Military Theory

Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy With the world balancing on the edge of destruction, foreign relationships are extremely important to the United States of America. The United States is fully recognized as the most powerful nation on the planet earth, and with that power comes a definitive sense of responsibility. The U.S. needs to pay close attention to this responsibility if it hopes to keep its place on the throne as king of the nations. This is where the United States foreign policy comes into play. Foreign
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons A major problem concerning the world today is the disposal of nuclear weapons. With the Cold War, we have seen a massive build up of nuclear weapons, and no, that we are no longer in a state of global warfare, what is to be done with them? As a result of the build-up in nuclear weapons during the cold war the world is now facing major environmental problems trying to deactivate them, and in addition major debate are occurring on the policies of disarmament and deterrence as solu
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE This essay will illustrate why Napoleon Bonaparte is regarded as one of the greatest military masterminds in the history of mankind. It will show the life of Napoleon from when he was a young boy, till he died in 1821. It will show how he deceived the French into giving him power, and how he used this power for his own interests. It will also reveal how he almost killed of an entire generation of French people, and once again prove that all good things must come t
The Art Of War: Withstanding Time
The Art Of War: Withstanding Time
The Art of War: Withstanding Time History credits the Chinese General Sun Tzu (circa 500 BC) with authoring a series of essays on the subject of war. Considered to be the earliest known treatises on the subject, Sun Tzu discussed military organization, defensive and offensive strategies as well as tactical maneuvering. Of his many essays his best known work, The Art of War, continues to be a reference for modern military strategists. Sun Tzu's longevity is indebted mainly to Father J. J. M. Ami
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN
DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN MILITARY THINKING HISTORY 421 This research paper will argue that there are four main areas in which Soviet thinking about war, strategy and defense was, and to a large extent is, distinct from Western thinking. Firstly, Soviet and Western thinking were governed by different aims. While the Soviet aim was messianic, the West was content to defend ?national interests.? Secondly, Russian military thinking is more holistic than Western military thinking. T
On The Night Of July 17, 1996 TWA Flight 800 Left New York’s JFK Airpo
On The Night Of July 17, 1996 TWA Flight 800 Left New York’s JFK Airpo
On the night of July 17, 1996 TWA flight 800 left New York's JFK Airport en-route to it' destination of Paris, France. At approximately 8:31 PM a strange explosion ripped through the Boeing 747 jumbo jet violently taking the lives of 230 helpless people that on board the aircraft and threw them into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Long Island. Almost immediately, as news of the tragedy began to circulate, theories and possible explanations of the cause began to surface. Was it a terrorist b
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Ptolemy Introduction In ancient times there were many great ideas which began to shape the way man perceived his environment. However, there were few minds who were able to put all of these ideas together. One of these minds belonged to Claudius Ptolemy, or just Ptolemy as he is commonly referred to. We know almost nothing of the chronology of Ptolemy's life, and we don't even know his birth or death dates. We do know, though, about his ideas in several fields, which include geography, astronom
World Civilizations 1500
World Civilizations 1500
World civilizations 1500 March 17, 1999 1. Essay form (7%) 2. Tenochtitlan case study (10%) 3. Mozambique case study (13%) 4. Comparison of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique cases (15%) 5. Summary of the gun powder arguments in Stearns (35%) 6. Discussion and critique of gun powder arguments in the light of the Tenochtitlan and Mozambique case studies (20%) In the past wars were fought to gain land, wealth, and fame. Two such examples of this are the battle of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique. These are t
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, explosive devices, designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb), which was tested on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosive. All explosives prior to that time derived their power from the rapid burning or decomposition of some chemical compound. Such chemical processes release only the energy of the outermost electrons in the atom. See
World Civilizations 1500
World Civilizations 1500
World civilizations 1500 March 17, 1999 1. Essay form (7%) 2. Tenochtitlan case study (10%) 3. Mozambique case study (13%) 4. Comparison of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique cases (15%) 5. Summary of the gun powder arguments in Stearns (35%) 6. Discussion and critique of gun powder arguments in the light of the Tenochtitlan and Mozambique case studies (20%) In the past wars were fought to gain land, wealth, and fame. Two such examples of this are the battle of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique. These are t
World Civilizations 1500
World Civilizations 1500
World civilizations 1500 March 17, 1999 1. Essay form (7%) 2. Tenochtitlan case study (10%) 3. Mozambique case study (13%) 4. Comparison of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique cases (15%) 5. Summary of the gun powder arguments in Stearns (35%) 6. Discussion and critique of gun powder arguments in the light of the Tenochtitlan and Mozambique case studies (20%) In the past wars were fought to gain land, wealth, and fame. Two such examples of this are the battle of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique. These are t
Rijo Ninan December 4, 1998
Rijo Ninan December 4, 1998
Rijo Ninan December 4, 1998 Ms. Purcell-Murphy European History Page 1 Two of the greatest philosophers of all time are Plato and Aristotle. They both had their own views on different subjects. One area where they had contrasting views was politics. Plato lived from 427 to 347 B.C. and was Athenian. He started a school called the Academy where he taught his philosophy to other people. He wrote two great books, The Symposium which was a book about love and The Republic which was a book on govern
Just Before The Beginning Of World War II, Albert Einstein Wrote A Let
Just Before The Beginning Of World War II, Albert Einstein Wrote A Let
Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bomb before th
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In An Extensive Article In The Sum
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In An Extensive Article In The Sum
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Na
The Bay Of Pigs Invasion. The Story Of The Failed Invasion Of Cuba At
The Bay Of Pigs Invasion. The Story Of The Failed Invasion Of Cuba At
The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in pow
The Rise Of Communism In Russia ŇUnless We Accept The Claim That Lenin
The Rise Of Communism In Russia ŇUnless We Accept The Claim That Lenin
The Rise of Communism in Russia ?Unless we accept the claim that Lenin?s coup d?tat gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today?s Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980?s? (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind
P-51 Mustang W/ WWII The Effects Of The P-51 Mustang In World War II T
P-51 Mustang W/ WWII The Effects Of The P-51 Mustang In World War II T
P-51 Mustang w/ WWII The effects of the P-51 Mustang in World War II The Effect of the North American P-51 Mustang On the Air War in Europe Abstract This paper deals with the contributions of the P-51 Mustang to the eventual victory of the Allies in Europe during World War II. It describes the war scene in Europe before the P-51 was introduced, traces the development of the fighter, its advantages, and the abilities it was able to contribute to the Allies' arsenal. It concludes with the effect t
Egyptain Foreign Policy In Regards To Israel & The United States. The
Egyptain Foreign Policy In Regards To Israel & The United States. The
Egyptain Foreign Policy in regards to Israel & the United States. The History of the conflict in the Middle East is long and well documented. To both, and to many biased observers the history of the Egyptian/Israeli conflict is very one sided, with one government, or one people causing the continued wars between the two neighboring states. But, as any social scientist of any reputation will state, all international conflicts have more than one side, and usually are the result of events surroundi
Finding Patterns In Hemingway And Camus: Construction Of Meaning And T
Finding Patterns In Hemingway And Camus: Construction Of Meaning And T
Finding Patterns in Hemingway and Camus: Construction of Meaning and Truth by Robert D. Lane and Steven M. Lane Once we knew that literature was about life and criticism was about fiction--and everything was simple. Now we know that fiction is about other fiction, is criticism in fact, or metaphor. And we know that criticism is about the impossibility of anything being about life, really, or even about fiction, or finally about anything. Criticism has taken the very idea of aboutness away from
Iran Is A Country Located In The Middle East. The Main Source Of Incom
Iran Is A Country Located In The Middle East. The Main Source Of Incom
Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly influenced its history. Iran's present government is run as an Islamic Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15 years. Crane Brinton's book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set of four steps a country expe
(Part 1 - The First Ricky White News Story) NOV. 22, 1963: ANOTHER STO
(Part 1 - The First Ricky White News Story) NOV. 22, 1963: ANOTHER STO
(Part 1 - The first Ricky White News Story) NOV. 22, 1963: ANOTHER STORY BLURS THE FACTS SON OF DALLAS COP SAYS DAD WAS 1 OF 3 WHO SHOT KENNEDY By Andrew Likakis In another bizarre twist to a mystery that has haunted Americans for more than a quarter century, the son of a former Dallas police officer plans to tell the world that his father was one of the assassins of President John F. Kennedy. Ricky White, a 29-year-old, unemployed oil equipment salesman in Midland, says he had no conception of
I. Introduction II. Marxism A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Ec
I. Introduction II. Marxism A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Ec
I. Introduction II. Marxism A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Economic Evolution III. Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT) A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: The Parliament versus the Crown IV. Institutional Theory A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Social Change V. Conclusion Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resourc
Carl Orffs Philosophies In Musci Education While Carl Orff Is A Very S
Carl Orffs Philosophies In Musci Education While Carl Orff Is A Very S
Carl Orff's philosophies in Musci Education While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first at
Ann-Marie B. Gunselman Hist. 392 Dr. Tirado 3/27/96 The Impact Of Infe
Ann-Marie B. Gunselman Hist. 392 Dr. Tirado 3/27/96 The Impact Of Infe
Ann-Marie B. Gunselman Hist. 392 Dr. Tirado 3/27/96 The Impact of Infectious Disease in the New World It is often said that in the centuries after Columbus landed in the New World on 12 October, 1492, more native North Americans died each year from infectious diseases brought by the European settlers than were born. (6) The decimation of people indigenous to the Americas by diseases introduced by European invaders is unprecedented. While it is difficult to accurately determine the population
St. Augustines Just War Theory And The Persion Gulf War On August 2nd,
St. Augustines Just War Theory And The Persion Gulf War On August 2nd,
St. Augustine's Just War Theory and the Persion Gulf War On August 2nd, 1990 the first Iraqi tanks crossed into Kuwait, as part of an invasion that marked the start of a six-month conflict between the United States and Iraq. These tanks were ordered to invade Kuwait by Saddam Hussein, the ruthless dictator of Iraq. The Iraqi troops looted Kuwaiti businesses and brutalized Kuwaiti civilians. Saudi Arabia began to fear that they may be invaded as well, and on August 7th they formally asked Preside
Image And Reality
Image And Reality
Image And Reality Valery Potakh Mr. Anderson US History 1A, P.7 24 November 1998 Image and Reality In the years since the thousand days many questions have been raised and are still being studied about John F. Kennedy. A Life of John F. Kennedy: A Question of Character is a book written by Thomas C. Reeves, in which Reeves discusses these issues. JFK was a great man, and yet there are still some things that one must take into consideration. His morality was always somewhat of an uncertainty; be
Roswell
Roswell
Roswell The Roswell Incident The Roswell Incident, which enlightened our minds to the capacity of excepting all, has remained one of the most controversial issues today. In Roswell, New Mexico, 1947, a strange occurrence arises. An alien craft from outer space crashed in an open field. The issue lay still for almost thirty years, until the thought of a government cover-up arose. Society?s opinions have changed over the years. Previous to the 1990?s, people have despised the thought of sharing th
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster?
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster?
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Na
AIDS: The Man-Made-Monster
AIDS: The Man-Made-Monster
AIDS: The Man-Made-Monster subject = Humanity title = Aids: Man-made monster AIDS: The Man-Made-Monster In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof. J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action In
The Slaughter House Five
The Slaughter House Five
The Slaughter House Five THE NOVEL - THE PLOT - Billy Pilgrim, like Kurt Vonnegut, was an American soldier in Europe in the last year of World War II. If you come to know a combat veteran well- a veteran of that war, of the Korean War, or of the war in Vietnam- you will almost always find that his war experience was the single most important event in his life. The sights and scars of war remain with the soldier for the rest of his days, and his memories of death and killing help to shape whateve
Ai - Edge Of Excellence
Ai - Edge Of Excellence
Ai - Edge Of Excellence Running head: The Edge of Excellence The Edge of Excellence Kathleen P. Munn Community College of Philadelphia Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere novelties among business and marketing p
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence Recently, the media has spent an increasing amount of broadcast time on new technology. The focus of high-tech media has been aimed at the flurry of advances concerning artificial intelligence (AI). What is artificial intelligence and what is the media talking about? Are these technologies beneficial to our society or mere novelties among business and marketing professionals? Medical facilities, police departments, and manufacturing plants have all been changed by AI but
A Brief History Of The Internet
A Brief History Of The Internet
A Brief History Of The Internet By default, any definitive history of the Internet must be short, since the Internet (in one form or another) has only been in existence for less than 30 years. The first iteration of the Internet was launched in 1971 with a public showing in early 1972. This first network, known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) was very primitive by today's standards, but a milestone in computer communications. ARPANET was based upon the design concepts of L
Edgar Allen Poe
Edgar Allen Poe
Edgar Allen Poe Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) Written and Contributed by SUGABUGA456 Edgar Allan Poe was one of Americas famous poets, fiction short-story writers, and literary critics. He is known as the first master of short story form especially in tales of horror, and mystery. The work he produced was considered to be some of the most influential literary criticism of his time. His poems made him one of the most famous figures in American literary history. His influence on literature is seen
Bay Of Pigs Invasion
Bay Of Pigs Invasion
Bay Of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically, years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castr
Anthrax Vaccination Program
Anthrax Vaccination Program
Anthrax Vaccination Program On May 18, 1998, Secretary of Defense William Cohen approved a plan to vaccinate all U.S. service members for anthrax. This plan has caused a fierce ethical debate over the legitimacy of this vaccination. The Department of Defense claims the vaccination is completely safe and has been in use for decades. Some doctors dispute this claim, and contend the vaccination may not be effective against weapon versions of anthrax. Many service members have refused the vaccinatio
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia Indonesia This report will be on the History in Brief of Indonesia, the Government of Indonesia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indonesia. In early days, the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was known to the Europeans as the Indies. Chris Columbus was looking for a westward sea root from Europe to the Indies, when he arrived in America. During 1600s the Dutch political control began to spread Indonesia. Indonesia declared it's independence in 1945 and fought t
The War In Vietnam
The War In Vietnam
The War in Vietnam The Vietnam War, the nation's longest, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives. Only the Civil War and the two world wars were deadlier for Americans. During the decade of direct U.S. military participation in Vietnam beginning in 1964, the U.S Treasury spent over $140 billion on the war, enough money to fund urban renewal projects in every major American city. Despite these enormous costs and their accompanying public and private trauma for the American people, the United St
Macedonia: The Critical Five Years: 1945-1950
Macedonia: The Critical Five Years: 1945-1950
Macedonia: The Critical Five Years: 1945-1950 The critical five years: 1945-1950 Nonetheless the Slavo-Macedonians, with the backing of the newlyformed Tito regime in Yugoslavia, kept up their efforts. Just a few days after the Varkiza agreement, Slavo-Macedonian emigres from Greece formed, in Skopje, an Organisation named NOF (National Liberation Front) and sent armed guerrilla bands back to the border areas of Greek Macedonia. The activities of these bands attracted the criticism of the KKE, s
The Use Of Propaganda In The Nazi Regime
The Use Of Propaganda In The Nazi Regime
The use of propaganda in the Nazi Regime subject = history:Holocaust title = The use of propaganda in the Nazi Regime and in their Totalitarian Control papers = The Role of Propaganda in the Nazi Takeover and in Their Totalitarian Control When one thinks of the term propaganda, what comes to mind? Would it bring a positive response? Would it bring a negative response? When one thinks of propaganda in association with the Holocaust, what comes to mind? A positive response or a negative respon
Austria 17Th & 18Th Centuries
Austria 17Th & 18Th Centuries
Austria 17Th & 18Th Centuries Austria Keith Henriques History 21 August 22, 1999 In my paper I will examine the absolute monarchy of Austria during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. I shall focus on the on the power of Austria, its foundation, preservation, and expansion. Lastly I will take into consideration the relationship between the classes, the growth of the power of state institutions, and some of the consequential figures in the evolution of absolute monarchy in Austria. The foun
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler For the past week I have been researching three men, Joseph Stalin, Mao, and Adolf Hitler for an answer to a question; who is the most evil? Which, means that I had to think about what exactly was evil for me. Now the dictionary they have a simple definition for it, which is: morally reprehensible, sinful, wicked. But there could be so many different meanings, because there are many different people in the world. So, these three men were judged on my definition of evil. Evil to me i
The Korea Question
The Korea Question
The Korea Question What is national identity? This question may seem to be to simple to even bother answering. The easy answer is that national history is the events in a nation's past that, when put together, unify all aspects of life in that nation. From this rough definition it would make sense that all of the nations in the world have a national identity. However, this question is not as black and white as it may seem. Some people believe that a nation whose history is nothing more than occu
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam Vietnam: The War We Should Have Won Essay written by Chris Styduhar The Vietnam War is one of the most disgraceful periods in American history. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by an almost third-world nation, but we lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or even prevented in the first place. The United States could have and should have won this war, with a combination of better weapons usage, better tactics, and better support from their home count
Gun Control
Gun Control
Gun Control Americans are faced with an ever-growing problem of violence. Our streets have become a battleground where the elderly are beaten for their social security checks, where terrified women are viciously attacked and raped. Each day teenage gangsters shoot it out for a patch of turf to sell their illegal drugs, and where innocent children are caught daily in the crossfire of drive-by shootings. We cannot ignore the damage that these criminals are doing to our society, and we must take ac
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Since the beginning of human kind there has been a cloud of wonder regarding the origin of our planet. Scientist interested in this field through out the years have developed many different theories to how our planet came about. Before the Twentieth Century, scientist and geologist alike revolved in the idea that Mountain building was due to the massive contractions of the earth caused by the gradual cooling of molten rocks. In 1900, American scientist Joseph Le C
Mathematical Codes
Mathematical Codes
Mathematical Codes Mathematical Codes Mathematical codes are used by millions everyday for a variety reasons, but all intending to keep something private. The coding theory has actual applications in consumer electronics and with other areas of mathematics. Encryption, which involves enciphering and encoding, is used to protect data against organized crime, government and multinational institutions. A use of arithmetic, prime numbers, and prime factorization is used within coding theory. The stu
Taoism
Taoism
Taoism Philosophy of Mind in China Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Historical Developments: The Classical Period Historical Developments: Han Cosmology Historical Developments: The Buddhist Period Historical Developments: The Neo-Confucian Period Bibliography Introduction: Conceptual and Theoretical Matters Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western folk psychology in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of
Philosophy Of Medicine
Philosophy Of Medicine
Philosophy Of Medicine The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down By Anne Fadiman Deepa Parikh April 27,0000 Professor Tauber PH273 The book, the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is an objective look into the world of two different cultures and their belief systems. The viewpoints of the Hmong and of the American doctors represent Hmong culture and the root of Western medicine. The book takes into account how two cultures, rather, two completely opposite worlds are ?collided? a
Marxism
Marxism
Marxism I. Introduction II. Marxism A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Economic Evolution III. Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT) A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: The Parliament versus the Crown IV. Institutional Theory A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Social Change V. Conclusion Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the