Month Of March

The People Of The Kalahari Desert
The People Of The Kalahari Desert
The People of the Kalahari Desert Part One Introduction, Location and Environment The people of the Kalahari desert are extraordinary people. For centuries their hunting and food gathering techniques have enabled them to survive in the difficult environment of the dry, hot and barren Kalahari desert. They are known as the Bushmen. Or the Kung or the Gikwe since Bushmen is rather discriminating because the Bushmen live among shrubs and trees and sand and such. The people of Kalahari Desert liv
The Absent Male In Little Women
The Absent Male In Little Women
The Absent Male in Little Women No gentlemen were admitted writes Louisa May Alcott in Little Women to describe the all-female private revue the March sisters perform. And as the novel progresses, one cannot help but wonder if this same sentiment does indeed echo throughout the novel, as male characters are conspicuously absent while all the pivotal parts are played by the women characters. This gender imbalance -- in that there are more female characters than male in Little Women -- is espec
Vangogh
Vangogh
Vangogh The rapid evolution of a style characterized by canvases filled with swirling, bright colors depicting people and nature is the essence of Vincent Van Gogh's extremely prolific but tragically short career. Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853, in Holland, son of a Dutch Protestant pastor and eldest of six children. His favorite brother Theo was four years younger. When Vincent was twelve to sixteen years old, he went to a boarding school. That next year he was sent to The
Title Of Paper : Auschwitz The Nazi Concentration Camp
Title Of Paper : Auschwitz The Nazi Concentration Camp
Title of Paper : Auschwitz the Nazi Concentration Camp Grade Received on Report : 100 AUSCHWITZ THE NAZI CONCENTRATION CAMP Located thirty-seven miles west of Krakow, Auschwitz was the camp where Jewish people were killed and worked. This camp , out of all the rest tortured the most people. At the camp there was a place called the Black Wall, this was where the people were executed . In March of 1941, there was another camp that started to be built. This second camp was called Auschwitz II, o
The Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court of the judic ial branch of the United States government. Many of the cases that make it to the supreme court are based on rights set forth by the Bill of Rights. The Bil l of Rights is comprised of the first ten amendments to the United States Consti tution, and is what this nation was founded upon. The first of these amendment s deals with freedoms given to the people, one of these freedoms being
Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer Every hour one American is killed by skin cancer and every thirty seconds one American gets skin cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease that alters the DNA of a skin cell and causes it to reproduce at a rapid pace. This overproduction of cells can be harmful and in many cases deadly. Out of these cancers the most common is Basal cell carcinoma. Many steps have been made in the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma, some have been very successful and some not. The cells that have the altered
The Spectacled Bear
The Spectacled Bear
The Spectacled Bear The Spectacled Bear, or Tremarctos Ornatus, is an endangered species. This rare bear can only be found in a few elusive spots in the world. Many endangered species all over the world don't deserve the respect and care that they need. That is why many endangered species often become extinct or remain on the endangered species list for the remainder of their survival on Earth. Today, as more species become endangered, more people become involved in their care. Many things are
Seattles Suburbs History.
Seattles Suburbs History.
Seattle's Suburbs History. Preamble Learning about what has changed has made us realize more than ever how constant change is. The way we see things around us is not the way they always have been and more important, are only an intermediate stage to where ever they will be tomorrow. Talking to people who saw what has changed to get here allows us to see the direction we have come, and finally the direction we are going. Outlined in this paper are six different angles viewing different parts of
1982
1982
1982 Outline Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. I Introduction II Summary of 1984 III Roles of major Charters A. Big Brother B. Winston C. O'Brien D. Julia E. Shop owner IV Propaganda A. Ministry of Truth B. Ministry of Love V Orwell's thoughts on Totalitarianism A. From life experiences B. From a writers point of view VI Conclusion Introduction Orwell observed that every line of serious work that I have writt
1982
1982
1982 Outline Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. I Introduction II Summary of 1984 III Roles of major Charters A. Big Brother B. Winston C. O'Brien D. Julia E. Shop owner IV Propaganda A. Ministry of Truth B. Ministry of Love V Orwell's thoughts on Totalitarianism A. From life experiences B. From a writers point of view VI Conclusion Introduction Orwell observed that every line of serious work that I have writt
The Legal System Of Spain
The Legal System Of Spain
The Legal System of Spain The national government of Spain is composed of a parliamentary monarchy with a hereditary constitutional monarch as the head of state. Under the 1978 Constitution, power was centered in a bicameral legislature--the Cortes (comprising of the lower house, Congress of Deputies, and upper house, Senate). Both houses are elected by universal suffrage every four years, but the 350-member Congress of Deputies uses a proportional representation system, whereas the Senate cont
On August 2nd, 1990 Iraq Military Forces Invaded And Occupied Kuwait.
On August 2nd, 1990 Iraq Military Forces Invaded And Occupied Kuwait.
On August 2nd, 1990 Iraq military forces invaded and occupied Kuwait. The order was given by Iraq's dictator-president Saddam Hussein. His aim was apparently to take control Kuwait's oil reserves (despite its small size Kuwait is a huge oil producer; it has about 10 per cent of the world's oil reserves). Iraq accused Kuwait of breaking agreements that limit oil production in the Middle East. According to Saddam Hussein, this brought down world oil prices severely and caused financial loss of bi
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE This essay will illustrate why Napoleon Bonaparte is regarded as one of the greatest military masterminds in the history of mankind. It will show the life of Napoleon from when he was a young boy, till he died in 1821. It will show how he deceived the French into giving him power, and how he used this power for his own interests. It will also reveal how he almost killed of an entire generation of French people, and once again prove that all good things must come t
Truth And Nonviolence Will Never Be Destroyed Those Words Spoken By Ma
Truth And Nonviolence Will Never Be Destroyed Those Words Spoken By Ma
Truth and nonviolence will never be destroyed those words spoken by Mahatma Gandhi describe the true essence of his character. He was a man who unlike others decided to use nonviolence as a means of getting what he wanted. His different approach is what ultimately led to his rising popularity and strong success. Not only did Gandhi almost single-handedly free India and its five hundred million people from their long subjection to the British Empire, but he did so without raising an army, wit
5 March, 1999
5 March, 1999
5 March, 1999 College Sports Gambling: Fun or Fraud? Over the last several years gambling has invaded college campuses nationwide. The most prevalent form of gambling, sports betting, continues to dig deep into the pockets of highly vulnerable college students. This illegal activity tends to undermine sports and leads to scandal and even punishment by law, if the culprits can be caught. Sports betting is considered the most popular form of gambling in the United States (Worsnop 248). On college
With Malice Toward None
With Malice Toward None
With Malice Toward None by Stephen B.Oates Published by Mentor Books About the Author Stephen B. Oates is a professor of history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and the author of eight other books, including The Fires of Jubilee and To Purge This Land with Blood. His task in this biography was to perpetuate Lincoln as he was in the days he lived. His purpose of this biography was to bring the past into the present for us and his students. The Life of Abraham Lincoln Although othe
Evil Emperors
Evil Emperors
Evil Emperors Andew Bove Block F Augustus was one of the single most extraordinary emperors to ever rule the Roman Empire, he was also the first. Augustus set a precept for emperors to come. Some emperors followed it, some tried, and some didn't try at all. My report is about two emperors of Rome that didn't rule in light of Augustus, and probably couldn't help it, considering they were most definitely insane. Caligula Gaius Caesar was born in the ancient city of Antium on August 31, 12 A.D.. G
John Muir--explorer, Writer, And Conservationist--was Born On April 21
John Muir--explorer, Writer, And Conservationist--was Born On April 21
John Muir--explorer, writer, and conservationist--was born on April 21, 1838 in Dunbar, Scotland. Until the age of eleven he attended the local schools of that small coastal town. In 1849, the Muir family emigrated to the United States, settling first at Fountain Lake and then moving to Hickory Hill Farm near Portage, Wisconsin. Muir's father was a harsh disciplinarian and worked his family from dawn to dusk. Whenever they were allowed a short period away from the plow and hoe, Muir and his you
Violence And Pornography
Violence And Pornography
Violence and Pornography Pornography -- Sex or Subordination? In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in at
Biography Report
Biography Report
Biography Report Title: Gold Buckle Dreams Author: David G. Brown Illustrator: Photos courtesy of Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame Publisher: Quinan Press Copyright Date: 1986 This book was written about: Chris Le Doux Who was born on: March 27, 1953 At: Austin, Texas (hometown) born at: Texas Women's Hospital His/ Her parents were: Al and Bonnie Le Doux He/ She attended the following schools: He was taught at home till high school, then he attended Cheyenne Central High School. His/ Her outstanding acco
Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson 17th President of the United States Compiled & Presented by Someone Table of Contents Section 1- Early Life Birthplace & Family Apprenticeship Andrew moves to Tennessee Section 2- Rise to Power Debate Team Mayor of Greeneville State Legislature U.S. House of Representatives Governor of Tennessee U.S. Senate A Symbol of Southern Unionism Vice-President 17th President of the United States Section 3- Johnson and the Reconstruction Ten Percent Plan Virginia Plan North Carolina Plan A
Assassination Of JFK
Assassination Of JFK
Assassination of JFK On Friday, November 22nd 1963 at 12:30 P.M. the 35th president of the United States of America, John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassinated while he rode in an open limousine though the streets of Dallas. This event, which abruptly and severely altered the course of history, it has created more controversy than any other single event. Some haunting questions remain. Who did it? Why did they do it? How was it done? Was there a cover up The official answers complied by the W
North Vs. South
North Vs. South
North Vs. South The Civil War Causes of the civil war 200 Years of Slavery In 1808, congress prohibited importing anymore slaves into the country. But Slavery still went on until 1850. That was was about the two hundredth year it had existed in the United States. They had sent several thousand slaves back to what is now Liberia. Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney was in Savannah, Georgia visiting a friend. Whitney was a Yale college graduate. He invented an easy to make and cheap cotton
In The Eight Fold Path Of Yoga Meditation Is The Eighth Step (Smith, 1
In The Eight Fold Path Of Yoga Meditation Is The Eighth Step (Smith, 1
In the eight fold path of yoga meditation is the eighth step (Smith, 11). Once here a Yogi must become more aware and more sensitive to what is within themselves (?Meditation?). ?A Yogi must first lose themselves here to find peace with themselves? (Smith, 11). The armor that a person has built around themselves throughout their lives must be lost and they have to see themselves clearly (Smith, 19). Meditation begins with concentration (?Meditation?). In concentration meditation a Yogi must foc
Prohibition: The Legislation Of Morality
Prohibition: The Legislation Of Morality
Prohibition: The Legislation of Morality During the 1800's and early 1900's through out the United States there was a movement for the end of alcohol. The sole aim and purpose of this body was to stamp out the evils of alcohol. This movement, most commonly called Prohibition, mixed the morals of Christianity and the politics of government. Prohibition did succeed with the ratification of the 18th was, however, a great mistake. This amendment made the common man a criminal, lowered the confidenc
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Ptolemy Introduction In ancient times there were many great ideas which began to shape the way man perceived his environment. However, there were few minds who were able to put all of these ideas together. One of these minds belonged to Claudius Ptolemy, or just Ptolemy as he is commonly referred to. We know almost nothing of the chronology of Ptolemy's life, and we don't even know his birth or death dates. We do know, though, about his ideas in several fields, which include geography, astronom
England (Latin Anglia), Political Division Of The Island Of Great Brit
England (Latin Anglia), Political Division Of The Island Of Great Brit
England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, constituting, with Wales, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, another division of the United Kingdom. Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming the nuc
THE PROS AND CONS ABOUT LEGALIZING MARIJUANA
THE PROS AND CONS ABOUT LEGALIZING MARIJUANA
THE PROS AND CONS ABOUT LEGALIZING MARIJUANA Mainstream vs. Alternative Media; who do we believe? The Journal of Media Studies Writer Discussion of the legalization of marijuana brings up two main issues, those who are pro- marijuana and those who are anti- marijuana. These issues have been covered by both mainstream and alternative media, mainstream being pro, and alternative being anti. These two factions have been arguing over this issue in the halls of justice for many years. Because most o
The Last Seven Months Of Anne Frank- Willy Lindwer
The Last Seven Months Of Anne Frank- Willy Lindwer
The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank- Willy Lindwer Anne Frank is the best known symbol for the murdered Jews of WWII. Her diary, which was composed between June 12, 1942 and August 1, 1944, was written while hiding in the Annex. It has been published in more than fifty countries. She was thirteen when she started and fifteen when she wrote her last. On Tuesday August 1, 1944, Anne write her last entry to her diary. On August 4, the German Security Service raided the Annex at No. 263 Prisengra
Rap War
Rap War
Rap war Shots ring out in South Central Los Angeles. A man screams in horror. This man has been shot in a heated gang war. This is everyday life for gang members. Gang members are used to cold blooded murder and most attend at least 5 funerals a week. Similar situations occur in Harlem, New York and in other places around the country. Why is this happening? Many people think that rap music is making kids more violent. They think that rap music is just a glorification of violence. All rap music
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, explosive devices, designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb), which was tested on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosive. All explosives prior to that time derived their power from the rapid burning or decomposition of some chemical compound. Such chemical processes release only the energy of the outermost electrons in the atom. See
It Has Been Said That A Country That Goes Through Hard Times, Will Oft
It Has Been Said That A Country That Goes Through Hard Times, Will Oft
It has been said that a country that goes through hard times, will often rebound and become stronger as time passes by. Guatemala is one of those countries. It may not be situated in an area of peace and wealth. It may not have the best medicine. It may not have enough of an army to defend its patriots. All in all, Guatemala has survived through the many hardships and warring and has come out as the stronger of the nations. Guatemala may not be the best of the best, but it has survived through
COMPUTERS AND THE PROBLEM 2000 IN THE BUSINESS WORLD
COMPUTERS AND THE PROBLEM 2000 IN THE BUSINESS WORLD
COMPUTERS AND THE PROBLEM 2000 IN THE BUSINESS WORLD Computers play a huge role in Government, Economy, and Financial affairs. Based on the information concerning the year 2000 computer crash project (y2k), people are realizing how much of the economy depends on computers. The age of electronics and more specifically, computers, has caused a tremendous shift in the way we do business today. Today, many business people wouldn't be able to function efficiently without communications as we know it
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{nuh-poh'-lee-uhn} Napoleon I, known as Napoleon Bonaparte before he became emperor, was probably the most brilliant military figure in history. Rising to command of the French Revolutionary armies, he seized political power as first consul in 1799 and proclaimed himself emperor in 1804. By repeated victories over various European coalitions, he extended French rule over much of Europe. He was finally defeated in 1814-15. Early Life Napoleon was born on Aug. 15, 1769, to Carlo and Letizia Buona
Morality And Ethics And Computers
Morality And Ethics And Computers
Morality and Ethics and Computers There are many different sides to the discussion on moral and ethical uses of computers. In many situations, the morality of a particular use of a computer is up to the individual to decide. For this reason, absolute laws about ethical computer usage is almost, but not entirely, impossible to define. The introduction of computers into the workplace has introduced many questions as well: Should employers make sure the workplace is designed to minimize health ris
The Life Of Doc Holliday
The Life Of Doc Holliday
The Life of Doc Holliday On January 8, 1849, Henry Burroughs Holliday, a future Confederate Major and a druggist , and Alice Jane McKay were married. They had two kids. The first child was Martha Eleanora Holliday, she died on June 12, 1850, six months after birth. Their second child, born on August 14, 1851 in Griffin, Georgia, was John Henry Holliday. Better known by the nickname he would earn later in life: 'Doc' Holliday. That year, this entry was entered into the local church for record
Gloria Estefans Fame And Fortune Was Earned. She Has Worked Hard To Th
Gloria Estefans Fame And Fortune Was Earned. She Has Worked Hard To Th
Gloria Estefan's fame and fortune was earned. She has worked hard to this day, and continues to do so. Not only is she a great singer, she is a great humanitarian, helping and donating her time and money to many good causes. Life was never easy for Gloria, and this is her story, in my words. Gloria Estefan was born Gloria Maria Fajardo on September 1st, 1957 to Jose Manuel and Gloria in the town of Havana, Cuba. When she was only 17 months old, her family fled to Miami from the regime of Fidel
Ted Bundy: The Biography Of A Serial Killer
Ted Bundy: The Biography Of A Serial Killer
Ted Bundy: The Biography of a Serial Killer March 11, 1999 Ted Bundy: A Biography of a Serial Killer INTRODUCTION University educated serial sex killer whose good looks and charm enabled him to lure at least 30 young women to their deaths. Handsome, intelligent, socially recognized, Ted Bundy had been a law student, Boy Scout, a college degree with a major in psychology, involved in a Washington State party politics, and even served as a counselor at the Seattle Crisis Center. The public person
The Diary Of A Napoleonic Foot Soldier Is A Autobiography/biography Pi
The Diary Of A Napoleonic Foot Soldier Is A Autobiography/biography Pi
The Diary of a napoleonic foot soldier is a autobiography/biography piece of literature of a soldier who went to war during Napoleon's rule. Jakob Walter is or was the author of this book, and Walter explains to us what he did during several war campaigns. Even though Walter was only nineteen, he was enlisted to the army by conscription and assigned to the regiment of Romig, later to be called the Franquemont Regiment. His first major mission was to escort several convoys of captured Prussian
HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS
HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS
HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS A connecting link between the two rivers was considered by the French explorer to be needed if the French were successful in settling this region of the south. In 1810, the citizens of Knox County, Tennessee (current location of Knoxville) petitioned the U.S. Congress to build the waterway that would shorten the distance by more than 800 miles for trade with New Orleans, Mobile and other ports along the Gulf of Mexico. Shortly after Alabama joined the union in 1819, the st
The American Civil War The Purpose Of This Paper Is To Illustrate The
The American Civil War The Purpose Of This Paper Is To Illustrate The
The American Civil War The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the leading men behind the Union and Confederate forces. T
Although Musicians Had Been Recording Fiddle Tunes (known As Old Time
Although Musicians Had Been Recording Fiddle Tunes (known As Old Time
Although musicians had been recording fiddle tunes (known as Old Time Music at that time) in the southern Appalachians for several years, It wasn't until August 1, 1927 in Bristol, Tennessee, that Country Music really began. There, on that day, Ralph Peer signed Jimmie Rodgers and the Carter Family to recording contracts for Victor Records. These two recording acts set the tone for those to follow - Rodgers with his unique singing style and the Carters with their extensive recordings of old-tim
^^^^^^^^^^A SEPARATE PEACE: CHAPTER 1
^^^^^^^^^^A SEPARATE PEACE: CHAPTER 1
^^^^^^^^^^A SEPARATE PEACE: CHAPTER 1 Have you ever in your life gone through an experience so intense, so joyful, so painful, or just so important at the time, that you could only understand much later what truly happened? Isn't it a fact that when we're in the middle of an experience, we are often unable to think clearly about it because we're too busy feeling the moment's thrill or sadness to stop and come to sensible conclusions? Our high school years are just such a time: of quick growth a
Abortion Life Or Death ÄÄÄ Who Chooses? In Roman Times, Abortion And T
Abortion Life Or Death ÄÄÄ Who Chooses? In Roman Times, Abortion And T
Abortion Life or Death ??? Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human li
The Bay Of Pigs Invasion. The Story Of The Failed Invasion Of Cuba At
The Bay Of Pigs Invasion. The Story Of The Failed Invasion Of Cuba At
The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in pow
History Benito Mussolini’s Rise And Fall To Power Benito Mussolini Had
History Benito Mussolini’s Rise And Fall To Power Benito Mussolini Had
History Benito Mussolini's Rise and Fall to Power Benito Mussolini had a large impact on World War II. He wasn't always a powerful dictator though. At first he was a school teacher and a socialist journalist. He later married Rachele Guide and had 5 children. He was the editor of the Avanti, which was a socialist party newspaper in Milan. Benito Mussolini founded the Fasci di Combattimento on March of 1919. ?This was a nationalistic, anti liberal, and anti socialist movement. This movement attra
Chromosome Probes At The University Of Toronto -----------------------
Chromosome Probes At The University Of Toronto -----------------------
Chromosome Probes at the University of Toronto ------------------------------------------------------- Uploaded: November 29, 1986. Sensitive chromosome probes recently discovered by a University of Toronto geneticist will make it easier to detect certain types of genetic and prenatal diseases, as well as being used to determine paternity and provide forensic evidence in criminal cases. Probes are short pieces of DNA which bind to, and actually pinpoint, particular sites on a chromosome. Because
The Color Bearer Tradition The War Between The States Was The Heyday O
The Color Bearer Tradition The War Between The States Was The Heyday O
The Color Bearer Tradition The War Between the States was the heyday of American battleflags and their bearers. With unusualhistorical accuracy, many stirring battle paintings show the colors and their intrepid bearers in the forefront of the fray or as a rallying point in a retreat. The colors of a Civil War regiment embodied its honor, and the men chosen to bear them made up an elite. Tall, muscular men were preferred, because holding aloft a large, heavy banner, to keep it visible through ba
Civil War End Of A Tragedy: The Road To Appomattox END OF A TRAGEDY TH
Civil War End Of A Tragedy: The Road To Appomattox END OF A TRAGEDY TH
Civil War End of a Tragedy: The Road to Appomattox END OF A TRAGEDY THE ROAD TO APPOMATTOX The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the events surrounding the end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion. Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will b
The Rise Of Communism In Russia ÒUnless We Accept The Claim That Lenin
The Rise Of Communism In Russia ÒUnless We Accept The Claim That Lenin
The Rise of Communism in Russia ?Unless we accept the claim that Lenin?s coup d?tat gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today?s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980?s? (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind