Free Hydrogen Essays   Free Hydrogen Essays

The Universe
The Universe It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big...

Acid Rain
Acid Rain INTRODUCTION: Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it's own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist etc tha...

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates INTRODUCTION A theme that we have seen and studied in this class is that a particular form or structure of a molecule plays a significant role in the function of that molecule. Since we are interested in the function of molecules. it helps to study their structure. One of the major classes of organic compounds found in cells are carbohydrates. These carbohydrate are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a general formula of X(CH2O)n. When the c...

Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons A major problem concerning the world today is the disposal of nuclear weapons. With the Cold War, we have seen a massive build up of nuclear weapons, and no, that we are no longer in a state of global warfare, what is to be done with them? As a result of the build-up in nuclear weapons during the cold war the world is now facing major environmental problems trying to deactivate them, and in addition major debate are occurring on the policies of disarmament and deterrence as solu...

The Universe
The Universe It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big...

Purpose: Observe Chemical Reactions And ID Reactants And Products Of T
I Purpose: Observe chemical reactions and ID reactants and products of the reactions. Classify the reactions and write balanced Equations. II Theoretical Background: A chemical reaction is a what happens to components that causes a physical change. III Hypothesis: You can determine a chemical rxn by the physical change that takes place. IV (A) Equipment: Burner, wood splints, crucible tongs, microspatula, test tubes 7, test tube holder, test tube rack, sandpaper, evaporating dish, safety goggle...

StudentNow.com!
StudentNow.com! INTRODUCTION Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it's own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist et...

Nucleotides
Nucleotides The foundation of life as we know it is composed of nucleic acids. Researchers believe that these fundamental building blocks were first formed three billion years ago when the first forms of elementary life began to appear on earth. Nucleic acids have at least two functions. The first of these functions is to serve as a means of passing on hereditary characteristics, and the second is to instruct the cells in the production of specific proteins. Nucleic acids by nature are rather c...

Ever Since I Was Little, I Have Always Looked Up To My Dad. Ive Admire
Ever since I was little, I have always looked up to my dad. I've admired him for his intelligence, his humor, his devotion, and his friendliness. But the one thing I have never neglected in my whole life is that my own father is a well-known, well-respected doctor. Whenever I walked down a street with him, people would smile at him, shake his hand, or give him a gift. I soon coveted this fame that he had, and wanted to become a doctor. I would practice on my dog or my pillows before preschool...

The Night Sky
The Night Sky Long ago, people looked into the night sky and wondered what they were looking at? How far away are those twinkles in the sky? Could they all be stars, or maybe, could they be something else? What makes certain lights brighter than others, and how does distance affect their intensity? These questions and other interesting facts will be reviewed in the following pages. One of the most common curiosities regarding the night sky is distance, which can be very hard to determine. Becau...

Things Are Different From Each Other, And Each Can Be Reduced To Very
Things are different from each other, and each can be reduced to very small parts of itself. - Ancient knowledge This was noticed early by people, and Greek thinkers, about 400BC, used the words element', and `atom' to describe the differences and smallest parts of matter. These ideas survived for 2000 years while concepts such as `Elements' of Earth, Fire, Air, and Water to explain `world stuff' came and went. Much later, Boyle, an experimenter like Galileo and Bacon, and who was influenced m...

HYDROGEN
HYDROGEN Hydrogen, symbol H, is reactive, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gaseous element. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The element is usually classed in group 1 of the periodic table. Hydrogen was confused with other gases until the a British chemist demonstrated in 1766 that it was evolved by the action of sulfuric acid on metals and also showed at a later date that it was an independent substance that combined with oxygen to form water. The British chemist Joseph Priestley named th...

---- Closest To The Sun
---- Closest to the sun ---- Smallest of the inner planets ---- Temperatures reach up to 1,380 F ---- Has low gravity, therefore there is no atmosphere ---- Orbits the sun once every 88 days ---- Surface is devoid of basalt - a hard, dense type of volcanic rock that has a glassy appearance ---- High density which implies that there is a large iron or nickel-ore core ---- Fun/Interesting Fact* Mercury's perihelion (the time at which the planet is the closest distance from the sun) advances 43 se...

All About The Planets
All about the Planets Mercury: Distance to the Sun- 57,900,000 km Revolution- 88 days Diameter- 4,878 km Rate of rotation- 59 days Moons- 0 Unique Features- It has a range of cliffs 100's of Kilometers long. Was once volcanic. It has changed little since it's formation. Venus: Distance to the Sun- 108,200,000 km Revolution- 225 days Diameter- 12,104 km Rate of rotation- 243 days Moons- 0 Unique Features- It's atmosphere provides an insolating effect, which keeps heat in. Its atmospheric pressur...

Our Solar System, The Sun And Its Planets Has Not Always Been There.
Our Solar system, the sun and its planet's has not always been there. It is nearly five billion years ago, and there is no solar system, no planets, moons, no sun. Instead there is a big cloud of dust and gas called a nebula. This cloud has been slowly twisting for more than 10 billion years, held together by it's own gravity. Then a star explodes......WOW!! its a super nova.... The blast pushes the gases of our nebula together. That strengthens the gravitational pull of those gases even more a...

Acid Rain
Acid Rain INTRODUCTION: Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it's own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist etc tha...

Hydrogen Car
Hydrogen Car The trouble with today's cars is that they still put out a lot of pollution, and use up fossil fuels. One day, we have to run out of fossil fuels. People have been talking about running cars on water for ages. Unfortunately, most of the time, these people are crackpots. But there is a certain amount of truth in what they say. Now I know that trying to predict the future is hard, but I think that an electric car, powered by a fuel cell running on hydrogen, could be a goer! If you re...

Hydrogen Bonds Are Extremely Strong Bonds Which Join Molecules Of Rela
Hydrogen bonds are extremely strong bonds which join molecules of relatively small mass. This peculiarity creates the unique properties associated with substances with hydrogen bonding, especially in H20. In most compounds, the polarity of its elements has a negligible effect on the dipole forces which connect them. However, when hydrogen bonds to a small and highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F, the difference in electronegativity between the atoms causes the shared electrons to ass...

How Chemistry Affects My Daily Life
How Chemistry affects my Daily Life I get up in the morning and I breath in oxygen and I breath out carbon dioxide. I get in the shower and use water *. I use soap in the shower also. I dry the water off with air molecules. I dry my hair by using a hair dryer, which uses electricity. Electrical affects are caused by the position and the movement of positively and negatively charged particles.I use cologne which has alcohol in it. I wash my clothes using water and soap. I light a candle. This is...

2/23/99
2/23/99 The Hindenburg Disaster Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin and his crew operated their first airship nearly one hundred years ago. Airships are big controllable balloons, also known as dirigibles. There are three classes of airships, rigid, nonrigid and semirigid. Rigid airships (zeppelins) use framework in the interior to keep their shape. Semirigid airships are a combination of framework and gas pressure to maintain their shape. Nonrigid airships (blimps) rely solely on air pressure to keep...

Nuclear Weapons, Explosive Devices, Designed To Release Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Weapons, explosive devices, designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb), which was tested on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosive. All explosives prior to that time derived their power from the rapid burning or decomposition of some chemical compound. Such chemical processes release only the energy of the outermost electrons in the atom. See ...

Mustard Gas Is A Group Of Chemical Compounds Used In Chemical Warfare,
Mustard Gas is a group of chemical compounds used in chemical warfare, so called because of its mustard-like smell. Mustard gas contains carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine, with either sulfur or nitrogen. When it comes in contact with skin, mustard gas causes severe blisters. Clothing can be worn to protect the skin, but breathing it produces extreme damage to the lungs and other internal tissues. These compounds are particularly harmful to moist areas of the human body, such as the eyes, armpits, ...

1.) Three Genetic Disorders Are Downs Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, And
1.) Three genetic disorders are Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Red-green color blindness. They are all caused by undesirable genes inherited by normal genetic mechanisms. These mutations are usually recessive because dominant ones usually die. Turner's Syndrome is caused by faulty cell division known as non disjunction. This occurs when chromosomes fail to separate. IN this disorder, the affected have one x chromosome. The effect are an underdeveloped female, mental retardedness, and...

Saturn Is A Large And Beautiful Planet. It May Be Best Know Known For
Saturn is a large and beautiful planet. It may be best know known for the prominent rings that surround it, which gives the planet its unusual appearance. Saturn is one of the nine planets orbiting in our solar system. It is the sixth planet from the sun in the Milky Way galaxy. The ancient symbol for Saturn is . Astronomers still use this symbol to represent the planet. It was named after the ancient Roman god of planting and harvest. To honor Saturn, every year the ancient Romans held a joy- ...

Jupiter
Jupiter Jupiter contains 2/3 of the planetary mass of the solar system. Its interior pressure may reach 00 million times the surface pressure on earth. It has 16 moons, a ring system and an immense, complex atmosphere. Jupiter's distance from the sun is 778.3 million kilometers. Its period of revolution is 11.86 earth years or 1 Jovian year. The equatorial diameter is 143,200 kilometers. Jupiter's atmosphere's main components are hydrogen and Helium. The names of the 16 moons on Jupiter are Met...

THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes In Altitude Have A
THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body's ability to provide adequate oxygen to be utiliz...

It Is Always A Mystery About How The Universe Began, Whether If And Wh
It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big Bang. Before...

Into The Depths Of A Black Hole Everyday We Look Out Upon The Night Sk
Into the Depths of A Black Hole Everyday we look out upon the night sky, wondering and dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space. That mystery happens to be that of the e...

Why Nuclear Fusion Is So Cool....... For A Fusion Reaction To Take Pla
Why nuclear fusion is so cool....... For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. This can occur either when one nucleus is accelerated to high energies by an accelerating device, or when the energies of both nuclei are raised by the application of very high temperature. The latter method, referred to the application of thermonuclear fusion, is the source of a lot of really cool ...

The Theme That The World Has An Outward Appearance That Seems Fair And
The theme that the world has an outward appearance that seems fair and perfect but really they're as Holden put it phonies. This is shown countless amount of times in his journey through New York and even before he left. The setting is in the 1950's; so I'm pretty sure that he didn't encounter any transvestites, lesbians, or anything that extreme of phoniest. Or on the other hand he could have liked them for being as Elmemson said a none conformist. But I doubt it, he seemed to like kids mo...

Chemistry: Water Pollution Phosphates In Water Pollution Phosphates Ma
Chemistry: Water Pollution Phosphates in Water Pollution Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertia...

The Universe  What Lies Beyond Our Planet. The Universe That We Live
The Universe ? what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space. That mystery happens to be that of the ever clandestine, black hole. ? of the concepts, properties, and processes involved wi...

The Importance Of Water To Life On Earth A Look At The Unique Structur
The Importance of Water to Life on Earth a look at the unique structure and behavior of the water molecule by Steven Luscher, Student Water is the most important substance in our evolution and our daily lives. Without water, life as we know it would not have been possible. This essay will examine the water molecule in order to ascertain how it brought about Earth's thriving ecosystem and how important it is to us today. ============================== ______________________________ =============...

Orion
Orion Orion Down fell the red skin of the lion Into the river at his feet. His mighty club no longer beat The forehead of the bull; but he Reeled as of yore beside the sea, When blinded by Oenopion He sought the blacksmith at his forge, And climbing up the narrow gorge, Fixed his blank eyes upon the sun. ~The Occultation of Orion by Mr. Longfellow~ This poem was written about the Greek myth of Orion. The story says that Orion, the son of Neptune, was a handsome giant and a mighty hunter. His...

Origin Of Solar System
Origin Of Solar System The Origin of the Solar System One of the most intriguing questions in astronomy today is the how our solar system formed. Not only does the answer add insight to other similarly forming systems, but also helps to satisfy our curiosity about the origin of our species. Although it is highly unlikely that astronomers will ever know with absolute scientific certainty how our system originated, they can construct similar theoretical models with the hopes gaining a better under...

The Moon
The Moon The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth: orbit: 384,400 km from Earth diameter: 3476 km mass: 7.35e22 kg Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other names in other mythologies. The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes; we see this as the cycle of the Moon's pha...

The Solar System
The Solar System Assignment 1: The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids). The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars: The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus, though all except Mercury and Pluto are very nearly circular. The orbits of the pla...

Reproduction Process
Reproduction Process reproduction process by which organisms replicate themselves. In a general sense reproduction is one of the most important concepts in biology: it means making a copy, a likeness, and thereby providing for the continued existence of species. Although reproduction is often considered solely in terms of the production of offspring in animals and plants, the more general meaning has far greater significance to living organisms. To appreciate this fact, the origin of life and th...

PH Lab Experiment
pH Lab Experiment By Jeff Price Biology 101- 011 Dr. Art Ellis 1 May 1997 Trident Technical College Charleston, South Carolina 29423 pH Lab Experiment Abstract: Upon hypothesizing that stomach medicines are useful in neutralizing the acidic affects of beverages when used properly an experiment was designed to test this theory. The experiment incorporated the use of white grape juice to be the acid, Maalox as the antacid, and red cabbage juice as the pH indicator. A control group was also formul...

The Discovery Of Fluorine
The discovery of Fluorine title = The discovery of Fluorine The isolation of fluorine had challenged chemist for many years, taking the lives of at least two scientists in the process. Fluorine receives its name from the Latin, fluo, meaning flow. The first real attempt to free fluorine, was done by a chemist by the name of Humphyry Davy, between the years of (1811-1813). He first tried to liberate the element by using the chemical methods, but this failed. He then went on to try and electrolysi...

Chemistry: Water Pollution Phosphates In Water Pollution Phosphates Ma
Chemistry: Water Pollution Phosphates in Water Pollution Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertia...

Depletion Of The Ozone Layer
Depletion of the Ozone Layer Depletion of the Ozone Layer CHEM 151 Research Paper July 11, 1996 The ozone layer diminishes more each year. As the area of polar ozone depletion (commonly called the ozone hole) gets larger, additional ultraviolet rays are allowed to pass through. These rays cause cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity to diseases.1 What causes the depletion of the ozone layer? In 1970, Crutzen first showed that nitrogen oxides produced by decaying nitrous oxide from soil-borne mi...

Greek Fire
Greek Fire ?GREEK FIRE? The original Greek fire was an invention used as a weapon of the Eastern Roman Emperors. It is also said to have been invented by a Syrian engineer, one Callinicus, a refugee from Maalbek, in the seventh century. The Byzantines of Constantinople originally used it. But they never used the term Greek fire because they claimed to be Romans, and never called themselves Greeks. It was like an insult to them because in their times to be Greek was to have a bad reputation. The ...

Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner Brooke Basiri Mrs. Frey World History Honors 14 April 2000 Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley in 1749. Orphaned until he was 5 years old, his brothers and sisters wanted him to get involved with medicine. He completed his training with the great surgeon John Hunter at St. George's Hospital in London. At the age of 23 he returned to Berkeley as the local doctor, leaving only to continue smaller practices in London and Cheltenham. The Chantry became his home for 38 years. From the ea...

Fusion
Fusion Fusion reactions are inhibited by the electrical repulsive force that acts between two positively charged nuclei. For fusion to occur, the two nuclei must approach each other at high speed to overcome the electrical repulsion and attain a sufficiently small separation (less than one-trillionth of a centimeter) that the short-range strong nuclear force dominates. For the production of useful amounts of energy, a large number of nuclei must under go fusion: that is to say, a gas of fusing n...

Observing Stars
Observing Stars Observing Stars Our view of the sky at night is possible because of the emission and reflection of light. 'Light' is the better-known term for the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes waves in the visible, ultra-violet, infra-red, microwave, radio, X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The scale of the spectrum is so large that no region is distinct, several overlap each other. Each of these regions in the electromagnetic spectrum represent transverse waves, travelling as electrical a...

Planets And Solar System
Planets And Solar System Planets and Solar System The Planets and the Solar System Planets 2 A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light (Grolier, 1992). The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets which range in size and make-up. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many other minor planet...

Bacteria Outline
Bacteria Outline Bacteria - Oldest, structurally simplest, most abundant forms of life - Only organism with prokaryotic cellular organization - The only members of the kingdom Monera (4800 different kinds) - Characteristics change depending on growth conditions - Maintenance of life depends on them - play vital role of productivity and as decomposers - Capable of fixing atmospheric N for use by other organisms - Used in production and fermentation of various food and as antibiotics and is being ...

Acid Rain
Acid Rain Introduction: What Causes Acid Rain? One of the main causes of acid rain is sulfur dioxide. Natural sources, which emit this gas, are Volcanoes, sea spray, rotting vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as Coal and oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this gas in the world. When sulfur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulfate ion. It then Becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in ...

Enzyme Catalase
Enzyme Catalase INTRODUCTION The enzyme catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen as shown here, 2H2O2-------------------*2H2O+O2. It is one of the fastest known enzymes and its turnover number is 6 million, which means the number of substrate molecules which one molecule of the enzyme turns to products per minute. This can be demonstrated by putting a piece of liver into a beaker of Hydrogen Peroxide, the fizzing shows a demonstration of the enzyme in actio...