Technical Communication


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technical communication Marketing

A firms international marketing program must generally be
modified and adapted to foreign markets. This international
marketing program uses strategies to accomplish its
marketing goals. Within each foreign nation, the firm is
likely to find a combination of marketing environment and
target markets that are different from those of its own home
country and other foreign countries. It is important that in
international marketing, product, pricing, distribution and
promotional strategies be adapted accordingly. In order for
an international firm to function properly, cultural, social,
economic, and legal forces within the country must be
clearly understood. The task of International marketing is
more difficult and risky than expected by many firms.

One of the most controlling factors of international
marketing is management. It is very important for managers
to recognize the differences as well as similarities in buyer
behavior. Many mistakes can occur if managers fail to
realize that buyers differ from country to country. It is the
international differences in buyer behavior, rather than
similarities, which cause problems in successful international
marketing. An international marketing manager is a
manager responsible for facilitating the exchange of
products between the organization and its customers or
clients. Sometimes an international marketing manager will
find difficulties in completing the exchange of products.
Many surprises in international business are undesirable
human mistakes. An international corporation must fully
understand the foreign environment before pursuing
business matters. Problems constantly crop up and many
times have unexpected results. Sometimes these
unexpected results are unavoidable. Other times they are
avoidable. To be sure those avoidable situations do not
occur, international marketing managers must be aware of
cultural differences.

Cultural differences take place among most nations of the
world. Differences in culture are one of the most significant
factors in an international company. All nationalities posses
unique characteristics, which are unknown to many
foreigners. Many of the top international businesses are
unaware of these cultural differences. It is very important to
understand these cultures in order to market a product
successfully. As an example, different nationalities have
different beliefs on how business matters should take place.
Where some countries prefer to work with a deadline other
countries can take this as being offensive. Many countries
feel it is an insult to be asked to work under a set time
period. A country may feel that a deadline is threatening
and may feel backed into a corner. On the other hand,
other countries try to expedite matters by setting deadlines.
To be effective in a foreign market it is necessary to
understand the local customs. Knowing what to do in a
foreign country is as important as knowing what not to do.
Failure to understand local customs can lead to serious
misunderstandings between business people. The simple
rejection of a cup of coffee can lead to total confusion. The
decline of an invite is sometimes considered an affront. To
avoid making blunders, a person must be able to discern
the difference between what is acceptable behavior and
what is not acceptable behavior. Violations of a local
custom can be insulting, and can cause uncomfortable
situations. To be a successful manager of international
marketing, one must be able to discern the differences as to
what must and must not be done. It is almost impossible to
attain complete knowledge and understanding of a foreign
culture.

As established, culture plays an important role in the drama
of international marketing. Of all the cultural aspects,
communication may be the most critical. It is certain that
communication has been involved in a number of cultural
confusion. Good communication linkages must be set
between a company and its customers, suppliers, its
employees, and the governments of the countries where it
performs business activities. Poor communication can
obviously cause various difficulties. One source of difficulty
among starting companies is that of effective
communication with potential buyers. The problem is that
there are many possible communication barriers.
Sometimes messages can be translated incorrectly,
regulations overlooked, and economic differences can be
ignored. Other times when the message does arrive, its
ineffectiveness can cause it to be of no value. Every now
and then a buyer will receive the message, but to the
companies disappointment, the message was sent incorrect.
It is normal in multinational businesses to send and receive
messages on a regular basis. Many well-known people
have incapacitated public speech introductions by using
inaccurate titles and names. Not all communication
problems are verbal. Some serious problems have
occurred as a result of non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication exist in numerous forms.
Sometimes a persons appearance can convey a stronger
message than intended. Untidy attire, for example, can be
more offensive in some nations than in others. The local
people often are willing to overlook most of the mistakes
made by tourist. On the ... more

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Ecommerce


Electronic Commerce


















Edward Caputo

Many new and exciting business and purchasing opportunities are becoming available due to the phenomenal growth of the Internet and peoples interest to save time and money by purchasing goods via the web. If you think about all the companies that you know that dont use computers for their everyday business than you either are stumped or just thought of one that will soon be forced to evolve or will soon go out of business.  There are very few successful companies that do not use computers in their everyday business activities. There are also few companies do not use some form of e-commerce. Just as an example to hit home this point, the effect of the Internet is so widespread in todays business communities, one online article stated that more than 100000 companies have Internet addresses, and 20000 companies have home pages on the Internet as of February 1999. (DataQuest, 1999). Since the beginning of the 1990s these numbers have quadrupled. Now you might be thinking, Just what exactly is e-commerce?  To most casual Internet surfers, e-commerce means online shopping or simply purchasing Christmas presents via your personal computer and any Internet browser. As we will soon find out this is not exactly the definition of e-commerce but rather on entity of its capabilities.
In Laymans terms, e-commerce is the exchange of business information between two or more organizations. An example of this would be buying and selling products or services over the Internet. After e-commerce proved to be an efficient means to conduct long distance transactions it became very accepted. This paper shall discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce, as well as predicting its potential for the future of business.
Electronic commerce, or e-commerce has developed exponentially in the last few years and has left some in the cold. The majority of people think e-commerce is just about buying and selling things over the Internet like through auctioning sites such as E-Bay and U-Bid.  However, E-commerce is a broad term describing the electronic exchange of business data between two or more organizations' computers. Some examples might be the electronic job applications, on-line services like America online, and on-line billing that automatically pays specified bills each month so you dont have to mail a check.  E-commerce also includes buying and selling any item over the Internet, electronic banking so you can transfer funds between accounts or stocks, smart cards, and all other methods of conducting business over digital networks. The primary technological goal of e-commerce is to integrate businesses, government agencies, and contractors into a single community with the ability to communicate with one another across any computer platform.(Edwards, 1998)
Electronic commerce started 130 plus years ago by telegraph technology.  This is similar to wiring money though an electronic agency for a small fee.  The advent of credit cards as a payment system began the revolution of the automated process of commerce that we are so familiar to today.  The introduction of the ATM card in the mid 80s was one of the most recent improvements to electronic commerce and its capabilities. In 1969 when the Department of Defense began funding the research of computer networking and the idea Internet was conceived. By the 80s the Internet was still in its youth and very few households had access to the Internet, but at very grueling speeds. The Internet, as a means for commerce, did not become reality until the 1990s. Before this time, it was mainly a tool for the army, and a research device for some American universities. When faster more readily available and relatively cheep means of accessing the Internet were introduced, it was only then did people start to realize how they could capitalize on a greater market and also use the Internet for a fast and efficient means to conduct long distance transactions, as well as an effective way to distribute information
Clearly, E-commerce will change the face of business forever. Companies that were one thought too far away to conduct business, can complete business transactions in a matter of seconds as well as exchange information. Dell Computers sells more than $14 million worth of computer equipment a day from ... more

technical communication

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