Psychology Page 7

Counseling And Psychotherapy Counseling v. psychotherapy is there a difference between the two? This paper will attempt to prove that there are several differences between counseling and psychotherapy. While counseling and psychotherapy have several different elements in each, the following information will also attempt to show the reader that there are some areas where the two overlap. At times this was a confusing topic to research. A fine line distinguishes the two topics and one must look h
Creativity Study Creativity is one of the most difficult mental functions to study. While a concrete definition remains illusive, it has been established as a multifaceted phenomenon (Kitto, Lok & Rudowicz, 1994). One facet that is an important component of creative potential is divergent thinking (Vosburg, 1998), this is the ability to generate several alternative solutions to a problem. The mental processing involved occurs in such a way as to activate as many mental representations as possib
Cult`s Activities Cult activity has been on the rise over the past few decades. With it there has been an increase in the fear surrounding it. From this fear, society has learned much about cults, how they get members and what to look out for as far as cult recruiters go. Society as a whole has also learned what can be done to deal with cults. Cult activity and the fear that surrounds it Throughout the last couple of decades more and more stories of illegal cult activity or murders by satanic c
Depression And Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of our population and many aspects of an individual's mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pietromonaco, and Kenneth Jaffe. This s
Depression Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tends to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves. Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide. Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in youths aged 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1995). Despite this increased suicide rate, depression in this age group is greatly underdiagnosed a
Development Of Children Infants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life. Their development is not only physical, it is also mental, emotionally, and social. These developments are the blue prints for further development in life. During development, there are three basic developmental laws. The first one is the baby's development in the head region, followed by the upper body, followed by the trunk portion, and lastly the legs and feet. For example, a baby can hol
Deviant Behavior A person would be considered to be acting defiantly in society if they are violating what the significant social norm in that particular culture is. What causes humans to act certain ways is a disputed topic among researchers for some time now. There are three types of researchers that have tried to answer this question. There is the psychological answer, biological answer, and the sociological answer. With all of the studies that have been performed, no one group has come up w
Dostoevsky Thesis: Dostoevsky's manic and depressive episodes aided in his ability to properly illustrate the workings of the human mind, through his writing. Outline: I. Introduction II. What is Manic Depression and Depression? III. Other Writers with Mental Illnesses IV. Dostoevsky's Life V. Analysis of "Notes" VI. Conclusion Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, author of several acclaimed books-including "Notes From Underground"-a semi-autobiographical story, introduced a new form of writing, "st
Dream Interpretation When we sleep we do much more than just "rest our weary bones"; we tap into our subconscious mind (Ullman and Zimmerman 1979). The subconscious has much to offer about oneself. The average human being spends one third of their life in sleep and during each sleep approximently two hours is spent dreaming (Ullman and Zimmerman 1979). These dreams are important because they are the voice of our subconscious. Dreams and theories on dreams go as far back as 2000 BC in Egypt. One
Dreams For my independent study topic I researched dreams. There are many different approaches philosophers have taken to explain dreams and what they mean. I will go through a couple of them. Many of you may be asking yourself "why do I dream?", there are several answers to that question. The first in the physiological set. We dream in order to exercise our brains. When you're awake, messages are constantly speeding among all your billions of brain cells to keep you moving and thinking and dig
Dyslexia Whether we graduate from highschool or college we all hope to find a challenging career that will propel us forward in today`s society. For those suffering from dyslexia this only adds to the frustration and fears associated with seeking employment. Many adults with dyslexia or other forms of learning disabilities never disclose their disability in interviews or once employed for fear of being discriminated against. Several investigators have noted, however, that many persons with lear
Eating Disorders Colleges and universities around the country are reporting an increased prevalence of eating problems among young female students. Difficulties include obsession with food, starvation dieting, severe weight loss, obesity, and compulsive binge eating, often followed by self-induced vomiting (Hesse-Biber, 1989, p. 71). What are the reasons for eating disorders among college-aged women? It is the purpose of this paper to discuss this question and give an overview of several possib
EGO And Personality The ego, a word that is arbitrarily used by mean, has a quite distinct and significant meaning. Ego development is an aspect of psychology that has been discussed by a number of authors and psychologist. Many different authors have concluded a variety of theories behind the ego and its many stages and its effects upon one's personality. According to Zimbardo (1992) Freud's theory showed that personality differences arise from the different ways in which people deal with thei
Ellis And Glasser Albert Ellis and William Glasser have been in the mainstream of psychological society for over four decades. Both have contributed greatly to modern psychotherapy. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) of Albert Ellis and the Reality therapy of William Glasser have endured the trendy world of psychology and in fact as they are based in ancient philosophy (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius), they also remain the foundation for brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and ecc
Euthanasia There are numerous controversial issues that currently affect the evolving field of psychology. Unsolved issues on human experimentation, abortion, genetic testing, animal rights are a few examples of themes that arouse conflict and contention. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted suicide is yet another controversial issue that has particular relevance to the field of psychology because of the apparent moral and ethical dilemmas involved. Euthanasia, by definition "a happy death," impli
Flashbulb Memories About one year ago I remember hearing about some very awful news. My grandmother had died suddenly. In my mind it was impossible that this could happen. No one who was close to me had ever died before. It was even harder to believe because my grandmother had been much more healthy than her husband. She still worked as a babysitter during the days, and that is where she died. She was taking care of a four year old child and had a stroke while sitting in a chair. The little boy
Freud On Development Freud really did make some major contributions to the field of psychology. He was the first one to suggest that psychological problems might have their roots in how children were treated. Freud believed that most of our personality is formed by early childhood, much of it so early that we don't even have conscious memories. For example, people who were toilet-trained strictly and at an early age grow up to be intolerant of mess, disorder and anything that doesn't go by the
Freud Sigmund Freud was the first of six children to be born into his middle class, Jewish family. His father was a wool merchant, and was the provider for the family. From the time Freud was a child, he pondered theories in math, science, and philosophy, but in his teens, he took a deep interest in what he later called psychoanalysis. He wanted to discover how a person's mind works, so he began to explore the conscious and unconscious parts of one's psyche. Freud's parents and siblings were di
Head Start The highest rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are found in low-income welfare families. The Head Start program is for the"continued enhancement of services for poor children ages zero to five, and their families." The parents of the children in the Head Start program are rarely examined. Head Start instead focuses on the academic performance of the involved children. The article, "Preventing Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: Strengthening P
Herman Ebbinghaus During the late 1800's a new science was emerging in Europe. Psychology's roots can be traced back to Germany and a man by the name of William Wunt. Following Wunt other psychologists began emerging in different fields. Of these pioneers Herman Ebbinghaus was one, and his field of study was memory. He performed the first experiments in 1885 in Germany and the following is a background on the man and his field. Herman Ebbinghaus was born in 1850 in Germany and died there in 190
Hierarchy Of Needs The hierarchy of needs and the hygiene theory are alike but are also different. I shall go through each one of these theories and inform the reader of these differences and similarities. Each one in its own right is correct but now that we near the millenium, we should rethink or atleast re-read these theories and see if they are, in fact, still alive today. Abraham Maslow is known for establishing the theory of a hierarchy of needs, writing that human beings are motivated by
Intellectual Development Of Children In two separate issues of "Time" magazine, the intellectual development of infants and preschoolers was analyzed with contrasting viewpoints regarding the development of their brains and the views regarding how best to encourage the cognitive abilities of these young children. In the earlier issue, dated February 3, 1997, the special report consisting of two articles titled "Fertile Minds" and "The Day-Care Dilemma" the theories of Jean Piaget's cognitive-de
Intelligence Testing In reviewing the text, I found the definition of intelligence testing to be very simple; testing used to measure intelligence. Two definitions found on an Internet site at are: (a) A standardized test used to establish an intelligence level rating by measuring a subject's ability to form concepts, solve problems, acquire information, reason, and perform other intellectual operations. (b) A psychometric test of intelligence; "they used to think that intelligenc
IQ Tests And Intelligence The task of trying to quantify a person's intelligence has been a goal of psychologists since before the beginning of this century. The Binet-Simon scales were first proposed in 1905 in Paris, France and various sorts of tests have been evolving ever since. One of the important questions that always comes up regarding these tools is what are the tests really measuring? Are they measuring a person's intelligence? Their ability to perform well on standardized tests? Or j
Jealousy In Gender The Influence of Jealousy in Men and Women in response to Infidelity Jealousy can be defined as ' a fear and rage reaction fitted to protect, maintain, and prolong the intimate association of love' (Davis 1948, cited in Buunk et al 1996) Sexual jealousy has frequently been observed as a powerfully strong emotion, however, research on this topic has been limited as most emotion researchers consider jealousy as a combination of the more basic, central primary emotions. Evolutio
Jean Piaget This paper revolves around developmental psychologist Jean Piaget and his work. While swaying from the personal to the professional sides of the Swiss psychologist, the research touches on key influences that inspired young Piaget to become such a driven and well respected psychologist. However, the most extensive part of this paper is the explanation of his cognitive development theory and how it evolved. The three main pieces to Piaget`s puzzle of cognitive development that are di
Memory Improvement Memory is defined as the accuracy and ease with which a person can retain and recall past experiences (Webster`s Dictionary, pg. 611). It is often thought of as a capacity, such as a cup, that could be full or empty. A more common comparison is one to a computer. Some minds, like computers, can have more software, being able to save and recall more experiences, information, and memories than others can. And like a computer, minds can be upgraded. This is not done with a simpl
Memory Study The study of human memory and in particular the attempts to distinguish between different types of memory have benn investigated for the last century. Philosophy, psychiatry and psychologh have all contributed to this study. Korsakoff, Freud and Ebbinghaus are among the early contributers. Although their observations were not always methodological as strict as with current research they did play a vital role. One critisim of the early work was that there were few attempts to develo
Modern Psychology Everyday, this chant is heard by millions of people watching the now infamous "talk show", Jerry Springer. Even though just a few years ago, most people regarded these shows as ridiculous, now this chant is recognized and adored by many people in society. The most parsimonious explanation for this is that the shows now have more interesting and captivating topics. The premise of most episodes of these shows has changed greatly over the past few years; The topics have moved awa
Mozart Effect Although it is only in recent times that scientists have started to document the effects of music, the qualities of music were understood even in earliest times. Evidence suggests that dance and song preceded speech, which means that music is the original language of humans. Researcher's have found that about two-thirds of the inner ear's cilia resonate only at the higher frequencies that are commonly found in music (3,000 - 20,000 Hz). This seems to indicate that primitive humans
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator One of the most enduring typological classifications was devised by Jung and has served as the foundation for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Anastasi, 1997). The Myers-Briggs (MBTI) designates one's personality type, based upon a classification scheme, which consists of four basic scales and two types within each scale. Thus, there are sixteen possible Myers-Briggs personality types. The scheme is based upon the intuitions of Carl Jung, whose gifted insight reveale
Narcissism The so-called narcissistic personality disorder is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize him or her. The narcissist conjures in us images of the mythological character Narcissus who
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Are you the type of person who has a phobia of germs, dirt, or contaminated bodily fluids? Is the only way to feel safe and pure is for you to cleanse yourself countless times a day? Or maybe you`re the type of person who has to check things twice, three times or more. Perhaps you`re the type of person who has to do everything twice, or by a fixed number. Maybe you are the type of person who must have everything neatly placed, and if misplaced at all you throw a ta
Pain Theories Pain has been experienced by everyone regardless of age, gender or economic status. Pain is usually described as unfavorable experience that has a lasting emotional and disabling influence on the individual. Theories that explain and assist in understanding what pain is, how it originates and why we feel it are the Specificity theory, Pattern Theory and Gate theory. In this paper I will attempt to demonstrate my understanding of the theories and also will be critically analyzing t
Parapsychology In the past centuries people have been becoming more and more curious about the unexplainable things all around them. They are always asking why does this happen? and is that really true? Not until recently have scientists and others actually tried to find out for themselves. Many of their searches evolved around the paranormal. Soon they called their search parapsychology Parapsychology can be defined as the study of apparent new means of communication, or exchange of influence
Personality Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Ego, Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic and Interactionist. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, what interests me the most in this subject is behaviorism. For me different types of behaviors are amazing to learn about, mainly the behavior therapy, collective behavior, crime
Phrenology Phrenology is basically the study of personality through the study of the shape of the skull. The basis of this theory is that the brain conforms to the shape of the head and its contours. This pseudoscience says that because we have isolated where different parts of personality come from we can tell how dominant this trait would be in a person`s life by the size of the piece of the brain. We have since proven that this theory is not true. Franz Joseph Gall is considered to be the fo
Piaget And Vygotsky Everyday life is characterized by conscious purpose. From reaching for food to designing an experiment, our actions are directed at goals. This purpose reveals itself partly in our conscious awareness and partly in the organization of our thoughts and actions. Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. Much past and present theory has emphasized the parallels between the articulated prepositional structure
Piaget Freud And Erikson The field of psychology has grown to be respected as a science. Objectivity and the scientific method are both part of the psychologist's mode of operation. However, even the greatest of psychologists can only theorize about what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes are not part of psychology. Everything is relative and open to speculation. Theorists give us their views or ideas about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many different areas of
Piaget Stage Theory The project is based on Piaget`s stage theory of cognitive development Prediction Based on Piaget`s theory, children during the pre - operational stage have acquired the ability to stand apart and view themselves from another person`s perspective. They are able to describe themselves as different from other children by listing their unique characteristics, especially the fact that their names are different. They develop a more complex understanding of themselves, such as age
Predicting School Violence This is an overview of the types of constructs which one might look at to determine if a student is in a high risk category for acting out in a violent manner, and the types of tests which would measure those constructs. We will look at some of these predictors, the constructs they attempt to measure, and how this might aid in predicting future behavior. There have been a lot of studies, interventions, programs, and models designed to reduce or predict violence among
Prozac At first it was the cure all people were looking for. Then it became the drug they were afraid to take. Somewhere between these two extremes lies the truth about the drug Flouxetine, better known as Prozac, the most widely prescribed drug on the globe. It is mainly prescribed to patients suffering from clinical depression. It was first brought to the market in 1988 by the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly co. Even though it was originally prescribed for depression, it has been prescribed fo
Psychological Experiments Why do psychologists do experiments? Psychology is very hard to define due to it's very nature and the wide range of topics that it covers. No two books will give exactly the same definition of 'psychology' or what subject matter it covers. However most definitions would suggest psychology to be the 'scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.' An astonishing variety of topics is covered under this definition for example topics can range from 'obesity' to'livin
Psychology And Fairy Tale Many parents read fairy tales to their children. Young people are able to use their imaginations while listening to these fantastical stories. Filled with dragons, witches, damsels in distress, and heroes, these tales stay in the mind children for years to come. However, these young listeners are getting much more than a happy ending. Fairy tales such as The Goose Girl, The Three Little Pigs, Cinderella, and Snow White one can find theories of psychology. Erik Erikson`
Psychology And Society Psychology is the scientific study of human and animal behavior. It is made of theories and tries to prove why we behave the way we do, our mental processes, our emotions, and our actions. In this writing assignment I will discuss why some people choose to behave so outrageous that we see it as abnormal self-destructive behavior and why others try to fit in this society and follow the rules. In the United States there`s people from all over the world from different cultur
Psychology Development Psychology as a science has developed over a long period of time, literally centuries. During this period of time, man individuals have had an impact on the development of Psychology as a science. Select three individuals, describe in detail the contributions of the individuals, and discuss the significance of the person to the development of Psychology as a science. In this paper I am going to talk about three different individuals, and describe their contributions to Ps
Psychophysics An Approximate psychological law relating the degree of response or sensation of a sense organ and the intensity of the stimulus. The law asserts that equal increments of sensation are associated with equal increments of the logarithm of the stimulus, or that the just noticeable difference in any sensation results from a change in the stimulus, which bears a constant ratio to the value of the stimulus. Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878) Weber was the first German anatomist and physi
Reaction Measurement The reaction time of ten subjects was measured. The subjects were asked to catch a ruler ten times under five different conditions. The first condition measured the subject's simple reaction time. Each further condition added an additional stimulus and the reaction times were measured. There was a clear increase in reaction time with the addition of further stimulus, however the expected result of a steady increase in response time with the addition of each condition did no
Safe Sex Many theories and much research has been conducted on contraception in general, and more recently on condoms in particular, as a result of the AIDS epidemic (Lear, 1995). Condom usage and AIDS education are essential tools for reducing the impact of the disease, yet fewer than one third of sexually active college students report consistent condom use (Seal & Palmer-Seal, 1996). It seems that sexually active individuals rarely discuss safer sex or ask about their partner`s sexual activit
Schizoid Personality Schizophrenia is a mental disease that effects over 1 percent of the population. It can occur at any age but most commonly happens between 16-30. It leaves the patient confused in a chaotic state of mind with multiple debilitating mental confusion. The first of them being delusions, the patient is convinced that people around them can read their minds, and that they can read other peoples (British Journal of Psychology, 625). The patient then begins to believe that the peop