Free Scientific Research Essays   Free Scientific Research Essays

Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin In 1859 when Charles Darwin published his book The Origin of Species, it caused much controversy between the scientific and religious worlds. It caused many people to question their belief in the teaching of the Bible. The strongly held belief that the Bible was the literal truth clashed with the Darwin theory. Some people rejected and scorned Darwin while others tried to reevaluate their beliefs. Darwin theorized that species evolved from other species. The belief that God dir...

DuPont
DuPont An investment analysis DuPont makes a variety of high-value products for industry today, including polymers, chemicals, fibers, and petroleum products...products for agriculture, electronics, transportation, apparel, food, aerospace, construction, and health care. DuPont serves customers in these and other industries every day, offering better things for better living as the company prepares to begin its third century of scientific, technological, commercial, and social achievement. Du...

Svante August Arrhenius
Svante August Arrhenius Svante August Arrhenius was born at Uppalsa, Sweden, on February 19, 1859 His intelligence and creativity were apperent nt from an early age--he taught himself to read when he was three Although credi ted with many scientific innovations, he remains best known for his ionic theory of solutions, For which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1903 Arrhenius henius died in Stockholm on October 2, 1927 Science is a human endeavor subject to human frailties and gove...

Abortion: Life Or Death, Who Chooses?
Abortion: Life or Death, Who chooses? During the past quarter century, abortion has joined race and war as one of the most debatable subject of controversy in the United States. It discusses human interaction where ethics, emotions and law come together. Abortion poses a moral, social and medical dilemma that faces many individuals to create a emotional and violent atmosphere. There are many points of view toward abortion but the only two fine distinctions are pro-choice and pro-life. A pro...

Astronomers
Astronomers Part One Brief Descriptions of the Following Astronomers: Walter Baade : Baade was a German-born American, whose work gave new estimates for the age and size of the universe. During the wartime, blackouts aided his observatons and allowed him to indentify and classify stars in a new and useful way, and led him to increase and improve Hubble's values for the size and age of the universe (to the great relief of geologists.) He also worked on supernovae and radiostars. Milton Humason :...

Destructive Science
Destructive Science Although science can advance and improve society, science can also destroy the people it was intended to serve. Scientists have long held the belief that sacrifice of a few is justified by the beneficial potential for the masses and therefore have traditionally used animals and even at times humans as the subject of experiments. Society itself has also predominantly accepted the scientist's view, and welcome new experiments, hoping for new scientific advances that will help ...

Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons A major problem concerning the world today is the disposal of nuclear weapons. With the Cold War, we have seen a massive build up of nuclear weapons, and no, that we are no longer in a state of global warfare, what is to be done with them? As a result of the build-up in nuclear weapons during the cold war the world is now facing major environmental problems trying to deactivate them, and in addition major debate are occurring on the policies of disarmament and deterrence as solu...

During The 1920s, A Biologist Named Jean Piaget Proposed A Theory Of C
During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget observed that children understand concepts and reason differently at different stages. Piaget stated children's cognitive strategies which are used to solve problems, reflect an interaction BETWEEN THE CHILD'S CURRENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND experience in the world. Research on cognitive development has provid...

Cloning
Cloning Introduction: Have you ever wandered what it would be like to have a clone, or what it would be like have a twin? Well in a few years you might be able to clone yourself. That's if they legalize it in the US I. What is cloning? Cloning is the scientific process of combining the DNA of one organism with the egg of another. Creating a perfect genetically matched lifeform. In other words getting an egg and fertilizing it. Then putting it back in the a surrogate mother. II. Who cloned Dolly...

Animal Intelligence?
Animal Intelligence? Often those who study animal intelligence are searching for the human reflection in the animal world. They feel that by unraveling the workings of the animal brain, they might find clues to the mysterious minds of humans. And because of their closeness to humankind, they find monkeys and apes especially fascinating. A major component of intelligence lies in flexibility of mind and adaptability to situations. When things change, when they are not the way they were before, th...

Even Since A Little Lamb Came Forward Saying That Cloning Of Mammals I
Even since a little lamb came forward saying that cloning of mammals is possible the world has been in a state of bewilderment. This means that if cloning a sheep is possible, how far away are humans? Is there a new generation of Dr. Frankensteins coming? I hope to answer this question, the process of cloning, the positive and negative aspects, ethical aspects, and an authors view of cloning all the way back from the 1940's. The basics however, are the first part. The process of cloning is invo...

Day3
Day3 I went to the library again today, hoping can find some journal or some reference books on ?Portalsite?. But I knew it is quite difficult to find some materials in this specific field. I would still give a shoot. Half an hour past, yet I still didn't see a word about portalsite in the reference section. The reference books on computer in the library were pretty outdated (no offence^_^), so I was not able to find anything about the newly developed field in Internet. All I could find is some...

Volcanoes
Volcanoes By Tricia Severson 2nd hour Science 4/30/98 A volcano is a vent, or opening, in the surface of the Earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt. The word also refers to the form or structure, usually conical, produced by accumulations of erupted material. Volcanoes occur mainly near plate tectonic boundaries and are especially common around the Pacific basin, called the Pacific Ring of Fire (see Plate Tectonics). ???Humanity has long been awed by this powerful force of...

More Than Hundred Years Passed Since Marie And Pierre Curie Won The No
More than hundred years passed since Marie and Pierre Curie won the Nobel Prize for discovering radioactive elements polonium and radium. The scientific world was excited with the newly discovered force of nature, but they soon realized that that the discovery was not the best for human race. They soon learned that the great discovery was a threat to health. Unfortunately, long time went by until their concerns were taken seriously. Marie Curie denied that radiation was bad for health even thou...

DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN MILITARY THINKING HISTORY 421 This research paper will argue that there are four main areas in which Soviet thinking about war, strategy and defense was, and to a large extent is, distinct from Western thinking. Firstly, Soviet and Western thinking were governed by different aims. While the Soviet aim was messianic, the West was content to defend ?national interests.? Secondly, Russian military thinking is more holistic than Western military thinking. T...

GENTIC ENGINEERING
GENTIC ENGINEERING Abstract This paper sets out to defend human genetic engineering with a new bioethical approach, post-humanism, combined with a radical democratic political framework. Arguments for the restriction of human genetic engineering, and specifically germ-line enhancement, are reviewed. Arguments are divided into those which are fundamental matters of faith, or bio-Luddite arguments, and those which can be addressed through public policy, or gene-angst arguments. The four bio-L...

The Benefits Of Human Cloning
The benefits of human cloning There are many ways in which in which human cloning is expected to benefit mankind. Below is a list of ways that it is expected to help people. This list is far from complete. Human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the Uni...

Ptolemy
Ptolemy Introduction In ancient times there were many great ideas which began to shape the way man perceived his environment. However, there were few minds who were able to put all of these ideas together. One of these minds belonged to Claudius Ptolemy, or just Ptolemy as he is commonly referred to. We know almost nothing of the chronology of Ptolemy's life, and we don't even know his birth or death dates. We do know, though, about his ideas in several fields, which include geography, astronom...

Dementia What Is Dementia ? Dementia Is An Organic Brain Syndrome Whic
Dementia What is Dementia ? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the m...

The Synthesis And Characterization Of Ferrocene
The Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocene A Modern Iterative Approach to a Classical Organometallic Laboratory Experiment Pamela S. Tanner, Gennady Dantsin, Stephen M. Gross, Alistair J. Lees, Clifford E. Myers, M. Stanley Whittingham and Wayne E. Jones, Jr. [1] State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (Funded by the National Science Foundation) (Submitted to J. Chemical Education) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

Combinatorial Chemistry
Combinatorial Chemistry And New Drugs The body fights disease by generating antibodies that bind to invading organisms. The body can make different antibodies by shuffling and reshuffling their constituent parts, but it can't make a special antibody each time it is faced with a new pathogen. So it uses only the antibodies that will work best and makes more of them. In the past few years, chemists have begun to follow this method to develop new drugs. Instead of looking for signs of a desired ac...

THE PROS AND CONS ABOUT LEGALIZING MARIJUANA
THE PROS AND CONS ABOUT LEGALIZING MARIJUANA Mainstream vs. Alternative Media; who do we believe? The Journal of Media Studies Writer Discussion of the legalization of marijuana brings up two main issues, those who are pro- marijuana and those who are anti- marijuana. These issues have been covered by both mainstream and alternative media, mainstream being pro, and alternative being anti. These two factions have been arguing over this issue in the halls of justice for many years. Because most o...

Should Marijuana Be Legalized? In Society Today, Many People Look For
Should Marijuana Be Legalized? In society today, many people look for a feeling of freedom. Many people go on vacation and spend money. The most common gateway for people is drugs. Our American society is facing a tremendous drug problem. In order to eradicate the drug problem, a public debate is going on to find some solutions to this drug dilemma. It has become a highly controversial issue whether drugs such as marijuana should be legalized or not. Some people advocate this issue and believe ...

The Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect occurs when gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and CFCs trap heat in the atmosphere by acting as a pane of glass in a car. ?The glass? lets the sun light in to make heat but when the heat tries to get out the gases absorb the heat. Holding this heat in causes heat waves, droughts and climate changes which could alter our way of living. The main gases that cause the greenhouse effect are water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane...

Gregor Mendel Was An Austrian Monk, Whose Experimental Work Became
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk, whose experimental work became the steeping stones for the field of heredity,today. Mendel was born on July 22, 1822, to a poor family in Heinzendorf (which is now Hyncice, Czech Republic). He entered the Augustinian monastery at Br?nn (which is now Brno, Czech Republic), which was known as a center of learning and scientific research. He later became a teacher at the technical school in Br?nn. There Mendel became interested in investigating variation, heredi...

Introduction
Introduction The discipline of archaeology can open up the past to us in a way in which we can enter into a dialogue with our ancestors. There are many ways it can do this: stratigraphic excavation, pottery typology, socio-historic interpretation, etc. However, one thread running through this increasingly focused pursuit is that of dating the physical findings to a particular cultural timeline. This is crucial if we are to know, with as much certainty as is allowed, who we are speaking with. In...

Why Space?
Why Space? How does space exploration and an organization like NASA (National Aeronautical and Space Administration) benefit the United States? The formation of NASA to monitor and explore space has served the United States by supplying us with advancements in medicine, military defense, consumer products and the citizens of all participating countries a sense of pride in their countries. Space exploration has evolved from being a source of bragging rights during the cold war to a tool to devel...

John Quincy Adams Was Born In 1767 In Braintree (now Quincy), Massachu
John Quincy Adams was born in 1767 in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, and was the second child of two children. He was the sixth president of the United States, and devoted his life to serving the people. Of the 81 years he lived, 50 were spent in public office. His service ended only with his death at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Adam's career of public service was one of the most varied in the colonies. He served as a diplomat, senator, secretary of state, president, and, for t...

Scholarship Essay
Scholarship Essay Did life exist on Mars? What would it take to build a spaceship that could travel at the speed of light? When will the moon be colonized? These are just some of the questions that wander through my mind all day. Fascinated by the secrets of the universe, I yearn to uncover mysteries. In order to blast open all the closed gates between knowledge and myself, I need the powerful tools of education. After I graduate from high school, I plan to attend a college or university t...

Just A Mood . . . Or Real Depression?
Just a Mood . . . or Real Depression? How Do You Really Feel? Check off the ones that fit you. Top of Form 1 You feel sad a lot, and it doesn't go away. You feel guilty; you think that you're no good; you have no confidence. You lose interest in ordinary pleasures like music, sports, friends, or having fun. Most of the time you'd rather be left alone. You feel restless or tired most of the time. You're a nonstop partier, constantly moving around. You get unrealistic ideas about the great things...

AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In An Extensive Article In The Sum
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Na...

The Allegory Of The Cave
The Allegory of the Cave A report I had to do on Plato's Allegory of the Cave. Plato was born 427 B.C. and died 347 B.C. He was a pupil under Socrates. During his studies, Plato wrote the Dialogues, which are a collection of Socrates' teachings. One of the parables included in the Dialogues is The Allegory of the Cave. The Allegory... symbolizes man's struggle to reach understanding and enlightenment. First of all, Plato believed that one can only learn through dialectic reasoning and open-m...

THE IMPORTANCE OF ANIMAL RESEARCH By: Josh Wakefield Wakesjn@auburn.ca
THE IMPORTANCE OF ANIMAL RESEARCH by: Josh Wakefield [email protected] Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treatments for diabetes, diphtheria, and other diseases have been developed with animal testing. Animal research has brought a dr...

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============================================================================== Your Bones in Space ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCE SIG ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Hypogravitational Osteoporosis: A review of literature. By Lambert Titus Parker. May 19 1987. (GEnie Spaceport) Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by an absolute decrease in the amount of bone present to a level below which it is capable of maintaining the structural integrity of the ...

Cannibis Sativa Throughout History Marijuana Has Been Used To Serve Va
Cannibis Sativa Throughout history marijuana has been used to serve various purposes in many different cultures. The purposes have changed over time to fit in with the current lifestyles. This pattern is also true in American history. The use of marijuana has adapted to the social climate of the time. Marijuana, whose scientific name is cannibis sativa, was mentioned in historical manuscripts as early as 2700 B. C. in China. (Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia, 1995). The cultivation of the marijua...

Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool....... For A Fusion Reaction To Take Pla
Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or when the energies of both nuclei are raised by the application of very high temperature. The latter method, referred to the application of thermonuclear fusion, is the source of a lot of really cool ...

Mrs. Brew 13 May 1996 Intelligent Design Of The Universe The Search Fo
Mrs. Brew 13 May 1996 Intelligent Design of the Universe The search for knowledge about the origin of humanity is as old as its inhabitants. Since the early 1800's mankind has narrowed the debate to creation by a Supreme Being and the theory of evolution. Ever since then, science has been at odds against religion. Now it appears that science is returning to religion. Scientists are finding proof that the universe was created by a Supreme Being. The word evolution refers to the change of somethin...

Dementia What Is Dementia ? Dementia Is An Organic Brain Syndrome Whic
Dementia What is Dementia ? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the mo...

Emerson Self-Reliance
Emerson self-Reliance topic: english-Emerson self-Reliance Misunderstood Greatness The quote that most provoked thought and emotion from within me comes from the essay Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. To be great is to be misunderstood was used by Emerson to explain the lagging growth of the conception of ideas and thoughts of his generation. Original and novel ideas were scorned by conservatives who believed the best method for learning was by repetition and memorization of proven ...

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ..................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ............................................... 2 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION .............................. 4 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS ....................... 7 WALLACE'S CONTRIBUTIONS ................................... 13 HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE .................................. 15 COMPARISON: LAMARCK vs. DARWIN ........................... 16 DARWIN'S INFLUENCES ....................................... 20 METHODS OF SCIE...

The Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect occurs when gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and CFCs trap heat in the atmosphere by acting as a pane of glass in a car. ?The glass? lets the sun light in to make heat but when the heat tries to get out the gases absorb the heat. Holding this heat in causes heat waves, droughts and climate changes which could alter our way of living. The main gases that cause the greenhouse effect are water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane...

International Law
International Law International law is the body of legal rules that apply between sovereign states and such other entities as have been granted international personality (status acknowledged by the international community). The rules of international law are of a normative character, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are potentially designed for authoritative interpretation by an international judicial authority and by being capable of enforcement by the application of external sancti...

(Part 1 - The First Ricky White News Story) NOV. 22, 1963: ANOTHER STO
(Part 1 - The first Ricky White News Story) NOV. 22, 1963: ANOTHER STORY BLURS THE FACTS SON OF DALLAS COP SAYS DAD WAS 1 OF 3 WHO SHOT KENNEDY By Andrew Likakis In another bizarre twist to a mystery that has haunted Americans for more than a quarter century, the son of a former Dallas police officer plans to tell the world that his father was one of the assassins of President John F. Kennedy. Ricky White, a 29-year-old, unemployed oil equipment salesman in Midland, says he had no conception of...

Throughout History Marijuana Has Been Used To Serve Various Purposes I
Throughout history marijuana has been used to serve various purposes in many different cultures. The purposes have changed over time to fit in with the current lifestyles. This pattern is also true in American history. The use of marijuana has adapted to the social climate of the time. Marijuana, whose scientific name is cannibis sativa, was mentioned in historical manuscripts as early as 2700 B. C. in China. (Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia, 1995). The cultivation of the marijuana plant began a...

Evolution Of Solar System Theories Of The Origin Of The Moon The Moon
Evolution of solar system Theories of The Origin of the Moon The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth. The distance from Earth is about 384,400km with a diameter of 3476km and a mass of 7.35*1022kg. Through history it has had many names: Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks. And of course, has been known through prehistoric times. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terre...

Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation? Tec
Curtis Shephard Nanotechnology: Immortality or total annihilation? Technology has evolved from ideals once seen as unbelievable to common everyday instruments. Computers that used to occupy an entire room are now the size of notebooks. The human race has always pushed for technological advances working at the most efficient level, perhaps, the molecular level. The developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have spawned a new form of technology; Nanotechnology. ...

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============================================================================== Your Bones in Space ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Hypogravitational Osteoporosis: A review of literature. By Lambert Titus Parker. May 19 1987. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by an absolute decrease in the amount of bone present to a level below which it is capable of maintaining the structural integrity of the skeleton. To state the...

Virtual Reality - What It Is And How It Works
Virtual Reality - What it is and How it Works Imagine being able to point into the sky and fly. Or perhaps walk through space and connect molecules together. These are some of the dreams that have come with the invention of virtual reality. With the introduction of computers, numerous applications have been enhanced or created. The newest technology that is being tapped is that of artificial reality, or virtual reality (VR). When Morton Heilig first got a patent for his Sensorama Simulator i...

THE RESUMPTION OF WHALING BY NORWAY A Paper By Bryan Togias Introducti
THE RESUMPTION OF WHALING BY NORWAY A paper by Bryan Togias Introduction The following paper is about the resumption of whaling by Norway with a focus on the American attitude towards whaling in general. Whaling is a very sensitive issue for many people, including myself. There are many people who feel that whales are highly intelligent mammals, akin to humanity in many ways. They cite the fact that whales mate for life, the size of the average whales brain, and the proof that whales communicat...

Education And Egalitarianism In America
Education And Egalitarianism In America The American educator Horace Mann once said: As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated. Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands. They ...