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temples Emperor Constantine I

The emperor Constantine has been called the most important emperor of the late antiquity. The many great events of his reign laid foundations that would affect the future of Europe and Western Civilization for centuries to come. His recognition and support of Christianity was one of the most important moments in world history. Moving the government of the Roman Empire to Constantinople and founding New Rome was one of the most significant decisions ever made by a Roman ruler. Ten emperors who reigned after Constantine took his name. This is just one more indication of his importance in history and the honor in which he was held by his people.
The one known as the emperor Constantine was born Flavius Valerius Constantinus in Naissus, a town in Serbia, on February 27 probably sometime in the 270s CE. His mother was a woman of humble background named Helena who would later become a Christian. Because of her good works, she was made a Christian saint after her death. Constantines father was a career military officer named Constantius. Constantine was married at least twice and had four sons: Crispus, Constantine II, Constantius, Constans.
Constantius, his father, was in charge of the Roman Province of Britannia. When Constantius died at York in 306 CE, Constantine, who was at his side, was immediately proclaimed emperor by the army. However, it took many years of political struggle and actual civil war before he could consolidate his power. Constantine finally became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire in 323 CE when he defeated the eastern Emperor Licinius.  
Of Constantines major accomplishments, the most important was his recognition of the Christianity. In 311 CE, he ordered the end of the persecution of Christians. On October 28, 312 CE, Constantine faced one of his greatest battles as he tried to consolidate his power. He was greatly outnumbered by the forces of Maxentius, who also wanted to be emperor. In a dream the night before the battle, Constantine saw the initials for the name of Christ as well as the cross and was told, By this sign you will conquer. The next morning, he had the initials painted on his helmet and ordered them to be painted on the shields of all his soldiers. Constantines forces won the day and he credited the Christian God with the victory. He was closer to his goal of absolute power as sole emperor of Rome was now, for all practical purposes, a Christian.
In 313 CE, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan which allowed full freedom for Christians to practice their faith. The edict made Christianity equal to the religion of the Roman Empire. The Edict of Milan also ordered the return of all church and personal property that had been taken during past persecutions of Christians. Constantine now gave imperial property to the church including the Lateran in Rome. On this site, one of the great cathedrals of Rome, St. John Lateran, still stands today.
Constantine not only recognized Christianity but made many contributions and enacted laws that helped it spread. He also became involved in Christianity. He felt that, as emperor, he had a responsibility to help and protect the faith. He also believed that all Christians should have the same beliefs. These concerns led to another of Constantines great accomplishments, the Council of Nicea in 325 CE. The Council produced a statement of Christian faith known as the Nicene Creed. The creed defined the beliefs about Jesus for all Christians. It said that Jesus was not created by God but actually was God. There were some who did not accept these beliefs about Jesus. This disagreement was the beginning of what eventually would becomde a split in Christianity between the western church and the eastern or Orthodox church.
Constantines most important political accomplishment was moving the permanent capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium. He claimed that God had told him to move the capital which he renamed in his own honor as Constantinople. He also ordered the city to be rebuilt so it would be a worthy capital for the empire. The new city, which was dedicated in May of 330 CE, provided Constantine with a better location ... more

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Ancient Egyptian


The ancient statues and pottery of the Golden Stone Age of Greece were much

advanced in spectacular ways. The true facts of Zeuss main reason for his statue. The

great styles of the Kouros and the Kore. The story of The Blinding of Polphemus,

along with the story of Cyclops. The Dori and Ionic column stone temples that were

built in Greece that had an distinctive look. The true colors of the vase, Aryballos. The

vase that carried liquids from one place to another. The Lyric Poetry that was originally

a song to be sung to the accompaniment of the lyre.

Zeus was considered, according to Homer, the father of the gods and of mortals.

He did not create either gods or mortals; he was their father in the sense of being the

protector and ruler both of the Olympian family and of the human race. He was lord of

the sky, the rain god, and the cloud gatherer, who wielded the terrible thunderbolt. His

breastplate was the aegis, his bird the eagle, his tree the oak. Zeus presided over the

gods on Mount Olympus in Thessaly. His principal shrines were at Dodona, in Epirus,

the land of the oak trees and the most ancient shrine, famous for its oracle, and at

Olympia, where the Olympian Games were celebrated in his honor every fourth year.

The Nemean games, held at Nemea, northwest of Argos, were also dedicated to Zeus.

Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea and the brother of the deities

Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera. According to one of the ancient myths of

the birth of Zeus, Cronus, fearing that he might be dethroned by one of his children,

swallowed them as they were born. Upon the birth of Zeus, Rhea wrapped a stone in

swaddling clothes for Cronus to swallow and concealed the infant god in Crete, where

he was fed on the milk of the goat Amalthaea and reared by nymphs. When Zeus grew

to maturity, he forced Cronus to disgorge the other children, who were eager to take

vengeance on their father. Zeus henceforth ruled over the sky, and his brothers Poseidon

and Hades were given power over the sea and the underworld, respectively. The earth

was to be ruled in common by all three. Beginning with the writings of the Greek poet

Homer, Zeus is pictured in two very different ways. He is represented as the god of

justice and mercy, the protector of the weak, and the punisher of the wicked. As

husband to his sister Hera, he is the father of Ares, the god of war; Hebe, the goddess of

youth; Hephaestus, the god of fire; and Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth. At the same

time, Zeus is described as falling in love with one woman after another and resorting to

all kinds of tricks to hide his infidelity from his wife. Stories of his escapades were

numerous in ancient mythology, and many of his offspring were a result of his love

affairs with both goddesses and mortal women. It is believed that, with the development

of a sense of ethics in Greek life, the idea of a lecherous, sometimes ridiculous father

god became distasteful, so later legends tended to present Zeus in a more exalted light.

His many affairs with mortals are sometimes explained as the wish of the early Greeks to

trace their lineage to the father of the gods. Zeus''s image was represented in sculptural

works as a kingly, bearded figure. The most celebrated of all statues of Zeus was

Phidias''s gold and ivory colossus at Olympia.



The standing nude youth (kouros), the standing draped girl (kore), and the seated

woman. All emphasize and generalize the essential features of the human figure and

show an increasingly accurate comprehension of human anatomy. The youths were

either sepulchral or votive statues. Examples are Apollo (Metropolitan Museum), an

early work; Strangford Apollo from Lmnos (British Museum, London), a much later

work; and the Anavyssos Kouros (National Museum, Athens). More of the musculature

and skeletal structure is visible in this statue than in earlier works. The standing, draped

girls have a wide range of expression, as in the ... more

temples

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