Supply Chain


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Digital firm- organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means.

Business processes- the unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, informations, and knowledge to produce a product or service

Information system- interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization

Data- streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical envionment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use

Input- the capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or from its external environment for processing in an information system

Processing- the conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans

Ouput-the distribution of processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.

Feedback- output that is returened to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input.

Computer based information systems (CBIS)- information systems that rely on computer hardware and software for processing and disseminating information

Formal system- sstem resting on accepted and fixed definitions of data and procedures, operating with predefined rules

Information systems literacy- broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers

Computer literacy- knowledge about information technology, focusing on understanding how computer-based technologies work.

Business functions- specialized tasks performed in a business organization including manufacturing and production, sales and marketing, finance, accounting and human resources

Standard operating procedures- formal rules for accomplishing tasks that have been developed to cope with expected situations

Knowledge workers- People such as engineers or architects who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization

Data workers- People such as secretaries or bookkeepers who process the organizations paperwork

Production or service workers- People who actually produce the products or services of the organization

Senior managers- People occupying the topmost hierarchy in an organization who are responsible for making long range decisions

Middle managers- people in the middle of the organizational hierarchy who are responsible for carrying out the plans and goals of senior management

Operational managers- people who monitor the day-to-day activities of the organization

Network- linking of two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer

Information technology infrastructure- computer hardware, software, data and storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared information technology resoursces for the organization

Management information systems(MIS)- the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management.

Mass customization- the capacity to offer individually tailored products or services on a large scale
Interoganizational systems- information systems that automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers

Electronic market- a marketplace that is created by computer and communication technologies that link many buyers and sellers

Extranet- Private intranet that is accessible to authorized outsiders

Electronis business- the use of internet and other digital technology for organizational communicatin and coordination and the management of the firm

Electronic commerce- the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies

Information architecture- the particular desgn that information technology takes in a specific organization to achieve selected goals or functions.

Chapter 2

Operational level systems- information systems that monitor the elementary activities and transactions of the organizations

Knowledge level systems- information systems that support the monitoring controlling decision making and administrative activities of middle managers

Strategic level systems- information systems that support the long range planning activities of senior management

Transaction processing system (TPS)- computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business they serve the organizations operational level

Knowledge work systems (KWS)- information systems that aid knowledge workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge in the organization

Decision support systems-(DSS)- Info systems at the organizations management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support nonroutine decision making

Executive support systems-EES- info syst at the organizations strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications

Customer relationship management (CRM)- Business and technology discpline to coordinate all of the business processes ... more

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Bay Of Pigs Invasion

The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically, years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power. To understand the origins of the invasion and its ramifications for the future it is first necessary to look at the invasion and its origins.
The Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961, started a few days before on April 15th with the bombing of Cuba by what appeared to be defecting Cuban air force pilots. At 6 a.m. in the morning of that Saturday, three Cuban military bases were bombed by B-26 bombers. The airfields at Camp Libertad, San Antonio de Los Baos, and Antonio Maceo airport at Santiago de Cuba were fired upon. Seven people were killed at Libertad, and forty-seven people were killed at other sites on the island. Two of the B-26s left Cuba and flew to Miami, apparently to defect to the United States. The Cuban Revolutionary Council, the government in exile, in New York City released a statement saying that the bombings in Cuba were . . . carried out by 'Cubans inside Cuba' who were 'in contact with' the top command of the Revolutionary Council . . . . The New York Times reporter covering the story alluded to something being wrong with the whole situation when he wondered how the council knew the pilots were coming if the pilots had only decided to leave Cuba on Thursday after  . . . a suspected betrayal by a fellow pilot had precipitated a plot to strike . . . .. Whatever the case, the planes came down in Miami later that morning, one landed at Key West Naval Air Station at 7:00 a.m. and the other at Miami International Airport at 8:20 a.m. Both planes were badly damaged and their tanks were nearly empty. On the front page of The New York Times the next day, a picture of one of the B-26s was shown along with a picture of one of the pilots cloaked in a baseball hat and hiding behind dark sunglasses, his name was withheld. A sense of conspiracy was even at this early stage beginning to envelop the events of that week. In the early hours of April 17th the assault on the Bay of Pigs began. As in the spirit of a movie, the assault began at 2 a.m. with a team of frogmen going ashore with orders to set up landing lights to indicate to the main assault force the precise location of their objectives, as well as to clear the area of anything that may impede the main landing teams when they arrived. At 2:30 a.m. and at 3:00 a.m. two battalions came ashore at Playa Girn and one battalion at Playa Larga beaches. The troops at Playa Girn had orders to move west, northwest, up the coast and meet with the troops at Playa Larga in the middle of the bay. A small group of men were then to be sent north to the town of Jaguey Grande to secure it as well. When looking at a modern map of Cuba it is obvious that the troops would have problems in the area that was chosen for them to land at. The area around the Bay of Pigs is a swampy marsh land area which would be hard on the troops.
The Cuban forces were quick to react and Castro ordered his T-33 trainer jets, two Sea Furies, and two B-26s into the air to stop the invading forces. Off the coast were the command and control ship and another vessel carrying supplies for the invading forces. The Cuban air force made quick work of the supply ships, sinking the command vessel, the Marsopa, and the supply ship the Houston, blasting them to pieces with five-inch rockets. ... more

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