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Astronomers
Astronomers Part One Brief Descriptions of the Following Astronomers: Walter Baade : Baade was a German-born American, whose work gave new estimates for the age and size of the universe. During the wartime, blackouts aided his observatons and allowed him to indentify and classify stars in a new and useful way, and led him to increase and improve Hubble's values for the size and age of the universe (to the great relief of geologists.) He also worked on supernovae and radiostars. Milton Humason :...

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919), 26th President Of The United States (
Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919), 26th president of the United States (1901-09), the first president to exploit the public dimensions of his office in an age of mass communications, a reform leader at home and a skilled diplomat abroad. In his lifetime Roosevelt became a personal model, particularly for the country's youth, in a way that no public figure has matched. He was one of the most popular presidents in American history. The son of a wealthy, socially prominent merchant, Roosevelt was bo...

During The 1920s, A Biologist Named Jean Piaget Proposed A Theory Of C
During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget observed that children understand concepts and reason differently at different stages. Piaget stated children's cognitive strategies which are used to solve problems, reflect an interaction BETWEEN THE CHILD'S CURRENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND experience in the world. Research on cognitive development has provid...

DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN MILITARY THINKING HISTORY 421 This research paper will argue that there are four main areas in which Soviet thinking about war, strategy and defense was, and to a large extent is, distinct from Western thinking. Firstly, Soviet and Western thinking were governed by different aims. While the Soviet aim was messianic, the West was content to defend ?national interests.? Secondly, Russian military thinking is more holistic than Western military thinking. T...

Philosophy
Philosophy March 7, 1999 Descartes' Extreme Philosophy The philosopher/scientist/mathematician Rene Descartes lived in a time of sweeping changes across all realms of knowledge. Descartes himself was responsible for many of these changes, one of which was a strong advancement in philosophy. Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy tackle, among many things, two difficult philosophical issues. The method in which these issues are dealt with, however, tends to be on the extreme side, since Desc...

GENTIC ENGINEERING
GENTIC ENGINEERING Abstract This paper sets out to defend human genetic engineering with a new bioethical approach, post-humanism, combined with a radical democratic political framework. Arguments for the restriction of human genetic engineering, and specifically germ-line enhancement, are reviewed. Arguments are divided into those which are fundamental matters of faith, or bio-Luddite arguments, and those which can be addressed through public policy, or gene-angst arguments. The four bio-L...

How Does Descartes Try To Extricate Himself From The Sceptical Doubts
How does Descartes try to extricate himself from the sceptical doubts that he has raised? Does he succeed? [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of 'Pure Enquiry' to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and wh...

The Ending Of The Millennium Could Bring Many Problems To Our Technolo
The ending of the millennium could bring many problems to our technological society ; we have grown to rely on the most basic computer systems to make our lives convenient. In our attempts to streamline programming computer systems, we created a monster by using only the final 2-digits to represent a 4-digit year. Programmers were excited that they could save a couple of bytes of memory by cutting back the dates to 2-digit numbers. With the turning of the odometer, on December 31st, 1999, we po...

As The Twentieth Century Comes To A Close, The World Can Now Look Back
As the twentieth century comes to a close, the world can now look back on a century filled with war, technology, revolution, and growth. When looking back upon the most powerful leaders that shaped past century, it can't be assumed that all of them had good intentions in mind. In fact, it is these leaders, the ones who set forth goals of destruction and massacre, that have affected the past hundred years the most drastically. The two men who fully represented this figure of dictatorship and ext...

Robin Yamaguchi
Robin Yamaguchi Math 13 March 21, 1999 Rene Descartes In the recent hit movie The Net, the character played by Sandra Bullock has her identity erased. Everyone doubted her existence. This was not, however, the first time someone's existence was questioned. In the early 17th century a philosopher, who is named Descartes, questioned his own existence. His life was dedicated to the founding of a philosophical and mathematical system in which all sciences were coherent. Descartes was born in 1596 i...

Saturn Is A Large And Beautiful Planet. It May Be Best Know Known For
Saturn is a large and beautiful planet. It may be best know known for the prominent rings that surround it, which gives the planet its unusual appearance. Saturn is one of the nine planets orbiting in our solar system. It is the sixth planet from the sun in the Milky Way galaxy. The ancient symbol for Saturn is . Astronomers still use this symbol to represent the planet. It was named after the ancient Roman god of planting and harvest. To honor Saturn, every year the ancient Romans held a joy- ...

*****Well When I Wrote Think I Encluded Pictures, Aparently They Do No
*****Well when I wrote think I encluded pictures, aparently they do not cut and paste. Sorry if it makes it hard to read. The Greatness that is Benjamin Franklin ?The First American? A Printer's Epitaph The Body of B. Franklin, Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and amended...

Thomas Jefferson, Third President Of The United States, Was One Of The
Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was one of the most brilliant men in history. His interests were boundless, and his accomplishments were great and varied. He was a philosopher, educator, naturalist, politician, scientist, architect, inventor, pioneer in scientific farming, musician, and writer, and was the foremost spokesmen for democracy in his day. He was born at Shadwell in Goochland County, Virginia on April 13, 1743, to Jane Randolph and Peter Jefferson. Jefferson G...

The Rise Of Communism In Russia Unless We Accept The Claim That Lenin
The Rise of Communism in Russia ?Unless we accept the claim that Lenin?s coup d?tat gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today?s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980?s? (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind ...

Emerson Self-Reliance
Emerson self-Reliance topic: english-Emerson self-Reliance Misunderstood Greatness The quote that most provoked thought and emotion from within me comes from the essay Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. To be great is to be misunderstood was used by Emerson to explain the lagging growth of the conception of ideas and thoughts of his generation. Original and novel ideas were scorned by conservatives who believed the best method for learning was by repetition and memorization of proven ...

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ..................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ............................................... 2 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION .............................. 4 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS ....................... 7 WALLACE'S CONTRIBUTIONS ................................... 13 HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE .................................. 15 COMPARISON: LAMARCK vs. DARWIN ........................... 16 DARWIN'S INFLUENCES ....................................... 20 METHODS OF SCIE...

International Law
International Law International law is the body of legal rules that apply between sovereign states and such other entities as have been granted international personality (status acknowledged by the international community). The rules of international law are of a normative character, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are potentially designed for authoritative interpretation by an international judicial authority and by being capable of enforcement by the application of external sancti...

Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation? Tec
Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Technology has evolved from ideals once seen as unbelievable to common everyday instruments. Computers that used to occupy an entire room are now the size of notebooks. The human race has always pushed for technological advances working at the most efficient level, perhaps, the molecular level. The developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have spawned a new form of technology; Nanotechnology. ...

NAZISM The National Socialist German Workers Party Almost Died One Mo
NAZISM The National Socialist German Workers' Party almost died one morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblers' it had no organization and no political ideas. But many among the middle class admired the Nazis' muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. And the Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotional responses from people who could not forget Germany's prewar imperial grandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnered nearly 6.5 millio...

Religion, The State And Sovereignty The Influence Of Religion On Human
Religion, the State and Sovereignty The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper, the time periods of study will be broken up into three sections. Each section will give a general description of how religion affec...

Virtual Reality - What It Is And How It Works
Virtual Reality - What it is and How it Works Imagine being able to point into the sky and fly. Or perhaps walk through space and connect molecules together. These are some of the dreams that have come with the invention of virtual reality. With the introduction of computers, numerous applications have been enhanced or created. The newest technology that is being tapped is that of artificial reality, or virtual reality (VR). When Morton Heilig first got a patent for his Sensorama Simulator i...

Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid
Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid Implications of Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens Hybrid from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) In a recent excavation at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal, Duarte et al (1999) unearthed what was later to be recognized as early human skeletal remains which pointed to interbreeding between Neanderthal and Modern Humans during the mid - upper Palaeolithic transition. The morphology of the remains, belonging to a child of approximately 3-4 years old, indicates a Neandertha...

Copernicus
Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Physics February 8, 2000 Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Copernicus was born in Poland in 1473, he started his education at Cracow University. There he studied mathematics and optics. From here he went to Italy, where he was appointed as a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg, where he spent a comfortable academic life studding. Copernicus had some small hobbies while at the cathedral, he painted, and frequently translate...

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler ADOLF HITLER Rob Moffitt Mrs. Flinn CP Enlish 10 April 16, 2000 1. Hitler's Early Life 2. Hitler's World War I Service 3. Free Corps 4. Weimar Republic 5. German Worker's Party 6. Munich Putsch 7. Mein Kampf 8. Hitler's Rise to Power 9. Hitler Launches the War 10. Hitler's Last Days The interesting life of Adolf Hitler is not fully known to people. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two ...

The Life And Times Of The Man Who Invented The Telephone
The Life And Times Of The Man Who Invented The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Alexander Graham Bell is remembered today as the inventor of the telephone, but he was also an outstanding teacher of the deaf and a prolific inventor of other devices. Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a family of speech educators. His father, Melville Bell, had invented Visible Speech, a code of symbols for all spoken sounds that was used in teaching deaf people to speak. Aleck Bell studied at Edi...

Charles Darwin And The Development And Impact Of The Theory Of Evoluti
Charles Darwin and the Development and impact of the Theory of Evolution by Natural and Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin's time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution coul...

Aids
Aids Scientists have concluded, based on mathematical research, that the virus that lead to the epidemic of AIDS can be traced all the way back to 1930, somewhere around Central Africa. Bette Korber, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, presented this conclusion at the Conference of Retroviruses. The notion that HIV was introduced in contaminated oral polio vaccines in Africa between the years of 1957 and 1961 has been often debated and challenged. The results presented by Korber...

Hiv
Hiv CURRENT EVENTS: HIV'S ROOTS TRACED TO 1930 Summary Scientists have concluded, based on mathematical research, that the virus that lead to the epidemic of AIDS can be traced all the way back to 1930, somewhere around Central Africa. Bette Korber, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, presented this conclusion at the Conference of Retroviruses. The notion that HIV was introduced in contaminated oral polio vaccines in Africa between the years of 1957 and 1961 has been often debat...

Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation?
Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Technology has evolved from ideals once seen as unbelievable to common everyday instruments. Computers that used to occupy an entire room are now the size of notebooks. The human race has always pushed for technological advances working at the most efficient level, perhaps, the molecular level. The developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have...

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY The definition of superconductivity. Superconductivity is a phenomenon displayed by certain conductors that show no resistance to the flow of electric current. Conductors are materials in which the electron current goes through. There are 4 different kinds of conductors. Insulators, like glass or wood, have a very high resistance while semi-conductors, such as silicon, have a medium resistance. Conductors, like copper and other metals, have very low resistance, and superconduct...

Topic: English-Emerson Self-Reliance
topic: english-Emerson self-Reliance Misunderstood Greatness The quote that most provoked thought and emotion from within me comes from the essay Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. To be great is to be misunderstood was used by Emerson to explain the lagging growth of the conception of ideas and thoughts of his generation. Original and novel ideas were scorned by conservatives who believed the best method for learning was by repetition and memorization of proven classics written by prev...

Romantic Vs. Rationalist
Romantic Vs. Rationalist Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of nothing. The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a mov...

Self Reliance By Emerson
Self Reliance By Emerson Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson The quote that most provoked thought and emotion from within me comes from the essay Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. To be great is to be misunderstood was used by Emerson to explain the lagging growth of the conception of ideas and thoughts of his generation. Original and novel ideas were scorned by conservatives who believed the best method for learning was by repetition and memorization of proven classics written by previous ...

Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei subject = European History title = Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa on the 18th of February in 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family and had gained some distinction as a musician and a mathematician. At an early age, Galileo manifested his ability to learn both mathematical and mechanical types of things, but his parents, wishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantial return, steered him toward some so...

Chinese Book Report
Chinese Book Report China Book Report Book: China Since 1945 Author: Stewart Ross (Note: This book is not described in full depth and detail but is just explained in a very general way, therefore Mahmoud Abdelkader uses The Modernization of China by Gilbert Rozman (Editor) excerpts to support his views) Type of Book: Illustrated Pages: 64 China Book Report The book China Since 1945, written by author Stewart Ross, opens in a description of the Chinese Empire in the 1900's. There it describes the...

Frued As A Prism
Frued As A Prism Social Recognition of the Human Individual ?From the time of puberty onward the human individual must devote himself to the great task of freeing himself from his parents.? -Sigmund Freud (General Intro. to Psychoanalysis) As a child develops from infancy to adulthood, it soaks up its environment and processes it like a biological computer. As it matures, so does the way it copes with the challenges life presents to him. If the child has the opportunity to be well educated, than...

Nineteenth Century America
Nineteenth Century America As urban industrial workers expanded in the 19th century, industry and the industrial work force boomed as well. Workers , however, were met with difficult situations that ultimately led to violent outbursts. Low wages could not buy food and clothes at the same time and conditions in the work place brought about countless deaths and injuries. Growing number of immigrants caused the reduction of wages and insecurity of the workers caused unemployment. There were hostili...

International Law
International Law History International Law International law is the body of legal rules that apply between sovereign states and such other entities as have been granted international personality (status acknowledged by the international community). The rules of international law are of a normative character, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are potentially designed for authoritative interpretation by an international judicial authority and by being capable of enforcement by the appl...

Albert Einstien
Albert Einstien Of all the scientists to emerge from the twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man's work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, ?The greatest single achievement of human thought.? Einstein was ...

History Of Physics
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and ...

Planets And Solar System
Planets And Solar System Planets and Solar System The Planets and the Solar System Planets 2 A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light (Grolier, 1992). The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets which range in size and make-up. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planet...

Aristotle
Aristotle Aristotle, Galileo, and Pasteur can be said to have contributed significantly, each in his own way, to the development of The Scientific Method. Discuss. What is the scientific method? In general, this method has three parts, which we might call (1) gathering evidence, (2) making a hypothesis, and (3) testing the hypothesis. As scientific methodology is practiced, all three parts are used together at all stages, and therefore no theory, however rigorously tested, is ever final, but r...

Heliocentrism: The Vatican Menace
Heliocentrism: The Vatican Menace Heliocentrism: The Vatican Menace The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a center; appearing as if seen from the sun's center.(Webster,447) The heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now known as the Copernican Revolution. Heliocentrism was...

Evironmentalism
Evironmentalism Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon's 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think ab...

Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Future Harmony or Future Harm The world of science has experienced many profound breakthroughs and advances in the twentieth century, but none perhaps as great as that of genetic engineering. However, the twentieth century society is not prepared or even willing at times to accept the moral and ethical controversies genetic engineering is creating. Genetic engineering, defined as ?the use or manipulation of an individuals genetic material in order to produ...

Pre-Darwinism Views
Pre-Darwinism Views Before November 24, 1859, many people simply believed that species were created by God in their present forms, or that it was possible for organic matter to be spawned from inorganic matter. However, Charles Darwin used these ideas to create his thesis, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. The first true theories on evolution arise during the classical Greek period. On a handful of Greek philosophers believed in the theory of evolution and natural selection...

Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality Virtual Reality - What it is and How it Works Imagine being able to point into the sky and fly. Or perhaps walk through space and connect molecules together. These are some of the dreams that have come with the invention of virtual reality. With the introduction of computers, numerous applications have been enhanced or created. The newest technology that is being tapped is that of artificial reality, or virtual reality (VR). When Morton Heilig first got a patent for his Sensorama...

Louis Leakey
Louis Leakey Louis Leakey Discovering the Secrets of Humankind's Past Louis Leakey was born to be an archaeologist, for his childhood in Africa truly prepared him for the field life he would later lead. The son of missionaries Harry and Mary Leakey, Louis grew up in Kenya near Nairobi, among the Kikuyu African tribe who the elder Leakeys were trying to convert. Despite intervening periods in which the Leakeys moved back to England, Louis grew up practically as a Kikuyu tribe member, and at the a...

Mother Of Invention
Mother Of Invention Necessity is the mother of invention? or is it? The real mother of invention is not necessity, but curiosity. From the discovery of electricity, the invention of the light bulb, car, airplane, and air conditioning to Global Positioning Satellite systems curiosity has been the reason behind the invention. One of the greatest discoveries ever was the discovery of electricity. Ben Franklin has been given the most credit for the discovery of electricity. Before the legendary kite...

Critique Of Andrew Abbott
Critique Of Andrew Abbott Part A: Summary Introduction: Andrew Abbott's book, The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour contains a mix of comparative historical analysis and current evaluation, which is assembled within an analytical model that looks at professions from the viewpoint of their jurisdictions, the tasks they do, the expert knowledge needed for those tasks, and how competitive forces internally and externally work to change both the jurisdictions and the t...