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Lum and Abner
Lum and Abner
What is the first thing you think of when you here of the 1930s, Amos and Andy or how about Lum and Abner? Lum and Abner werent really expected to do anything with their lives; they were just having fun trying to make something of them selves. They became two of the most famous people from Polk and Montgomery counties: Chet Lauck- Lum, Norris Goff- Abner, and the history of Lum and Abner.
Chester Lauck was born in Alleene, Arkansas, February 2, 1902. (Alleene, Arkansas)(www.mu.net/stemple/page1.htm) His parents were W.J. and Cora Lauck. (Cate, Micheal, 190) Chet moved to Mena in 1911, where he met Norris Goff. They became very good friends. Chet lived on Port Arthur Avenue in Mena. His father owned the sawmill and was the Union Bank president. Chet went to Mena high school. He played baseball, basketball, football, and track. He had two older brothers and one younger sister. He graduated from high school in 1920. After high school, Chet went to the University of Arkansas and got a degree in advertising. He was the co-editor of the Universitys humor magazine and was a Razorback cheerleader. After the University of Arkansas, he went to study at Chicago Institute of Fine Arts. (Stucker, Kathryn Moore) In 1926, Chet married Harriet Wood. He had three children: Shirley, Nancy, and Chet Jr.
Norris Goff was born in Cove, Arkansas, May 30, 1906. (www.me.net/stemple/ page1.htm) His parents were Rome and Dora Goff. (Cate, Micheal, 190) He lived on Reine Street. His father worked as a wholesale grocer. (Williams, Troy, 70) When Norris was in high school, he was quarterback for the football team. He graduated in 1924. He then went to the University of Arkansas and the University of Oklahoma.
After college he worked at his fathers company. In 1929, Norris married Elizabeth Bullion. They had a boy, Gary, and a girl, Gretchen. (Stucker, Kathryn Moore)
Waters was the name of the town Chet and Norris got started in. Waters sounded like a swamp so they changed the name of the town to Pine Ridge, because of the woods and valleys of the Ouachitas. In Pine Ridge there was a sawmill, post office, blacksmith shop, gristmill, and other necessary services to the farm community. The community started in the early 1900s. Lauck and Goff lived close to each other.
By 1931, they became Amos and Andy imitators. Chet and Norris liked clowning around at the Elks Lodge and Possum Club Banquets. On July 27, 1931, they made their national radio debut on NBC radio network from Chicago. The program Lum and Abner aired from 1931 to 1953. The programs were fifteen to thirty minutes long. The first sponsor was the Quakers Oats Company. Other sponsors were Ford Motors Company, Horlicks Malted Milk, Alka Seltzer (the longest lasting association), and General Motors.
Their philosophy was simply best summed up in one piece of advice: Never put your faith in seed catalogues. That thing with the double barreled name always turns out to be radishes. (Williams, Troy, 71)
Chet Lauck once said during the 1930s, Were sort of like Mussolini. Weve created Pine Ridge and people in it, the mayor, the justice of the peace, the fire chief, the
grocer. Were dictators by remote control. Its our town and we run it to suit ourselves. (Williams, Troy, 71)
The personalities of the people they swapped stories with, while stopped at rural stores, were to become the characters they created for their radio programs. Grandpappy Spears was based of Cling Wilhite, from one of the earliest Waters families both wore floppy hats and rode a white mule. Cedric Wehunt was based on Lester Goble, slow of speech but humorous. The real Ola Hooper became Elizabeth Peabody, large of heart and stature but stern of voice in hand. Eva May ONeal became Little Pearl, each planned on becoming a nurse but Miss ONeal died at age 18 from injuries received in a fall from a horse. Margaret Wilhite became Sister Simpson, Anna Risenhoover became Aunt Charity Spears and Aunt Chat Lawrence was Widder Abernathy. (Williams, Troy, 70) Lauck and Goff carried the show mostly by themselves, doing different characters. Occasionally there ... more
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Kohlberg and his scale of matu
An interesting individual, by the name of Lawrence Kohlberg, came up with a fascinating way of looking at morality in our society. This man originated a scale, in which he explains his comprehension of human moral development. Kohlberg's postulate is "action determines the stage, not just conscience." He put together three levels of morality, one being the lowest and three being the highest. Kohlberg calls the first level premoral, which is mainly for children who believe good and evil will be punished or rewarded. "Conventional role conformity" is the way he illustrates the second level of morality. This is where the child practices the sort of morality, which wins approval from parents, teachers and peers, as explicated by L. Kohlberg. The third and highest level is "the morality of self-accepted principles." This level also deals with the intellectual side of a child, which helps involve a moral system. While morality is considered to be a part of life, many people are now realizing how it can be used to evaluate a character in a book. The novel The Bean Trees is about a young woman who struggles to get through life's choices and decisions on her own with a baby in her possession. Taylor, the main character in the book, reaches the highest level and stage of moral development according to Kohlberg's scale. Even though Taylor makes many stage five decisions, she belongs in stage six.
In the book The Bean Trees Taylor starts out in stage five. Her decision to move and become independent due to the low success-failure ratio automatically places her into stage five. Taylor makes the decision to move not because she would get recognition for it or even personal profit but because it is the right thing to do and that is a clear example of a stage five decision. "Judgements are based on abstract, more personal principles that aren't necessarily defined by society's laws."(Becker). Stage five is an extremely high level because only 20 percent of the entire adult population reach such a high stage; yet Taylor reaches this stage at a relatively young age. This decision shows maturity and intelligence.
Stage six is the highest stage in Kohlberg's theory. Taylor makes a decision to except a girl who was "abandoned" by her parents; this is a clear example of a stage six decision. Stage six is explained as, "Laws to a person at this level can be considered somewhat arbitrary, depending on the situation. This person realizes that laws are important to keep society running relatively smoothly, but also knows that they can be too rigid in some cases." It is against the law to except a child without any legal papers, Taylor knows this but it is the right thing to do and she decides to make the right decision. People who belong to be in stage six are Saints, Martin Luther King .JR, Ghandi(Becker) Decisions that belong in stage six are usually the hardest to make because it is difficult to make a decision especially when no benefit will be received by making this decision. Taylor reaches the highest stage in Kohlberg's theory, while the book is not even half way through. Taylor decides that even though the child will bring lots more work, responsibility and effort she still decides to keep the child.
The most daring and yet the most mature decision that Taylor makes is the decision to drive her best friends, Estevan and Esperanza to Oklahoma. Her friends were illegal immigrants and if she was to get caught by the police she would destroy her entire life due a harsh prison sentence and an extremely high fine. Though Taylor realizes the dangers, she also realizes that her friends are in need of her help. Taylor decides to help her friends because her maturity tells her that in this situation the law can be bent. This is a clear example of stage six because in this stage one is ready to destroy his/her life or even die for his/her beliefs. In this case Taylor believes that her friends deserve a clean chance at life and if it takes a jail sentence to get them that, ... more
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