Neutrons

The Universe
The Universe
The Universe It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big
The Universe
The Universe
The Universe It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big
Through The Centuries, Man Has Tried Many Attempts In Inventing A Mass
Through The Centuries, Man Has Tried Many Attempts In Inventing A Mass
Through the centuries, man has tried many attempts in inventing a mass killing mechanism. Alas, in 1945, such a mechanism was created. The atomic bomb was created after many years of the study of atoms. Finally, a way to split the atoms was born. Germany was the first to try, using uranium-235 to make a bomb. They discovered nuclear fission in late 1938. Efforts failed, but were picked up by the United States. Albert Einstein, although credited as the father of the atomic bomb, only lent suppor
The Night Sky
The Night Sky
The Night Sky Long ago, people looked into the night sky and wondered what they were looking at? How far away are those twinkles in the sky? Could they all be stars, or maybe, could they be something else? What makes certain lights brighter than others, and how does distance affect their intensity? These questions and other interesting facts will be reviewed in the following pages. One of the most common curiosities regarding the night sky is distance, which can be very hard to determine. Becau
HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN Hydrogen, symbol H, is reactive, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gaseous element. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The element is usually classed in group 1 of the periodic table. Hydrogen was confused with other gases until the a British chemist demonstrated in 1766 that it was evolved by the action of sulfuric acid on metals and also showed at a later date that it was an independent substance that combined with oxygen to form water. The British chemist Joseph Priestley named th
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. He was educated at the University of New Zealand and the University of Cambridge. He was a professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec from 1989 to 1907. He was also professor at the University of Manchester in England. After 1919 he was professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Lab at the University of Cambridge moreover held a professorship, after 1920, at the Royal Instit
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, explosive devices, designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb), which was tested on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosive. All explosives prior to that time derived their power from the rapid burning or decomposition of some chemical compound. Such chemical processes release only the energy of the outermost electrons in the atom. See
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction The discipline of archaeology can open up the past to us in a way in which we can enter into a dialogue with our ancestors. There are many ways it can do this: stratigraphic excavation, pottery typology, socio-historic interpretation, etc. However, one thread running through this increasingly focused pursuit is that of dating the physical findings to a particular cultural timeline. This is crucial if we are to know, with as much certainty as is allowed, who we are speaking with. In
Just Before The Beginning Of World War II, Albert Einstein Wrote A Let
Just Before The Beginning Of World War II, Albert Einstein Wrote A Let
Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bomb before th
Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary Matter Has Negatively Charged Electr
Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary Matter Has Negatively Charged Electr
Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen. The Research Early scientists often made
It Is Always A Mystery About How The Universe Began, Whether If And Wh
It Is Always A Mystery About How The Universe Began, Whether If And Wh
It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang. Before
Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool....... For A Fusion Reaction To Take Pla
Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool....... For A Fusion Reaction To Take Pla
Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or when the energies of both nuclei are raised by the application of very high temperature. The latter method, referred to the application of thermonuclear fusion, is the source of a lot of really cool
Solar Cells Today Are Mostly Made Of Silicon, One Of The Most Common E
Solar Cells Today Are Mostly Made Of Silicon, One Of The Most Common E
Solar cells today are mostly made of silicon, one of the most common elements on Earth. The crystalline silicon solar cell was one of the first types to be developed and it is still the most common type in use today. They do not pollute the atmosphere and they leave behind no harmful waste products. Photovoltaic cells work effectively even in cloudy weather and unlike solar heaters, are more efficient at low temperatures. They do their job silently and there are no moving parts to wear out. It
Universe
Universe
Universe Not so much a theory of the universe as a simple picture of the planet we call home, the flat-earth model proposed that Earth's surface was level. Although everyday experience makes this seem a reasonable assumption, direct observation of nature shows the real world isn't that simple. For instance, when a sailing ship heads into port, the first part that becomes visible is the crow's-nest, followed by the sails, and then the bow of the ship. If the Earth were flat, the entire ship would
Black Holes
Black Holes
Black Holes stence. The Search for Black Holes: Both As A Concept And An Understanding For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at
Fusion
Fusion
Fusion Fusion reactions are inhibited by the electrical repulsive force that acts between two positively charged nuclei. For fusion to occur, the two nuclei must approach each other at high speed to overcome the electrical repulsion and attain a sufficiently small separation (less than one-trillionth of a centimeter) that the short-range strong nuclear force dominates. For the production of useful amounts of energy, a large number of nuclei must under go fusion: that is to say, a gas of fusing n
Solar Energy
Solar Energy
Solar Energy Tran 1 Solar Energy About 47 percent of the energy that the sun releases to the earth actually reaches the ground. About a third is reflected directly back into space by the atmosphere. The time in which solar energy is available, is also the time we least need it least - daytime. Because the sun's energy cannot be stored for use another time, we need to convert the suns energy into an energy that can be stored. One possible method of storing solar energy is by heating water that ca
Unification Theory
Unification Theory
Unification Theory Unification Theory In particle physics, an attempt to explain all of the fundamental forces and their relationships between elementary particles in single framework was accomplished in theory by the g.u.t. by the grand unification theory. In relation to physics these forces can be described as fields that mediate interactions between separate or distant objects. These theories such as eltromagnetism and general relativity started to attempt the unification of theories, however
Calcium
Calcium
Calcium Calcium Element symbol...CA Atomic weight...40.08 Element number...20 Number of protons...20 Number of electrons...20 Number of neutrons...20 Density at...68? F Boiling point...2,264?F Melting point...1,562?F Calcium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davis in 1808. Calcium is a mineral found in abundance in the Earth's outer crust. It is the fifth most abundant mineral in the Earth crust. Calcium is considered a major mineral because it is found in large quantity in the body. Milk also has
Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi ?Enrico Fermi was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, known for achieving the first controlled nuclear reaction (Encarta 98).? Enrico was born on Sep. 29, 1901 in Rome, Italy. Formally educated at the University of Pisa, Enrico was also a student of many leading theoretical physics centers. He soon became a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Rome. There he developed many new ways of explaining the behavior of electrons (Encarta 98). Some
Nucleosynthesis
Nucleosynthesis
Nucleosynthesis The big bang which created the universe, only created the elements Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He) and possibly a very small amount of Lithium (Li). However, a glance at the periodic table of the elements shows that today (some 15 billion years after the big bang) there are at least 108 known elements. Every atom of every element heavier than Li has been produced since the big bang! The factories which make these elements are stars. Nucleosynthesis or the synthesis of nuclei, is the
Sources Of Energy
Sources Of Energy
Sources Of Energy Sources of Energy Have you ever thought about how we get the energy to run the things we take for granite every single day. There are many sources of energy that that are used for transportation, heat, light, and the manufacturing of goods of all kinds. The development of science and civilization is closely linked to the availability of energy in useful forms. The seven main energy sources are fossil fuels, hydroelectric, solar power, win power, geothermal, nuclear power, and b
The Big Bang
The Big Bang
The Big Bang It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big
Big Bang Theory
Big Bang Theory
Big Bang Theory Informative Essay 4-22-00 Freshman English 1 Big bang theory It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two such models: the Big Bang theory and the Steady State model. Because of many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory best explains the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago,
Plutonium Bomb
Plutonium Bomb
Plutonium Bomb /\ / \ | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | : ||: : | | :______||:_____________________________: | |/_______||/______________________________\| \ ~\ | : |:| / \ |\ | : |:| / \ | \ | :__________|:| / \ |:_\ | :__________\:| / \ |___\ |______________| / \ | \ |~ \ / \|_______\|_________________\_/ |_____________________________| / \ / \ / \ / _______________ \ / ___/ \___ \ /____ __/ \__ ____\ [3]__
Fusion: Our Futures Energy?
Fusion: Our Futures Energy?
Fusion: Our Future's Energy? Fusion energy seems to be the most promising energy source of the not-too-distant future. It is safe, it uses an energy supply that is so abundant that it will never run out, it gives off harmless waste, and it produces energy comparable to the Earth's sun! But are there any problems with this hopeful energy source? What is Nuclear Fusion? To understand fusion, it is a good idea to know about fission. This is the splitting of the nuclei of atoms into two or more sma
Neutrinos And Gamma Rays
Neutrinos And Gamma Rays
Neutrinos and Gamma Rays Emission of a beta particle produces an energy change in the nucleus of an atom. The energy change that is observed, however, does not add up to satisfy the Law of Conservation of energy. The conservation law can be balanced if another particle, called the neutrino is part of this process. In the time it takes to read just this sentence, more than a billion of them will have passed unnoticed through the reader's body. Neutrinos may account for an appreciable portion of
Manhattan Project And The A-Bomb
Manhattan Project And The A-Bomb
Manhattan Project and the A-Bomb Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to
Analysis Of The Atomic Bomb
Analysis Of The Atomic Bomb
Analysis of the Atomic Bomb Ever since the dawn of time man has found new ways of killing each other. The most destructive way of killing people known to man would have to be the atomic bomb. The reason why the atomic bomb is so destructive is that when it is detonated, it has more than one effect. The effects of the atomic bomb are so great that Nikita Khrushchev said that the survivors would envy the dead (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, 1982). These devastating phy
The Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project On the morning of August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay flew over the industrial city of Hiroshima, Japan and dropped the first atomic bomb ever. The city went up in flames caused by the immense power equal to about 20,000 tons of TNT. The project was a success. They were an unprecedented assemblage of civilian, and military scientific brain power?brilliant, intense, and young, the people that helped develop the bomb. Unknowingly they came to an isolated mountain se
Atomic Bomb
Atomic Bomb
Atomic Bomb Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bo
Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang
Solar Power II
Solar Power II
Solar Power II Solar cells today are mostly made of silicon, one of the most common elements on Earth. The crystalline silicon solar cell was one of the first types to be developed and it is still the most common type in use today. They do not pollute the atmosphere and they leave behind no harmful waste products. Photovoltaic cells work effectively even in cloudy weather and unlike solar heaters, are more efficient at low temperatures. They do their job silently and there are no moving parts to
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy From Theory to Practice The nuclear age began in Germany, in the 1930s in the lab of chemist Otto Hahn. Hahn was attempting to produce radium (In great need during the war) by bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons. To his surprise, he ended up with a much lighter element, barium. That was 1938, This started the race for the power of the atom. Just four years later Canada entered nuclear age in cooperation with the british. Wartime, 1942: The British wanted a safe place to conduct
Anti-Matter
Anti-Matter
Anti-Matter Introduction Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen. The Research Early scientists often made
Big Bang Theory
Big Bang Theory
Big Bang Theory It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the B
Origins And Bibliography Of The Big Bang Theory
Origins And Bibliography Of The Big Bang Theory
Origins and Bibliography of the Big Bang Theory ORIGINS: Background & Bibliography ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Assembled for the PHILOsophy Conference of: Computer Connection PO Box 382 BBS (609) 784-9404 Voorhees, NJ 08043 by T.A. Hare Nov. 13, 1985 Topic: Areas of interaction between philosophy, science, and?religion. Part I - Big Bang (Astronomy) Part II - Unified Field (Particle Physics) Part III - Evolution (Biology). Part IV - Theologic interaction - - - - Part II - Unified Field Th
The Big Bang Model
The Big Bang Model
The Big Bang Model It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called th
Fusion Energy
Fusion Energy
Fusion Energy A fusion reaction is one in which two atomic nuclei merge to form a heavier nucleus. this is the process that happens in in the stars. In average stars, like the sun, the process of fusion is converting hydrogen nuclei (or protons) into helium nuclei. There is an enormous amount of kinetic energy and gamma rays released in this process that heat the star's interior, and this realease is what maintains it at the extreamly high temperatures (greater than 10 million K) required to con
Light: A Fundamental Force In Our World
Light: A Fundamental Force In Our World
Light: A Fundamental Force In Our World If asked what light is, one could say that it's one of the most basic elements of our world and our universe as we perceive it. It is through sight that we receive 90% of our information. It is through the use of telescopes aiding the naked eye that we are aware of the heavenly bodies around us. It is through light that the energy from the sun is transferred to us. The sun's energy supports the food chain; plants use it to turn water and CO2 into energy us
Could Gambling Save Science: Encouraging An Honest Consensus
Could Gambling Save Science: Encouraging An Honest Consensus
Could Gambling Save Science: Encouraging an Honest Consensus To appear in Social Epistemology, 1992. (version appeared: in Proc. Eighth Intl. Conf. on Risk and Gambling, London, 7/90.) C O U L D G A M B L I N G S A V E S C I E N C E? Encouraging an Honest Consensus by Robin Hanson Visiting Researcher, The Foresight Institute P.O. Box 61058, Palo Alto, CA 94306 USA [email protected] 510-651-7483 The pace of scientific progress may be hindered by the tendency of our academic institutions
Big
Big
Big Bang Theory It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the
Black Holes
Black Holes
Black Holes General aspect of searching black holes and understanding of the subject. For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at
Solar Energy
Solar Energy
Solar Energy About 47 percent of the energy that the sun releases to the earth actually reaches the ground. About a third is reflected directly back into space by the atmosphere. The time in which solar energy is available, is also the time we least need it least - daytime. Because the sun's energy cannot be stored for use another time, we need to convert the suns energy into an energy that can be stored. One possible method of storing solar energy is by heating water that can be insulated. The
Living Thing Biology
Living Thing Biology
Living Thing Biology Living things make up the world as we know it. Living things are involved in our life constantly, seeing that we are alive. There are five characteristics that are common to all living things. Living things are made up of one or more cells. Each cell is made up of living matter and is separated by a barrier that encloses the cell from its surroundings. However, there are many different kinds of cells that make up living things. A single cell can be one organism. These organ
Calcium Element
Calcium Element
Calcium Element Calcium Element symbol...CA Atomic weight...40.08 Element number...20 Number of protons...20 Number of electrons...20 Number of neutrons...20 Density at...68? F Boiling point...2,264?F Melting point...1,562?F Calcium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davis in 1808. Calcium is a mineral found in abundance in the Earth's outer crust. It is the fifth most abundant mineral in the Earth crust. Calcium is considered a major mineral because it is found in large quantity in the body. Milk
Radon
Radon
Radon Radon is an element that is on the periodic table of elements. It is a member of the family called the noble gases, which is group number 18. Radon is a gas. It is a gas at 298 k. it is the heaviest known mononuclear gas at that temperature. Radon is also colorless. When it is cooled below the freezing point, radon exhibits a brilliant phosphorescence, which becomes yellow as the temperature is lowered. At the temperature of liquid air it is sort of an orangish-red. The noble gases can be
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power Most of the world's electricity is generated by either thermal or hydroelectric power plants. Thermal power plants use fuel to boil water which makes steam. The steam turns turbines that generate electricity. Hydroelectric power plants use the great force of rushing water from a dam or a waterfall to turn the turbines. The majority of thermal power plants burn fossil fuels because thermal power plants are cheaper to maintain and have to meet less of the governments requirements co
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. He was educated at the University of New Zealand and the University of Cambridge. He was a professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec from 1989 to 1907. He was also professor at the University of Manchester in England. After 1919 he was professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Lab at the University of Cambridge moreover held a professorship, after 1920, at the Royal Instit
Environmental Science
Environmental Science
Environmental Science Human kind has entered a brand new relationship with the earth. The constant and increasing pressures we are exerting threaten our planets ability to sustain life itself. Change-in the way we think , and in the way we live-is needed now. Global warming is the most urgent environmental problem the world will face in the next decade and the next century. Few, if any, trends are more important to our future than climate change caused by human activities. Scientist around the