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survey showed that Teen Alcoholism

Teen Alcoholism:  Problems for Americas Youth

In 1991, a study by the United States Surgeon Generals office stated that 8 million out of the 20.7 million young people in grades 7 through 12 drank alcoholic beverages every week.  It went on to say that 454,000 of those youngsters reported weekly binges (Claypool 21).  In the United States and all over the world underage teens are drinking, and it may be because they just dont know about alcohol and its effects (Monroe 56).  Underage or teen drinking is a major problem today that is increasing more and more, and something needs to be done to stop this increase and to control the number of underage drinkers.  
There are many statistics that show just how big this problem is amongst our youth.  One frightening statistic that shows how much this problem has been increasing is that between 1948 and 1988 the percent of teen drinkers increased by 57 percent (Nielsen 47).  Many parents may think that their child may not drink until they are much older, but the average age that teenagers try alcohol is between the ages twelve and sixteen (9).  Also, a 1995 study taken by the University of Michigan stated that 35 out of 100 high school seniors drank 5 or more drinks at one time at least once during their two week survey period (Claypool 10).   A recent poll by the National Association of Student Councils found that alcohol was the leading school problem and 46 percent [of students] said it was the schools most serious problem (Monroe 53).  This may be because alcohol is very dangerous because it is a poisonous drug that can be very addictive (Mitchell 6).
In order to help solve this problem of underage drinking we must first try to understand why teens drink alcohol.  There are many reasons why a young teen may choose to drink alcohol.  A national survey, taken in 1995, showed that 87 percent of parents thought that teens drank because of peer pressure, but 79 percent of teenagers said it was just because they liked the feeling they got when they drank (27).  The main reason and the biggest reason why teens drink would probably have to be peer pressure, but there are many other reasons other than peer pressure why a teen might drink.  
In addition to peer influences, some experts believe that media depiction of alcohol use in print advertising, television and radio commercials, and fictional television programs such as sitcoms and dramatic series glamorizes alcohol to young people and can influence their decision to drink (Mitchell 28).  The media today is very influential, and by viewing alcohol being glamorized some teens think that it is acceptable to drink.  Many teenagers are fascinated by some of the alcohol commercials on television such as the comedic Budweiser ads, and researchers believe that this fascination may lead them to try the product being advertised (30).
Peer pressure is a huge issue for a teenager these days and it affects many decisions a teen might make.  Being a teen can be an awkward situation, and in order to fit in and feel less awkward teens might start to drink, but what they dont know is that it may not be so easy to stop (Landau 52).  Some teens would do anything to be cool so if the cool teens told them drink, they might just be pressured into doing so as well (Nielsen 53).
Many times peer pressure and social situations seem to be similar in that they both can cause a teenager to do something they normally wouldnt do. The only difference is that with peer pressure he or she is forced to make a decision and with social situations, the teen makes the decision. A teens social environment can also lead him to start drinking.  For example, a teen might try drinking in order to loosen up or to be less shy, and if he thinks that he did loosen up he might want to do it again (Mitchell 25).  Many social situations such as a party or school function may present the opportunity to drink, and if teens see that everybody else is drinking they might do ... more

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What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?

What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?
Philip Davis, Instructional Technology Librarian
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.
Table of Contents
Cornell University 2
Cornell Library Conducts Study 2
Research Methodology 3
A Review of the Results 3
Rankings, Groupings, and Correlations 4
Ranking Computer Skills: 4
Grouping Computer Skills: 4
Other Computer Skills 4
Comments From Employers 5
Variability of Employment 5
Communication Skills 5
Adaptability 6
What Do These Results Mean? 6
Why is this research important for librarians? 7
What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?
Philip Davis, Instructional Technology Librarian
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.
The university is responsible for graduating students with the skills necessary to thrive and lead in a rapidly changing technological environment. Meanwhile corporate leaders are putting more emphasis on recruiting individuals with an understanding of computers and information systems.
A nationwide survey by the Olsten Corp of 1,481 management systems executives found that computer literacy requirements for all job levels increased dramatically over a three-year period in the early nineties. However, another survey by HR Focus of 20 human resource executives found a lack of computer-literacy skills in recent college graduates.
Cornell Library Conducts Study
Cornell University's Albert R. Mann Library has a formal instruction program that reaches nearly 1,000 participants in over 60 hands-on computer workshops per semester. Workshop topics cover bibliographic research techniques, Internet searching principles, database searching skills, word Processing, Spreadsheets, and information management. Classes are supplemented by several online tutorials. Descriptions of these classes and tutorials are located at http://www.mannlib.cornell.edu/workshops/.
The purpose of our research was to identify the computer skills employers felt were necessary when recruiting recent Cornell graduates. The results of this study were part of a larger evaluation of computing across the curriculum in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. This study was also used as a tool to evaluate our library's instruction program, and provided us with a comparison to a 1990 survey of employers, faculty advisors and graduates in the school of Agricultural Economics.
Research Methodology
Corporations who regularly visit the Cornell campus to recruit graduating students were our focus population. Our questionnaire was designed to gather information on five categories of computer literacy skill: 1)Creating Documents and Multimedia, 2) Working with Computer Programs, 3) Managing Databases, 4) Manipulating Numeric Data, 5) Computer Networks, a five-point scale was used to indicate competency levels. Of the 300 questionnaires mailed, 150 returned with usable responses.
A Review of the Results
Generally employers have a high expectation of computer literacy in recent college graduates (Figure 1). A total of 125 (83.3%) indicated that computer competency skills are either important or  very important in the hiring decision.
Within the Documents and Multimedia section, Word Processing (Figure 2) ranked the highest, with 144 (96%0 of employers expecting at least basic word processing skills. The majority of recruiters (97 or 67%) responded not relevant or none to Desktop Publishing Skills (Figure 3), whereas the re was a clustering of 41 respondents (112 or 75%) wanted at least basic Graphics or Presentation Software Skills (Figure 4). Lastly, the majority of employers did not consider Creating Internet Documents (Figure 5) very important, as 105 (70%) considered this skill not relevant, or would be willing to train.
From the Working With Computer Programs section, employers showed a discrepancy in expecting the ability to install or upgrade software (Figure 6). Whereas, 61 (41%) respondents were seeking basic skills, 46 (31%) respondents indicated that this particular skill was not relevant. Ninety-four (64%) employers were looking for at least basic skills to create or modify programs or macros for individual use (Figure 7). The majority of respondents (67%) indicated that the ability to create commercial software (Figure 8) was not relevant to the job; however, for those who responded favorably, 21 (14%) were expecting either intermediate or advanced skills.
Skills from the Managing Databases section scored slightly lower, with basic database entry and editing skills (Figure 9) coming out highest in this group-122 (83%) respondents expected at least basic skills.
Generally Numeric Data skills (and specifically spreadsheet skills ) scored very highly as a group. Even the ability to perform detailed analysis (Figure 10) was expected by 86% of respondents.
Lastly, employers responded very favorably to Computer Network skills (Figure 11). An overwhelming majority (93%) expected e-mail experience, and 63.3% expected competency with ... more

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