Free Translation Theory Essays   Free Translation Theory Essays

The Art Of War: Withstanding Time
The Art of War: Withstanding Time History credits the Chinese General Sun Tzu (circa 500 BC) with authoring a series of essays on the subject of war. Considered to be the earliest known treatises on the subject, Sun Tzu discussed military organization, defensive and offensive strategies as well as tactical maneuvering. Of his many essays his best known work, The Art of War, continues to be a reference for modern military strategists. Sun Tzu's longevity is indebted mainly to Father J. J. M. Ami...

Ptolemy
Ptolemy Introduction In ancient times there were many great ideas which began to shape the way man perceived his environment. However, there were few minds who were able to put all of these ideas together. One of these minds belonged to Claudius Ptolemy, or just Ptolemy as he is commonly referred to. We know almost nothing of the chronology of Ptolemy's life, and we don't even know his birth or death dates. We do know, though, about his ideas in several fields, which include geography, astronom...

Title
: Title: The Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Music on Children's Intelligence Introduction: The experiment that I wish to conduct is the effect of prenatal exposure to audio stimulation on a child's overall intelligence. There have been many studies over the past decade about the relationship between music and intelligence. Emily P. Cary (1987) discovered a correlation between gifted students and music. Students who were exposed to classical music at a young age had better coordination skills, me...

LIKE US IN ALL THINGS BUT SIN: An Examination Of The Question Of The I
LIKE US IN ALL THINGS BUT SIN: An examination of the question of the impeccability of Jesus Christ Class: THEOL 510 Liberty University 11 October, 1996 The New Testament authors had no qualms about declaring that Jesus was truly human and telling us that Jesus committed no sin. Bible passages such as 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 4:15, 1 Peter 2:22 and 1 John 3:5 ?witness that He [Jesus] did not give in to temptation, nor violate the moral standards of God, nor was He inconsistent with the nature ...

Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid
Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neandertha...

Data Compression
Data Compression subject = Information Theory title = Data Compression Data Compression- in beginners' terms ?Data Compression' just sounds complicated. Don't be afraid, compression is our good friend for many reasons. It saves hard drive space. It makes data files to handle. It also cuts those immense file download times from the Internet. Wouldn't it be nice if we could compress all files down to just a few bytes? There is a limit to how much you can compress a file. How random the file is, is...

The Symbolism Of Young Goodman Brown
The Symbolism Of Young Goodman Brown ?The Symbolism of Young Goodman Brown? Nathaniel Hawthorne is a nineteenth-century American writer of the Romantic Movement. Hawthorne was born is Salem, Massachusetts, and this is the place he used as the setting for some of his works: such as ?The Scarlett Letter?, ?the Blithedale Romance? and ?Young Goodman Brown?. In writing, Hawthorne was known for his use of allegory and symbolism, which made his stories a joy for everyone to read. Hawthorne was said to...

Catagorical Imperative
Catagorical Imperative ?The only acceptable motive for a moral action is that it should be done as a sense of moral duty.? Is this a justifiable claim? Before it is possible to analyse whether the statement, ?The only acceptable motive for a moral action is that it should be done as a sense of moral duty,? is a justifiable claim we must consider what ones moral duty is and if is it dependant or independent on the consequence of its action? For example we could state ones moral duty is never to l...

Reflexology
Reflexology The origins of Reflexology evidently reach back to ancient Egypt as evidenced by inscriptions found in the physician's tomb at Saqqara in Egypt. The translation of the hieroglyphics are as follows: Don't hurt me. The practitioner's reply:- I shall act so you praise me. We cannot determine the exact relationship between the ancient art as practiced by the early Egyptians and Reflexology as we know it today. Different forms of working the feet to effect health have been used all over t...

Nicholas Coppernicus
Nicholas Coppernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer, best known for the astronomical theory that the sun is stationary and Earth, spinning on it's axis once daily, revolves around the sun annually. He was very intelligent and was educated at various universities. If Copernicus hadn't challenged Pltolmy's theory, it would have affected us in many ways. Space travel, satellites, and weather prediction would not be as advanced. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in Torun...

Taoism
Taoism Philosophy of Mind in China Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Historical Developments: The Classical Period Historical Developments: Han Cosmology Historical Developments: The Buddhist Period Historical Developments: The Neo-Confucian Period Bibliography Introduction: Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western folk psychology in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of...

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is based in the view that the only way to prove you know the mind's causal properties is to build it. In its purest form, AI research seeks to create an automaton possessing human intellectual capabilities and eventually, consciousness. There is no current theory of human consciousness which is widely accepted, yet AI pioneers like Hans Moravec enthusiastically postulate that in the next century, machines will either surpass human intelligence, or ...

Anaximander
Anaximander Anaximander About 530 AD the Neoplatonist Simplicius wrote an extensive commentary on Aristotle's Physics. In it he reproduced the Anaximander fragment, thus preserving it for the western world. He copied it from Theophrastus. From the time Anaximander pronounced his saying--we do not know where or when or to whom--to the moment Simplicius jotted it down in his commentary more than a millennium elapsed. Between the time of Simplicius' jotting and the present moment lies another mille...

Leviathan And Behemot: Dinosaur, Dialect, Or Diety
Leviathan And Behemot: Dinosaur, Dialect, Or Diety The Leviathan and The Behemot: Dinosaur, Dialect, or Diety From the Romans to the Greek to the Kush to the Egyptians, folklore has been handed down from generation to generation. In most cases this folklore transcends any one religion and carries over into the next. Much like the Romans adopting and perverting Greek folklore, so too has most every religion known to exist. Likewise, from most mythology come stories of great, monstrous beasts, lik...

Bio Outline
Bio Outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy - ...

Antisense Theory
Antisense Theory It is estimated that cancer affects three out of four families in the United States alone the disease and its treatments cause substantial mortality and morbidity, prompting intense interest in cancer prevention. Most available treatments for cancers are non-specific; meaning that they target all rapidly growing cells, both normal and cancerous. Consequences of these treatments include side effects towards the normal cells. In addition, cancer is a genetically unstable disease. ...

The Life And Works Of Bertolt Brecht
The Life And Works Of Bertolt Brecht The Life and Works of Bertolt Brecht Bertolt Brecht was one of the chief innovators of modern theatrical techniques. He was both a poet and a playwright all in one. His epic theatrical creations developed drama as a forum for social and idealistic causes. Brecht's imagination, artistic genius, and social views distinguish his work and his life. Eugen Bertolt Brecht was born February 10, 1898 in Augsburg Germany, a town in Bavaria. His family was of middle cla...

The Sin Of Nadab & Abihu
The Sin of Nadab & Abihu Verse: (Lev. 10:1) And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron took either of them his censer, and put fire therin, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not. (King James) The Sin of Nadab & Abihu: An Exegesis There is no clear consensus as to what sin Nadab and Abihu committed as detailed in verse 10:1 of the book Leviticus, in the Hebrew bible. Some commentators like to take into consideration material previously mentione...

The Theory Of Evolution
The Theory of Evolution The theory of evolution, as set forth by Charles Darwin in 1859, stated that all plant and animal life evolved over long periods of time from simple to more complicated forms through mutation and adaptation. He also taught that only the fittest of each species would survive. He further postulated that the first living cell evolved in a warm warm little pond and that it took billions of years for the present diversity of living things to evolve. At the time, it was thoug...

Theology - An Examination Of The Question Of The Impeccability Of Jesu
Theology - An examination of the question of the impeccability of Jesus Christ The New Testament authors had no qualms about declaring that Jesus was truly human and telling us that Jesus committed no sin. Bible passages such as 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 4:15, 1 Peter 2:22 and 1 John 3:5 ?witness that He [Jesus] did not give in to temptation, nor violate the moral standards of God, nor was He inconsistent with the nature of his character.? That is, Jesus was sinless. It is vital to our theolog...

Walt Whitman Biography
Walt Whitman Biography Wonderful Causing Tears The ability to pinpoint the birth or beginning of the poet lifestyle is rare. It is rare for the observer as it is for the writer. The Walt Whitman poem Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking is looked at by most as just that. It is a documentation, of sorts, of his own paradigm shift. The realities of the world have therein matured his conceptual frameworks. In line 147 we read Now in a moment I know what I am for, I awake. This awakening is at th...

Neanderthal Hybrid
Neanderthal Hybrid Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid by Abrigo do Lagar Velho. In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neanderthal typology in post-cranial fe...

John
John Dryden John Dryden was England's most outstanding and controversial writer for the later part of the seventeenth century, dominating the literary world as a skilled and versatile dramatist, a pioneer of literary criticism, and a respected writer of the Restoration period. With Dryden's great literary and critical influence on the English society during the Restoration period he has made a name for himself, which will be studied and honored for years to come. John Dryden was born in Northam...

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is based in the view that the only way to prove you know the mind's causal properties is to build it. In its purest form, AI research seeks to create an automaton possessing human intellectual capabilities and eventually, consciousness. There is no current theory of human consciousness which is widely accepted, yet AI pioneers like Hans Moravec enthusiastically postulate that in the next century, machines will either surpass human intelligence, or ...

Marxist Theory
Marxist Theory Introduction to Marxist theory on history Historical Materialism: the marxist view of history The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed stood in constant opposition to each other, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at la...

John
John Dryden John Dryden was England's most outstanding and controversial writer for the later part of the seventeenth century, dominating the literary world as a skilled and versatile dramatist, a pioneer of literary criticism, and a respected writer of the Restoration period. With Dryden's great literary and critical influence on the English society during the Restoration period he has made a name for himself, which will be studied and honored for years to come. John Dryden was born in Northam...

Young Goodman Brown Symbolism
Young Goodman Brown Symbolism Nathaniel Hawthorne is a nineteenth-century American writer of the Romantic Movement. Hawthorne was born is Salem, Massachusetts, and this is the place he used as the setting for some of his works: such as ?The Scarlett Letter?, ?the Blithedale Romance? and ?Young Goodman Brown?. In writing, Hawthorne was known for his use of allegory and symbolism, which made his stories a joy for everyone to read. Hawthorne was said to be the first American writer who was consciou...

Enlightenment
Enlightenment During the eighteenth century, Europeans experienced the dawning of an age of knowledge, reasoning, and of great scientific achievements. Their views toward new discoveries and advancements were optimistic. People began to turn to science for a better understanding of their world and their society. Literature and essays were commonly used to express their hopes for further developments in society, politics, economy, and education. I. Individuals A. John Locke 1) Essay Concerning H...

Abortion And Thomson
Abortion And Thomson The Judith Thomson article relies on the argument that at the moment of conception, the fetus is a human being. In truth, all aspects on the topic of abortion depend on where to draw the line of where life actually begins. Some argue that it is a human being at the moment of birth because it can survive outside the womb respectively. But Thomson expresses her interest in all the factors and premises that are attached to theory of life at conception. Taking this into conside...

Taoism
Taoism Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western folk psychology in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of language. The core Chinese concept is xin (the heart-mind). As the translation suggests, Chinese folk psychology lacked a contrast between cognitive and affective states ([representative ideas, cognition, reason, beliefs] versus [desires, motives, emotions, feelings]). The xin guides action, but not ...

Anaximander
Anaximander About 530 AD the Neoplatonist Simplicius wrote an extensive commentary on Aristotle's Physics. In it he reproduced the Anaximander fragment, thus preserving it for the western world. He copied it from Theophrastus. From the time Anaximander pronounced his saying--we do not know where or when or to whom--to the moment Simplicius jotted it down in his commentary more than a millennium elapsed. Between the time of Simplicius' jotting and the present moment lies another millennium-and-a...

Newtonian Absolute Space
Newtonian Absolute Space When Newton proposed his axioms describing fundamental laws of physics, he insisted on the necessity of absolute space to a completed theory of mechanics. Absolute space can be best described as not-relationally-dependent space. Newton purports that there is something more to space than just being a vessel to conceptualize positional differences between specific bodies; he claims that there is some objective truth to space -- that spatial differences are not dependent up...

Buddhism And Taoism
Buddhism And Taoism The belief in some higher presence, other than our own, has existed since man can recollect. Religion was established from this belief, and it can survive and flourish because of this belief. In Chinese history, Taoism and Buddhism are two great phiosophical and religious traditions along with Confucianism. Taoism, originated in China around the sixth century B.C.E. and Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era, Together have shaped Chine...

Reincarnation
Reincarnation Do human beings live only once, or are we granted the opportunity to return after death and experience many different lives? The question of reincarnation has been examined for thousands of years and has been embraced in various degrees by numerous religions. Scientists speculate that even the people who lived during the New Stone Age (10,000B.C.E - 5,000B.C.E.) believed that once a person died, their journey had not yet concluded (Christie-Murray p.16). Because ideas about a soci...

Taoism And Buddhism
Taoism And Buddhism Taoism and Buddhism are the two great philosophical and religious traditions that originated in China. Taoism began the sixth century BCE. And Buddhism came to China from India around the second century of the Common Era. These two religions have shaped Chinese life and thought for nearly twenty-five hundred years. One dominant concept in Taoism and Buddhism is the belief in some form of reincarnation. The idea that life does not end when one die is an integral part of these...

Speech Perception
Speech Perception Speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech through listening. Mankind is constantly being bombarded by acoustical energy. The challenge to humanity is to translate this energy into meaningful data. Speech perception is not dependent on the extraction of simple invariant acoustic patterns in the speech waveform. The sounds acoustic pattern is complex and greatly varies. It is dependent upon the preceding and following sounds (Moore, 1997). According to Fant (1973), s...

UFO Kinds
UFO Kinds Ever since US Air Force Pilot Kenneth Arnold coined the term Flying Saucer, on 24th June 1947, after allegedly encountering nine disk shaped objects while out flying over the Cascade Mountains, the world wide sightings of such objects, has increased logarithmically. By 1957 the furor over UFO sightings showed no sign of abating and the sightings had now been awarded levels of classification by US Astronomer, Allen. J. Hynek. Hynek created three categories for UFO encounters: Close enco...

Elizabethan Drama
Elizabethan Drama Beyond New Historicism: Marlowe's unnatural histories and the melancholy properties of the stage Drew Milne The tradition of the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the minds of the living. [1] There is no document of culture which is not at the same time a document of barbarism. And just as such a document is not free from barbarism, barbarism also taints the process of transmission ... [2] Recent critical discussions of Elizabethan drama, above all of Shakespeare, hav...

Copernicus Has Been Named One Of The Most Influential People This Mill
Copernicus has been named one of the most influential people this millennia by Time Magazine; in part for his movements in though during the scientific revolution; creating a basis for modern astronomy and challenging the Church (of the 15th century) to lead the way to a reform in thinking. He did so by disproving (mathematically) a theory of the heavens that had existed for almost 14 centuries, established by a man named Charles Ptolemy in 250 AD. Copernicus revolutionized astronomy by creating...

Hamlet Brutal Truth
Hamlet Brutal Truth Annonymous For decades, Guy Debords The Society of the Spectacle was only available in English in a so-called pirate edition published by Black Red, and its informativeperhaps essentialcritique of modern society languished in the sort of obscurity familiar to political radicals and the avant-garde. Originally published in France in 1967, it rarely receives more than passing mention in some of the fields most heavily influenced by its ideasmedia studies, social theory, eco...

One Of The Greatest International Economic Debates Of All Time Has Bee
One of the greatest international economic debates of all time has been the issue of free trade versus protectionism. Proponents of free trade believe in opening the global market, with as few restrictions on trade as possible. Proponents of protectionism believe in concentrating on the welfare of the domestic economy by limiting the open-market policy of the United States. However, what effects does this policy have for the international market and the other respective countries in this market?...

Newtons Absolute Space1
Newton's Absolute Space1 When Newton proposed his axioms describing fundamental laws of physics, he insisted on the necessity of absolute space to a completed theory of mechanics. Absolute space can be best described as not-relationally-dependent space. Newton purports that there is something more to space than just being a vessel to conceptualize positional differences between specific bodies; he claims that there is some objective truth to space -- that spatial differences are not dependent up...

Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was born in 1473 in Poland to a family of merchants and municipal officals. Copernicus later moved in with his uncle Bishop Lukasz Watzenrode. Nicolaus obtained a better education while living with his uncle. Copernicus entered Jagullonian University in 1491. He studied the liberial arts for four years without recieving a degree. He then went to Italy to study medicine and law. In 1497 Copernicus began to study canon law at the University of Bologna. On 15...

Free Trade Vs. Protectionism
Free Trade Vs. Protectionism One of the greatest international economic debates of all time has been the issue of free trade versus protectionism. Proponents of free trade believe in opening the global market, with as few restrictions on trade as possible. Proponents of protectionism believe in concentrating on the welfare of the domestic economy by limiting the open-market policy of the United States. However, what effects does this policy have for the international market and the other respect...

Socrates In Plato`S The Republic
Socrates In Plato`S The Republic At the end of Book II in Benjamin Jowetts translation of The Republic, Socrates began a detailed description of the construction of a good city. The good city is Platos view of the perfect state and its relation to the human soul, and its four virtues. In the following paper I will discuss Platos views about the various parts, or aspect, of the soul and their proper relation to one another. I will also discuss how Plato would apply his theory of the individual...

Freuds Interpretation Of Dreams
Freud's Interpretation Of Dreams Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams by Jackie Zee Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams was originally published in 1900. The era was one of prudish Victorians. It was also the age of the continued Enlightenment. The New Formula of science, along with the legacy of Comte's Positivism, had a firm hold on the burgeoning discipline of psychology. Freud was groomed as both scientist and Romantic, but his life's work reflected conflict of the two backg...

Catholic Apologetics
Catholic Apologetics The Apocrypha: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees The Protestant argument is that the Catholic Church added the 7 books known as the Apocrypha to the Canon Bible at the Council of Trent in the mid-16th century (after the reformation) to back up things the Church taught Reformation: 1517 Martin Luther Council of Trent: 1545-48, 51-52, 62-63 The truth is that these books were part of the original Canon. They were there in 1442 at the Council of Fl...

Buddhism And Taoism
Buddhism And Taoism The belief in some higher presence, other than our own, has existed since man can recollect. Religion was established from this belief, and it can survive and flourish because of this belief. In Chinese history, Taoism and Buddhism are two great phiosophical and religious traditions along with Confucianism. Taoism, originated in China around the sixth century B.C.E. and Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era, Together have shaped Chines...

Speech Perception
Speech Perception Speech Perception Speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech through listening. Mankind is constantly being bombarded by acoustical energy. The challenge to humanity is to translate this energy into meaningful data. Speech perception is not dependent on the extraction of simple invariant acoustic patterns in the speech waveform. The sounds acoustic pattern is complex and greatly varies. It is dependent upon the preceding and following sounds (Moore, 1997). According...

The Origin Of Life
The Origin Of Life The origin of Life There are many theories where life came from, but none of them is proven to be the right one. The obvious theory that life originated on earth is not accepted by everyone. One reason of disbelief in this theory that life originated on earth is a lack of time. It was an early belief that life originated through a slow and long process (many scientists do not share this belief though), probably too short and too long for the time life had on our planet. Life m...