Social Issues Page 13

Myth Origins The origin of the word myth seems to be a myth in itself. Myths have generally originated from a Greek history that used an oral tradition to explain events that occurred before the written word. Often supernatural beings or fictitious characters were used to explain popular ideas concerning phenomena's of nature or the history of people. The myths that were carried on from generation to generation were often very imaginative in an attempt to spark the interest of young listeners.
Taoism Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western folk psychology in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of language. The core Chinese concept is xin (the heart-mind). As the translation suggests, Chinese folk psychology lacked a contrast between cognitive and affective states ([representative ideas, cognition, reason, beliefs] versus [desires, motives, emotions, feelings]). The xin guides action, but not
Absolutism And Relativism Absolutism and relativism are two extreme ethical approaches to reality. While they are both valid and supported by facts, they are very contrasting in their views. Values are what a person cares about and thinks is worthwhile. For example, values can include life, love, religious faith, freedom, relationships, health, justice, education, family and many other things. Usually these values are what provides the passion in a person's life, and gives them hope and a reaso
Confucianism Confucianism, the philosophical system founded on the teaching of Confucius, who lived from 551 BC to 479 BC, dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of the Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina. The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics. It also blended with popular and important religions and became the vehi
Corporate Elite Elitist theory holds that the majority of political power is held by a relatively small and wealthy group of people, which share similar principles and interests. Most members of this group are born into affluent families. The majority of top leaders in the United States come from this privileged group. The power elite utilizes a variety of resources to dictate public policy. These individuals tend to hold top management positions within big corporations. These corporations are
Ethics Description The resurgence of ethics has been a striking phenomenon in the past decade. Although ethics has always had a role in the healthcare field, only in recent years has it become a subject of intense interest and controversy. In addition to others, this interest has affected a variety of other fields as well, in particular, philosophy, religion, social sciences, and law. Ethics are more than just high quality morals. Using ethical knowledge, attitude, skills, and habits require in
Existentialism Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Jaspers write of many important issues concerning our existence and society in general, but the one that interests me the most is the belief in the ignorance and stupidity of the majority of the human race. We are so narrow-minded, so asleep, so afraid of exploring ourselves and what is beyond this all-encompassing story we have created and in which we live (and ironically hate). These four philosophers all seem to see the big picture. Some
Government Role I. Explain the distinction between substance and process and the importance of the distinction for the issues discussed in this course. Over the past few years...the court...holding that henceforth, before it can be determined that you Are entitled to due process at all, and thus necessarily before it can be decided what process is due, you must show that what you have been deprived of amounts to a liberty interest or perhaps a property interest. (Ely, p.19) Just as a
Kant On Ethics Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) had an interesting ethical system for reasoning. It is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. In Kant's eyes reason is directly correlated with morals and ideals. Actions of any sort, he believed, must be undertaken from a sense of duty dictated by reason, and no action performed for appropriateness or solely in obedience to law or custom can be regarded as moral. A moral act is an act done for the right reasons. Kant wo
Laura Purdy In Laura Purdy's essay Are Pregnant Women Fetal Containers? the issue that is dealt with is the relationship between pregnant women and their unborn fetus. She feels that the woman's rights to her body should outweigh the rights of the fetus. She argues that pregnant woman are treated like second-class citizens in our society and that medical decisions are placed upon them that are not necessary and unjust. Purdy also discusses the role of the fetus, the moral duty of the mother,
Magic Realism Magic Realism appeared as a critical term for the arts and it later extended to literature. The term was first used by the German critic Franz Roh in 1925 to characterize a group of Post-Expressionist painters. Franz Roh described it as a form in which our real world re-emerges before our eyes, bathed in the clarity of a new day. It was later replaced by New Objectivity. Magic Realism survived to define a narrative tendency in Latin America during 1949 to 1970. It can be defin
Mill And Kant's Theories John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved. However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitarians disagreed on this subject. Mill made a distinction between happiness and sheer sensual pleasure. He defines happiness in terms of higher order pleasure (i.e. soc
Morality - Empirical Approach 1. Introduction In this paper I wish to consider the following related questions: (i) Can a system of morality be justified?; (ii) Why should one act morally?; (iii) How can others be persuaded to act morally? Clearly none of these questions is new, and moral philosophers have proposed a variety of responses to them over the centuries without reaching any general agreement. Nevertheless, because these questions are fundamental to any practical application of moral
Philosophy Of Medicine The book, the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is an objective look into the world of two different cultures and their belief systems. The viewpoints of the Hmong and of the American doctors represent Hmong culture and the root of Western medicine. The book takes into account how two cultures, rather, two completely opposite worlds are collided and their impact on each other (Fadiman 1997). The book uncovers the underlying meaning of how different We
Red Cocoon Generally speaking, the purpose of most forms of artistic expression such as literary art, music, or art itself is a mode by which the author can express him/herself with. They use their respective skills and/or interests to convey feelings or thoughts on any given topic. Short fiction is by no means exempt from this. Many writers use their literary skills to express dreams, aspirations, opinions, or even political viewpoints. In order to make a dertermination of a probable origin fo
Sartre`s Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre . . . the name is one of the most popular in modern philosophy. But who was he? What did he write and what were his works about? What was his role with regard to Existentialism? What is Existentialism, really? What life influences affected the person as whom he became famous? How would Sartre assess various social topics that we face today? What are the problems with Sartre's view of Existentialism and existence in general? These are the questions addres
Sartre`s Existentialism The word philosophy comes from Greek and literally means love of wisdom. The Merriam- Webster dictionary defines philosophy as a critical study of fundamental beliefs and the grounds for them. Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. However, existentialism is a philosophical movement of the 19th and 20th century that centers on the analysis of individual existence and the given situation of the
Suicide Living to die, or is it dying to live. Suicide, the intentional act of killing oneself. Britain abolished punishment for attempted suicide in 1961, and by the early 1990's only two US states still listed suicide as a crime (Columbia Encyclopedia). The Japanese have long held to practice called Hara-Kiri, another form of suicide. Most religions look down on this practice because it goes against their core values. As we examine the reasoning behind suicide, can we make a decision of whe
Utopian Society According to the curriculum of our Athens to New York course, we are supposed to study certain themes that are carried through history and literary works of various eras. In addition, there are some recurring themes that also become evident, especially in some of the more recent works that we have studied. Works like Cornel West's Race Matters, Elie Wiesel's Night, and Franz Kafka's The Trial, carry many similar themes, and teach us readers some important lessons about ourselves
Dickinson's Humor While much of Emily Dickinson's poetry has been described as sad or morose, the poetess did use humor and irony in many of her poems. This essay will address the humor and/ or irony found in five of Dickinson's poems: Faith is a Fine Invention, I'm Nobody! Who are you?, Some keep the Sabbath Going to Church and Success Is Counted Sweetest. The attempt will be made to show how Dickinson used humor and / or irony for the dual purposes of comic relief and to stress an idea or c
Love Song Of Prufrock In his poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, Eliot explores the timeless issues of love and self-awareness - popular themes in literature. However, through his use of Prufrock's profound self-consciousness he skews the reader's expectations of a Love Song and takes a serious perspective on the subject of love, which many authors do, but few can create characters as deep and multi-layered as Prufrock; probably the reason that this poem still remains, arguably, Eliot
Robert Browning The creation of a plausible character within literature is one of the most difficult challenges to a writer, and development to a level at which the reader identifies with them can take a long time. However, through the masterful use of poetic devices and language Browning is able to create two living and breathing characters in sixty or less lines. When one examines these works one has to that they are quite the achievements for they not only display the persona's of two distin
Campaign Finance No matter what your social issue, if you want to solve it get the money out of politics. Only then will lawmakers vote for their people rather than their pocketbooks. Jack E. Lohman. Money corrupts politics, and when contributions are being made to candidates it is not in the best interest of the American people. Campaign Finance is out of control in today's political races. Candidates are taking money from wherever and whoever they can get it. Soft money is flowing through e
China And Stability Western attitudes toward China tend to oscillate between two extremes, often with confusing rapidity. Not too long ago China was widely portrayed as an emerging military and economic threat to the West. Its total economic output was projected to surpass that of the United States in two decades. Its military modernization was expected to provide China the capability to project its power far beyond its borders (and the recent Cox report on nuclear espionage has revived those c
Chinese Democracy Movements In 1978, stimulated by the opening of China to the West and also by the reversal of verdicts against the 1976 Tiananmen protesters (These demonstrations against the gang of four had been condemned as counter-revolutionary at the time but were now declared a revolutionary act), thousands of Chinese began to put their thoughts into words, their words onto paper and their paper onto walls to be read by passers by. The most famous focus of these displays became a stret
Clash Of Civilizations The Clash of Civilizations suggests that world politics is entering a new phase. It is his hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in the New World will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. Huntington believes that the great divisions amongst humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be in the cultural form. Nation states will still remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will oc
Communism Downfall The shocking fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe in the late eighties was remarkable for both its rapidity and its scope. The specifics of communism's demise varied among nations, but similarities in both the causes and the effects of these revolutions were quite similar. As well, all of the nations involved shared the common goals of implementing democratic systems of government and moving to market economies. In each of these nations, the communist regimes in po
Communism Communism is a concept or system of society in which the community owns the major resources and means of production rather than by individuals. (Beers 670) Which means if that theory was true, everything should be shared between people. That also suggests that society wouldn't need a government because this society would be without rulers. However, communism also involves the abolition of private property by a revolutionary movement. In the early 19th century the idea of a communist s
Communist China The future of communism in China is unknown, as the world economy becomes more international. Communism has been in China since 1949 and is still present in the country's activities. Presently China is undergoing incredible economic growth and promises to be a dominant power early in the next century. China's social tradition has come under heavy pressure from forces of modernization generated in a large part by the sustained contact with the West that began in the middle of the
Constitutional Interpretation The question of Constitutional interpretation still has yet to be resolved. Should only the explicit commands of our nation's Founding Fathers be referenced in courts of law, or can it be justified that an outside body should extrapolate from the specific text of the Constitution to define and defend additional fundamental rights? Further, if this body, namely the Supreme Court, bases its decisions of constitutional relevance not wholly on exact interpretation, the
Death Of Outrage William J. Bennett, secretary of education and chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities under President Reagan captured the public imagination with the best-selling Book of Virtues, a compendium of other people's writing that had something to teach about morality. In his new book, Bennett advances his own credo of right and wrong, and it is far less compelling. It is a slim book with a correspondingly slim premise: that the American public's failure to be outraged at
Democracy Complete and true democracy is almost impossible to achieve, and has been the primary goal of many nations, beginning from ancient civilizations of Greece and Roman Empire, all the way to the government of the United States today. There are a few essential characteristics which must be present in a political system for it to be even considered democratic. One essential characteristic of a legitimate democracy is that it allows people to freely make choices without government intervent
Drug Testing Drug testing in the United States began with the explosive use of illegal drugs, in order to curb drug abuse. This began during the Vietnam War with drug use at a climax. In general, Drug testing is a way to detect illegal drug use and deter it, usually by Urinalysis. Drug testing in the United States violates a citizen's right to unreasonable search and seizure's along with jeopardizing one's freedom. Drug testing is not only an unreliable invasion of a person's privacy but it ass
Equal Rights Amendment 1. Main Arguments a. Since current sex discrimination laws are not based on constitutional amendments, are poorly enforced and are subject to interpretation. An Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution is the only way to ensure the consistent enforcement of laws protecting the rights of women. b. Since there is no Constitutional protection for women are underpaid in regards to men in similar positions. An Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution would end the underpai
EU And USA What does a coherent and unified European community (now known as the European Union) mean to the United States? Is it a threat, a competitor, or a partner? Or is it the three combined together? I think it is the three combined together. Depending on the situation, whether economically, politically, or military, the European Union has acted as a threat, competitor or a partner to the United States. This could be demonstrated using different economic, political and military examples.
Foreign Affairs In 20th My personal view on this issue is that America should pay equal attention to both domestic and foreign affairs. You cannot just focus on one without the other because they intermingle into the same issue. For instance, America's businesses have branched out all across the world and if those places of business are not ensured safety then both the economy of that particular country as well as our own is affected. Adding onto that, America is not a self-sufficient country.
Geopolitics Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions, and transactions. The term 'Geopolitics' has originally invented, in 1899, by a Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the concept of 'geopolitics'
Globalization Limits Nowadays one of the most commonly used terms is globalization. But what does globalization mean? Does it mean dissappearing borders, a common trade unit, no tax in trade abroad, political awareness across the world, or, in extremes, even interfering with other countries' domestic affairs? In some ways globalization may be useful in creating a common sense of world citizenship, but useful to what extent? What are the possibilities, advantages and risks of such world citiz
Hulliung And Machiavelli Is Hulliung right? Hulliung discusses how people understand Machiavelli and what he thinks of some of Machiavelli's concepts. In the chapter of interpreting Machiavelli, Hulliung argues in the issues of means and ends, idealism Vs realism, political violence and weather Machiavelli is a pagan. His ideas somewhat seem to be convincing. However, the question is, is Hulliung fair in judging Machiavelli? Or is he immoral? Hulliung thinks that there are no differences betw
Isaiah Berlin Isaiah Berlin became one of our century's most important political theorists for liberty and liberalism in an age of totalitarianism. He was born in Riga, Latvia in 1909 into a well to do Jewish family. At the age of 12 he moved to Petrograd and experienced first hand the Bolshevik revolution, which would later influence his intellectual ideas about totalitarianism (Gray 3). In 1921 his family moved to London and sent Isaiah to school. His schooling lead him to Oxford where he too
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly iberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his f
King`s Rebellion ...A little rebellion now and then is a good thing...It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. Thomas Jefferson Thoreau, a transcendentalist from the mid 19th century and Martin Luther King Jr., the Civil Rights movement leader of a century later both believed the necessity of medicine for government. Although they showed disagreement of opinion on issues regarding voting, both writers agreed on the necessity to reform the government and the means of acco
McCain`s Campaign John McCain's campaign for the office of president of the United States has been carefully thought out in order to attract the largest possible amount of voters. As in all campaigns, everything that the candidate has said and done has been screened and planned so as to not offend or scare off any potential voters. Because of the campaign's thoughtfulness and attention to detail, the McCain campaign has been mostly successful up until this point. Until now John McCain and his c
NATO And Cold War The latter half of the twentieth century has been dominated by the Cold War and the actions and events surrounding it. During this period different alliances and treaties were formed and many of these were institutionalized. One such alliance was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This organization was set up by the Northern Atlantic Western Powers to combat the Eastern Soviet threat. Today however NATO still exists and plays an active role in international relatio
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world stage for more than half of the century and the most successful political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of NATO and its members. The following report
Neo-Conservatism There are two inter-related spheres, which this paper will explore. The first one asks what the relative appeal of Neo-conservatism was in Britain and Germany. The second determines the extent to which Neo-conservative policies were successfully implemented in the two respective countries. The perspectives chosen here try to explain Neo-conservatism with theories of social and cultural change to provide examples of its effects. The New Right is conceptualized as populist Neo-co
North Korea The United States has been presented a dilemma towards its foreign policy with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). North Korea's alleged launch of a new Taepo-Dong I missile on August 31, 1998 has heightened American worries and escalated an already tense situation with North Korea. The United States response towards this new missile, which could possibly be able to reach the edges of both Alaska and Hawaii , will be a factor in its decision on whether or not to
Poverty In US Poverty in the United States is getting worse each day and not enough is getting done about it. The readings from Babies and Benefits by Sheila Holbrook-White, the article on poverty by Michael J. Paquette, and Keeping Women And Children Last by Ruth Sidel made me view the issues of poverty in a different way. I never realised what kind of people were living in poverty, and the true reasons why they are there. What amazes me the most is how much these people need help, and how
Religion And Politics The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper, the time periods of study will be broken up into three sections. Each section will give a general description of how religion affected the insti
Russia And CIS When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, due to many pressures both internal and external, the ex-soviet satellites were given their independence, much to Russia's dismay. A new trend towards sovereignty made it difficult for the largest country in the world to deny it's former members the right to separate. However, even with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russia is still heavily involved with the matters of its former soviet members. This then leaves t