Free Scientific Research Methods Essays   Free Scientific Research Methods Essays

Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin In 1859 when Charles Darwin published his book The Origin of Species, it caused much controversy between the scientific and religious worlds. It caused many people to question their belief in the teaching of the Bible. The strongly held belief that the Bible was the literal truth clashed with the Darwin theory. Some people rejected and scorned Darwin while others tried to reevaluate their beliefs. Darwin theorized that species evolved from other species. The belief that God dir...

Astronomers
Astronomers Part One Brief Descriptions of the Following Astronomers: Walter Baade : Baade was a German-born American, whose work gave new estimates for the age and size of the universe. During the wartime, blackouts aided his observatons and allowed him to indentify and classify stars in a new and useful way, and led him to increase and improve Hubble's values for the size and age of the universe (to the great relief of geologists.) He also worked on supernovae and radiostars. Milton Humason :...

Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons A major problem concerning the world today is the disposal of nuclear weapons. With the Cold War, we have seen a massive build up of nuclear weapons, and no, that we are no longer in a state of global warfare, what is to be done with them? As a result of the build-up in nuclear weapons during the cold war the world is now facing major environmental problems trying to deactivate them, and in addition major debate are occurring on the policies of disarmament and deterrence as solu...

During The 1920s, A Biologist Named Jean Piaget Proposed A Theory Of C
During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget observed that children understand concepts and reason differently at different stages. Piaget stated children's cognitive strategies which are used to solve problems, reflect an interaction BETWEEN THE CHILD'S CURRENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND experience in the world. Research on cognitive development has provid...

Even Since A Little Lamb Came Forward Saying That Cloning Of Mammals I
Even since a little lamb came forward saying that cloning of mammals is possible the world has been in a state of bewilderment. This means that if cloning a sheep is possible, how far away are humans? Is there a new generation of Dr. Frankensteins coming? I hope to answer this question, the process of cloning, the positive and negative aspects, ethical aspects, and an authors view of cloning all the way back from the 1940's. The basics however, are the first part. The process of cloning is invo...

DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN MILITARY THINKING HISTORY 421 This research paper will argue that there are four main areas in which Soviet thinking about war, strategy and defense was, and to a large extent is, distinct from Western thinking. Firstly, Soviet and Western thinking were governed by different aims. While the Soviet aim was messianic, the West was content to defend ?national interests.? Secondly, Russian military thinking is more holistic than Western military thinking. T...

Ptolemy
Ptolemy Introduction In ancient times there were many great ideas which began to shape the way man perceived his environment. However, there were few minds who were able to put all of these ideas together. One of these minds belonged to Claudius Ptolemy, or just Ptolemy as he is commonly referred to. We know almost nothing of the chronology of Ptolemy's life, and we don't even know his birth or death dates. We do know, though, about his ideas in several fields, which include geography, astronom...

Dementia What Is Dementia ? Dementia Is An Organic Brain Syndrome Whic
Dementia What is Dementia ? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the m...

The Synthesis And Characterization Of Ferrocene
The Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocene A Modern Iterative Approach to a Classical Organometallic Laboratory Experiment Pamela S. Tanner, Gennady Dantsin, Stephen M. Gross, Alistair J. Lees, Clifford E. Myers, M. Stanley Whittingham and Wayne E. Jones, Jr. [1] State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (Funded by the National Science Foundation) (Submitted to J. Chemical Education) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

Combinatorial Chemistry
Combinatorial Chemistry And New Drugs The body fights disease by generating antibodies that bind to invading organisms. The body can make different antibodies by shuffling and reshuffling their constituent parts, but it can't make a special antibody each time it is faced with a new pathogen. So it uses only the antibodies that will work best and makes more of them. In the past few years, chemists have begun to follow this method to develop new drugs. Instead of looking for signs of a desired ac...

Introduction
Introduction The discipline of archaeology can open up the past to us in a way in which we can enter into a dialogue with our ancestors. There are many ways it can do this: stratigraphic excavation, pottery typology, socio-historic interpretation, etc. However, one thread running through this increasingly focused pursuit is that of dating the physical findings to a particular cultural timeline. This is crucial if we are to know, with as much certainty as is allowed, who we are speaking with. In...

Dementia What Is Dementia ? Dementia Is An Organic Brain Syndrome Whic
Dementia What is Dementia ? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the mo...

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ..................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ............................................... 2 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION .............................. 4 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS ....................... 7 WALLACE'S CONTRIBUTIONS ................................... 13 HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE .................................. 15 COMPARISON: LAMARCK vs. DARWIN ........................... 16 DARWIN'S INFLUENCES ....................................... 20 METHODS OF SCIE...

Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation? Tec
Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Technology has evolved from ideals once seen as unbelievable to common everyday instruments. Computers that used to occupy an entire room are now the size of notebooks. The human race has always pushed for technological advances working at the most efficient level, perhaps, the molecular level. The developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have spawned a new form of technology; Nanotechnology. ...

Virtual Reality - What It Is And How It Works
Virtual Reality - What it is and How it Works Imagine being able to point into the sky and fly. Or perhaps walk through space and connect molecules together. These are some of the dreams that have come with the invention of virtual reality. With the introduction of computers, numerous applications have been enhanced or created. The newest technology that is being tapped is that of artificial reality, or virtual reality (VR). When Morton Heilig first got a patent for his Sensorama Simulator i...

Education And Egalitarianism In America
Education And Egalitarianism In America The American educator Horace Mann once said: As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands. They ...

Animal Cruelty
Animal Cruelty Jeff Albrecht Joseph Aimone Writing and Rhetoric 13 December 2000 Animal Cruelty One of the most touchy aspects of our relationship with animals is the use of animals in laboratory sciences. Some manufactures of cosmetics and household products still conduct painful and useless tests on live animals, even though no law requires them not to. Some people, called anti-vivisectionists, are at one extreme in their concern. They want an abolition of all experiments on live animals. At t...

Genetic Engineering, History And Future
Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply af...

Dementiaa
Dementiaa IntrodWhat is Dementia ?uction Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically...

Abstract On Rose Diseases
abstract on Rose diseases title = abstract on Rose diseases Disease Control Multi-Purpose Fungicide Daconil 2787? Plant Disease Control This product is widely used for broad spectrum disease control on lawns, ornamentals and listed fruits and vegetables. Controls many foliar diseases such as: rust, black spot, leaf spot, blights, anthracnose and powdery mildew as listed on the label. Also controls conifer diseases and lawn diseases such as brown patch, red thread, rust and dollar spot. Can be mi...

Charles Darwin And The Development And Impact Of The Theory Of Evoluti
Charles Darwin and the Development and impact of the Theory of Evolution by Natural and Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin's time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution coul...

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere novelties among business and marketing professionals? Medical facilities, police departments, and manufacturing plants have all been changed by AI but ...

Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n...

Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation?
Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Technology has evolved from ideals once seen as unbelievable to common everyday instruments. Computers that used to occupy an entire room are now the size of notebooks. The human race has always pushed for technological advances working at the most efficient level, perhaps, the molecular level. The developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have...

In Support Of Human Cloning
In Support Of Human Cloning Human cloning is inevitable. As part of the progress of science, human cloning will take place regardless of who opposes it. In this paper I will explain what human cloning is, some of the ethical and moral objections to it, some medical benefits it could serve, what many different religions think of cloning humans, and ultimately why I feel that this would be beneficial to our society. In order to understand the objections and the potential of human cloning, one must...

Egyptian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids The Egyptian pyramids have been the subjects of many outlandish claims and construction theories for centuries. The Great Pyramid for example has been associated with pyramid power, curses, Atlantis, the Bermuda Triangle, Biblical prophecy, Martian faces, advanced civilizations, space aliens, cavity resonators, and even levitation. It is not surprising that some that have proposed such theories have been dubbed pyramidiots. This paper will attempt to give a more logical solutio...

Antilegalization Of Marijuana
Antilegalization Of Marijuana Dear Congressman, I am honored to be writing to you on such a significant topic of national concern. Average citizens are annoyed and just plain fatigued with the drugs and crime problems in America. These upright citizens, that contribute to the growth of American society, are being told that legalization is a reasonable alternative to dealing with these problems in their communities. Legalization of any drug is not a positive way to fight crime. In fact, there is ...

History Of Physics
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and ...

Evolution Of Forensic Psychology (300 Level Undergraduate)
Evolution Of Forensic Psychology (300 Level Undergraduate) The discipline of clinical psychology is evolving. Clinical psychologists are no longer limited to couches and working out of their own offices. They are now being put in the stand in courtrooms all over the world. Not because they are on trial themselves, however. Rather, they are there to share their expertise in areas that involve an individual in legal matters. The field of forensic psychology has grown in the 21st century because co...

Biotech & Food
Biotech & Food INTRODUCTION This paper is about Biotechnology and its use in creating new food products. In researching this paper, I found there is a lot of information on this subject and a lot of debate on the creation of genetically altered food, medicine, crops, and more. I decided to do my paper on the genetically altered food part of the subject. I will discuss what biotechnology is, who is for it and who is against it, and what some of the ethical concerns are when it comes to growing ge...

Cloning: How Far Will It Go?
Cloning: How Far Will It Go? Cloning: How far will it go? Everyday people find themselves at a crossroads that requires a decision as to which path to follow. In the past few years, scientists have gained knowledge about cloning that could impact our lives for centuries to come. As a society we are at a crossroads and we will have to decide how to use this knowledge. Will we choose to increase our power over nature or will we develop a partnership? There are many benefits of cloning, but do they...

Air Quality
Air Quality Air Quality & Dispersion Today, the air quality aspect of ARL research is by far the dominant theme, but distinctions among the themes remain somewhat vague. For example, the models developed for emergency response purposes are among those used for air quality prediction. The Air Quality and Dispersion theme is one of the strongest ties that binds ARL's components together. ARL is not heavily involved in the pure science of the business. Instead, ARL focusses on the need to assemble ...

Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality Virtual Reality - What it is and How it Works Imagine being able to point into the sky and fly. Or perhaps walk through space and connect molecules together. These are some of the dreams that have come with the invention of virtual reality. With the introduction of computers, numerous applications have been enhanced or created. The newest technology that is being tapped is that of artificial reality, or virtual reality (VR). When Morton Heilig first got a patent for his Sensorama...

Louis Leakey
Louis Leakey Louis Leakey Discovering the Secrets of Humankind's Past Louis Leakey was born to be an archaeologist, for his childhood in Africa truly prepared him for the field life he would later lead. The son of missionaries Harry and Mary Leakey, Louis grew up in Kenya near Nairobi, among the Kikuyu African tribe who the elder Leakeys were trying to convert. Despite intervening periods in which the Leakeys moved back to England, Louis grew up practically as a Kikuyu tribe member, and at the a...

How America Should React To Homosexuals
How America Should React To Homosexuals How America should react to homosexuals Many experts agree that homosexuality has existed as long as human beings themselves, although the attitude towards them has undergone dramatic changes in some countries. Accepted by many societies during Greek and Roman era, most of the time homosexuals were considered to be sinners against nature and even criminals. In Medieval and modern periods homosexuals were prosecuted. Enlightenment brought some liberation, s...

Animal Testing
Animal Testing Traditionally, animals have been used to ensure the safety of our consumer products and drugs. Yet around the world, scientists, regulators and animal protectionists work together to develop alternatives to their use. The use of animals in the life sciences dates back to ancient Greece and the earliest medical experiments. To learn about swallowing, physicians cut open into the throat of a living pig. To study the beating heart, they cut open into its chest. For centuries physicia...

I Love This Business, Exults Robert Kaynes Jr., Vice President Of Sale
I love this business, exults Robert Kaynes Jr., vice president of sales (and grandson of the founder) at Bron Shoe, the Columbus, Ohio-based company responsible for putting millions of pairs of bronzed baby shoes on bookshelves in the homes of loving parents across America for the past 75 years. It may sound schmaltzy Kaynes concedes, but it's a schmaltzy business. We're selling sentiment. Still, how do you market a memory? For companies like Hallmark, FTD, Bron Shoe, and others in the se...

My Girlfriend Called Me From Dallas The Other Day. You Have Got To Hea
My girlfriend called me from Dallas the other day. You have got to hear about the dream I had last night, she said. Since this was not a normal reason to call me, I was more than a bit interested to listen to her. The dream went like this, she explained. I came to visit you at college. You showed me around, introduced me to your friends, and showed me a great time. Basically, we never left each others side. I felt so happy. Unfortunately, when I woke up, I realized that it was all a dream,...

Cosmetic Testing On Animals
Cosmetic Testing on Animals Every year, millions of animals suffer and die in painful tests to determine the safety of cosmetics. Subezces such as eye shadow and soap are tested on rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and other animals, despite the fact that the test results don't help prevent or treat human illness or injury. Cosmetics are not required to be tested on animals and since non-animal alternatives exist, it's hard to underezd why some companies still continue to conduct these tests. Co...

Hume
Hume I was from the beginning scandalised, I must own, with this resemblance between the Deity and human creatures. --Philo David Hume wrote much about the subject of religion, much of it negative. In this paper we shall attempt to follow Hume's arguments against Deism as Someone knowable from the wake He allegedly makes as He passes. This kind of Deism he lays to rest. Then, digging deeper, we shall try our hand at a critique of his critique of religion, of resurrecting a natural belief in Go...

Photography Is A Technique Of Producing Permanent Images On Sensitized
Photography is a technique of producing permanent images on sensitized surfaces by means of the photochemical action of light or other forms of radiant energy. In today's society, photography plays important roles as an information medium, as a tool in science and technology, and as an art form, and it is also a popular hobby. It is essential at every level of business and industry, being used in advertising, documentation, photojournalism, and many other ways. Scientific research, ranging from ...

Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model
Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model In this paper, I am going to summarize the Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model (Johnson, 1980, 1990), explain the perspectives for nursing practice, and explore its applicability in nursing practice. First, I am going to talk a little about Dorothy E. Johnson the nurse that wrote the Model. Dorothy E. Johnson was born August 21, 1919, in Savannah, Georgia (Lobo, 1995). She received her A.A. from Armstrong Junior College in Savannah, Georgia, in 1938; her B...

Challenger
Challenger It was a cold, crisp, and damp morning on the Florida Space Coast as the space shuttle Challenger raced through the sky at speeds approaching mach 2 at an altitude of 104,000 feet when something went perilously wrong. All of America watched, including the family members of the seven doomed crew members, as Challenger exploded into an expansive ball of fire, smoke and steam. An Oh. . . no! came as the crew's final utterance from the shuttle as the orbiter broke-up. As the reality of ...

Title Of Paper : Theory Of Evolution
Title of Paper : Theory of Evolution Grade Received on Report : 87 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ............................................... 2 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION .............................. 4 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS ....................... 7 WALLACE'S CONTRIBUTIONS ................................... 13 HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE .................................. 15 COMPARISON: LAMARCK vs. DARWIN ........................... 16 DARWIN'S INF...

The Theory Of Evolution
The Theory of Evolution The theory of evolution, as set forth by Charles Darwin in 1859, stated that all plant and animal life evolved over long periods of time from simple to more complicated forms through mutation and adaptation. He also taught that only the fittest of each species would survive. He further postulated that the first living cell evolved in a warm warm little pond and that it took billions of years for the present diversity of living things to evolve. At the time, it was thoug...

Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons A major problem concerning the world today is the disposal of nuclear weapons. With the Cold War, we have seen a massive build up of nuclear weapons, and no, that we are no longer in a state of global warfare, what is to be done with them? As a result of the build-up in nuclear weapons during the cold war the world is now facing major environmental problems trying to deactivate them, and in addition major debate are occurring on the policies of disarmament and deterrence as solu...

Nazi Research Experiments
Nazi Research Experiments ?In the interest of...saving lives, is it acceptable to make use of data collected through mutilation, torture, and death? (Campbell, 16)? That is the question which has been rearing its head in scientific research since the end of World War II. As man has sought to quench his thirst for knowledge, lines of ethicality have been drawn to preserve the integrity of science, and provide a framework from which man can improve upon the quality of human life. In Nazi concentra...

Dementia
Dementia Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the most significant deme...

Evolution
Evolution INTRODUCTION Theories explaining biological evolution have been bandied about since the ancient Greeks, but it was not until the Enlightment of the 18th century that widespread acceptance and development of this theory emerged. In the mid 19th century english naturalist Charles Darwin - who has been called the father of evolution - conceived of the most comprehensive findings about organic evolution ever1. Today many of his principles still entail modern interpretation of evolution. ...

Fritz Haber - Chemist And Patriot
Fritz Haber - Chemist and Patriot The name Fritz Haber has long been associated with the well-known process of synthesizing ammonia from its elements. While primarily known for developing a process which ultimately relieved the world of dependence on Chilean ammonia, this twentieth century Nobel prize winner was also involved in the varying fortunes of Germany in World War I and in the rise to power of the Nazi regime. Haber was born on December 9, 1868 in Prussia. He was the son of a prosperous...