person. This attitude, which often is shown to justify breaking up slave families, is an attitude that Huck is overcoming. Jim's story about his daughter Elizabeth, in which he hits her for not obeying him, is an indication to Huck that Jim is in fact more concerned about his children than Huck's father ever was about him. These chapters offer us a great deal of insight into Huck Finn as a person. He is maturing in his views, as shown by his belief that black and white people are not so different.  He is also changing from a boy who lacks firm morals to a man with a commitment to values. Journal Entry 7
Todays Date: 2-18-01
Chapter: 26-30
These chapters show the first moments of adulthood for Huck. Up until this point he has followed the authority of those around him, such as Pa, the Widow, Miss Watson, Judge Thatcher, the King, and the Duke. He gets away from this authority the moment that he decides to steal back the money. For the first time Huck is actually acting on his convictions and morals, rather than on his desires and wants. Huck's relationship with Mary Jane shows a rising aspect of his growth, namely his interest in girls. I think as a teenager in there times Huck would act forward girls as an annoyance and not to be taken seriously. With Mary Jane, however, Huck finds new words to describe the opposite sex, including beautiful, and comments that when he ... more

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