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The Medieval Period in European History saw several waves of barbarians
which helped shape the face of European society. The nomadic tribes of people that lived
a migratory life, while other groups were founding civilizations with permanent living
centers, are today referred to as barbarians. Two great empires, the Chinese and the
Roman, ruled on the extreme edges of the enormous Eurasian continent and were
separated by vast distances.1 The people that existed between the two empires and
roamed the large wasteland were called barbarians.2 They did not have a permanent
living center and therefore raided settled towns and cities for food and riches. Because of
there roaming ways and raiding tactics, barbarians were feared and hated in the Medieval
World. The word barbarian is presently associated with being backwards, uneducated,
or indecent; in one word, uncivilized. These wandering people lived in family orientated
groups called clans, which combined together to form a tribe. Tribes depended on one
another for protection. Among these barbarian groups where a traveling people known as
the Magyars. The Magyars had a major impact on the Carpathian Basin in Central Eastern
Europe, and directly affected the picture of the European landscape that we have today.
The magyars are a mysterious peoples whose origins and connections are highly
debated among scholars and historians. The first place to begin when searching for
origins, is the language. The Magyar language is a branch of the Finno-Ugrian family of
languages, most nearly related to Finnish, although supplemented by numerous Turkic
words.3 The language is very unique and their is no other like it in the world. Popular
belief places the origin of the people themselves somewhere in the Orient. The Old
Magyar Fatherland was probably situated in the ancient Orient, which we call the
Near-East, and played an important role in Mesopotamian lands.4 Linguistic evidence
places the Magyars among the ancient Egyptians. Contemporary records speak of a
Makari Queen5 from the XXth dynasty; between 1080-940 BC6 Egyptian Kings of the
XIXth dynasty forced the Magyars out of Africa for good. From their the people
dispersed, moved around the European landmass, including Hungary, and mixed with
other peoples.7 Much of the Finno-Ugrian peoples mainly dispersed in the widespread
region on the west side of the Ural Mountains.8 It was in this region that the Magyars
were exposed to the Turks. Their language was enriched with Turkic elements while
maintaining its basic Finno-Ugric characteristics. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact
location of the Magyars during this period because of their nomadic ways.
By the end of the 5th century the Magyars had begun their southward migration
from the Urals and settled east of the Sea of Azov.9 Here they were again under the
influence of Turkic neighbors. During this period the Magyars patterned themselves after
the Turkic model, becoming a well-disciplined, conquering race. During the second half
of the 9th century, the warring Turkic Pechenegs put forth pressure on the Magyars
feeding grounds, forcing them to begin their historic westward migration. Following a
Pecheneg attack, the Magyar tribes united under one leader, rpd, who led his people
out of their exposed position in Etelkz and into the Carpathian Basin.10 The seven
Magyar tribal chieftains elected a leader from among them. After rpd was elected, he
had to lead them in a swearing with ritual drinking of mixed blood to unify them and make
their claim as head of the nation valid.
In 894, Sviatopluk sent envoys to the Magyars for help against the
Frankish-Bulghar confederation, while the Bulghars wanted an alliance with the
Pechenegs. The Magyars joined forces with Sviatopluk and attacked the Franks in
Pannonia. During this period the weaknesses of the lands were made out by the Magyars,
and that same year they were back, raiding Pannonia for themselves.11 In late 895 or early
896 the Magyars crossed the Carpathian mountains for good through the Verecke pass
and launched a military campaign that would come to be known as the Conquest12. The
Pechenegs crossed over the river Don and took the Magyars by surprise, causing them to
flee to the Transylvanian mountains for protection. Most of the Magyar forces were off
fighting the Bulgars. Upon their return, with reinforcements, they ousted the Pechenegs
from the Great Plain and Transylvania. They fought and gained possession of the Alfld.
During this time Moravian rule governed the area. The Germans and Moravians united
against the Magyars, but by 900 AD Frankish rule in Pannonia had vanished.13 In 907 a
Bavarian army was ... more
Find essay on That The United
Treaty of Versailles
The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921. Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later. On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on the Germans were causes enough for war. Historians argue that this and the international fallout that resulted most notably with the United States were simply too powerful to avoid war at all. The ramification of the Treaty sent the German economy into a severe depression and planted the seeds needed to sprout revenge and uprising such as the world had never seen before.
Estimates for the costs of the war for the Allied Powers fluctuated between ten billion and one hundred billion dollars. Ultimately, the Allied Powers settled on the astronomical sum of thirty-three billion dollars which the German government was mandated to pay but simply did not have the funds to do so. In addition to paying reparations, Germany had to severely limit military spending and personnel, relinquish land previously gained in the World War, and was barred from having any air force at all. The lack of American involvement, which was sorely needed at this time, had significant impacts on the actions of other key states. Sudden American withdrawal from the Treaty of Versailles sent France into a panic and their subsequent occupation of the Ruhr Valley in Germany. This action dealt a harsh blow to the Germany and British-French relations. The former came into economic conflict with France, creating hyper-inflation, and throwing Germany into a severe depression. Wheelbarrows of money were necessary to buy loaves of bread until the Deutsche Mark became so devalued that the bills were burned to provide heat to those living in poverty.
Following this collapse in German currency, a desperate and vulnerable Germany capitalized on the breakdown of relations between Britain and France and United States isolationism to begin rebuilding. This included rearmament that was in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The dictator behind this proposed revitalization in economic and military strength was Adolf Hitler. Current economic hardship made Germany ripe for the rise of a dictator. Hitlers timing was impeccable and he perhaps never would have gained such prominence in the German government if it was not for his propaganda that the weary and desperate German people needed so badly to recover from their depression. The depression however, was not contained within German borders. The politics of the era, most notably Americas isolationist policy contributed to world wide economic collapse. This was the result of then President Woodrow Wilsons inability to persuade Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and become a co-signer with the other Allied Powers. The major failure in Wilsons pitch came in his proposal of the Fourteen Point Plan.
The Fourteen Point Plan outlined Wilsons view of what the post-WWI world should look like, providing for the liberation of certain peoples and territories. Presented to Congress on January 8, 1918, strong debate ensued over the proposal of the fourteenth and final provision; a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. Congress voted against what Wilson dubbed the League of Nations, the failed basis of todays United Nations. Although the U.S. proposed the League, they were the most notable nation that failed to join. The U.S. subsequently retreated to a policy of isolationism and combined with a rebuilding and weakened Europe, there was little opposition to Hitlers rise to power and continued violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
The rest of the world exercised a policy of appeasement, allowing Hitler to make small advances in Europe hoping that he would be satisfied with what he was given. He became emboldened as each of his new advances into Europe met little to no opposition in the international community. He ... more
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