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adoption, act by which the legal relation of parent and child is created. Adoption was recognized by Roman law but not by common law. Statutes first introduced adoption into U.S. law in the mid-19th cent., and today it is allowed in all states of the United States and in Great Britain. Adoption is generally a judicial proceeding, requiring a hearing before a judge. Adoption statutes usually provide that the consent of the parents or guardian of the childand that of the child, if above a certain agemust be obtained. An adopted child generally assumes the rights and duties of a natural legitimate child. Similarly, the rights and duties accompanying natural parenthood generally accompany adoptive parenthood (e.g., the right of custody and the obligation of support). The natural parents have no right to control an adopted child, nor have they any duties toward it, but in some states the child does not lose the right to inherit from them.
In many cases children are adopted by relatives. Many states now permit adoption by unmarried adults; some allow adoption by homosexual couples. Most adoptions are of the same race. Transracial adoptions are controversial, pitting issues of culture and heritage against the need of a child for a stable parent-child relationship as early in life as possible, regardless of race. The Multiethnic Placement Act (1994) made it illegal for U.S. states to hold up adoptions solely in order to match racial or ethnic background of the child.
In adoption by unrelated adults, the courts have traditionally attempted to ease adjustment to the adoptive family and protect the privacy of the (often unwed) mother by maintaining secrecy regarding the child's birth parents. Since the 1970s, however, a growing number of adopted children have attempted to identify their birth parents, and "open adoption," in which adoptive and birth parents maintain a relationship, has become more accepted. Questions of parental rights and where these stand vis-a-vis the rights and best interests of the child have also been highlighted in cases in which the courts tranferred custody of adopted or fostered children to birth parents who had previously given them up.
Many children are adopted through public or private agencies, but a growing number are adopted through private placement, in which the prospective adoptive parents advertise for or are otherwise put into contact with a birth mother, usually with the help of a lawyer who is familiar with the process and the legal requirements of the individual states. As birth control and abortion have become more available and as the stigma formerly attached to unwed motherhood has lifted, fewer infants have been put up for adoption, making it increasingly difficult for prospective parents to find young children to adopt (see also infertility). In many cases, parents have adopted babies from outside the United States, particularly South Korea, and Mexico and other Latin American countries, but the increased demand has also been accompanied by black-market adoption arrangements. In 1980 the U.S. Congress passed the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act to give support to foster families who adopt and to families who adopt children with disabilities.
See M. Kornitzer, Adoption (2d ed. 1967); M. L. Leavy, Law of Adoption (3d ed. 1968); M. K. Benet, The Politics of Adoption (1976); P. Bean, ed., Adoption: Essays in Social Policy, Law, and Sociology (1984); E. W. Carp, Family Matters: Secrecy and Disclosure in the History of Adoption (1999). ... more
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Revenge in a Tale of Two Cities
A Tale of Two Cities is a novel which takes place during the French Revolution. In this novel there are many characters who often have conflicts in their interactions. Sometimes these conflicts take place on a personal level and at other times they occur on a social level. There are many examples of revenge in A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens.
Madame Defarge takes revenge on Charles Darnay for the acts of his father and uncle. Madame Defarges main reason for trying to have Darnay convicted is because she holds his family responsible for the death of her siblings. When talking to Jacques Three, Madame Defarge says, [M]y husband has not my reason for pursuing this family to annihilation, which proves that she does not think that they are an enemy of the republic. Instead, she has a personal reason for bringing Darnay to trial (351). Monsieur Defarge, who plays as large a role in the revolution as Madame Defarge, does not, for Lucys sake, want to see Darnay harmed. When he says this to his wife, she replies, Her husbands destiny . . . will lead him to the end that is to end him (186). Madame Defarge is so revengeful that she even pursues Darnays wife and child. She personally delivers a note to Lucy so that she can see them and [t]he shadow attendant on Madame Defarge and her party seem[s] then to fall, threatening and dark, on both the mother and the child (265). Lucy and Little Lucy are forced to flee for their lives before they are denounced.
During the French Revolution, the commoners take revenge on the aristocrats. The commoners revenge is apparent in the second half of the book. The Jacquerie is a major source of the revolutionary trouble. One of the first examples of this is when [t]he ch,^teau [is] left to itself to flame and burn after being set on fire by the mender of roads, a second member of the Jacquerie, and two others (230). The commoners revenge takes place throughout the book when aristocrats are imprisoned. They are . . . murdering the prisoners of La Force after Darnay is incarcerated there (260). The members of the revolution behead large numbers of people daily. One of the Jacques says, [W]e have not half enough as it is. We ought to have six score a day, which shows how extreme they are in eliminating anyone they think wronged them (351).
Gaspard is revengeful towards the Marquis St. Ev,ormonde. The Marquis runs over Gaspards child and then yells at the crowd which has gathered, It is extraordinary to me K that you people cannot take care of yourselves and your children (116). When he gives a coin to Gaspard, Gaspard throws it at the carriage, enraged at the Marquis. I would ride over any of you very willingly and exterminate you from the earth. If I knew which rascal threw at the carriage, and if that brigand were sufficiently near it, he should be crushed under the wheels, came Ev,ormondes response (117). The retribution for the Marquis murder of Gaspards son and his many other selfish acts comes when Gaspard stabs him. The knife is [d]riven home into the heart of the stone figure (133).
In A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens there are many examples of revenge. Madame Defarge takes revenge on Charles Darnay because his father and uncle murdered her brother and sister. The commoners retaliate against the aristocrats in France. Gaspard is revengeful in his murder of the Marquis St. Evormonde because of the death of his son. ... more
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Revenge in a Tale of Two Cities A Tale of Two Cities is a novel which takes place during the French Revolution. In this novel there are many characters who often have conflicts in their interactions. Sometimes these conflicts take place on a personal level and at other times they occur on a social level. There are many examples of revenge in A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. Madame Defarge takes revenge on Charles Darnay for the acts of his father and uncle. Madame Defarges main reaso...
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