Stupidity


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stupidity Geroge Orwell

George Orwell was a famous author who wrote many novels and essays. His real name was Eric Author Blair. He was born in Motihari near to Bengal, India on June 25 19031. He was born in a "Lower upper middle class family"2. A few years after Orwell's birth his family moved to England, where he received conventional upbringing.3
In July 1936 George Orwell and his wife, Eileen Nee O'Shaugnessy joined in fighting for political beliefs in the Spanish Civil War. They joined a small Marxist group called P.O.U.M. Orwell wrote several books about the experiences that accrued during this time. These books are considered some of the most well documented writings of the war. When WWII came around Orwell enlisted in the British army, but was turned down. Instead of fighting on the front line he headed the Indian service of the Britinnica British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 4.
In the spring of 1937, George Orwell was returning from the front line in Alcubierre with the BBC when he was wounded in the neck by a sniper bullet5. The wound left Orwell unable to talk, and partially paralyzed in one arm6. This was the beginning of Orwell's decline in health, and the decline of his writing. A few years later he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, and died on January 21, 19507.
The first characteristic that is evident in George Orwell's writing is the simplification in his writing8. Orwell is often given credit for writing in a way that everyone can understand and relate to something9. A perfect example of his simplicity is in the book Animal Farm. The characters in this book are barnyard animals that represent people in the Russian Revolution. Orwell's reason for using the barnyard animals was to make it easier for the less educated people to know what happened in the Russian Revolution.
Another characteristic that is evident in Orwell's writings is his sympathy for the working class. The book Coming Up for Air strongly stated Orwell's views for the middle class people to revolt, and take over themselves10. The novel greatly emphasizes the need for the middle class to awaken from their "semi-anesthesia" and become aware of the political happenings around them11. This characteristic is also evident in Animal Farm. The farm animals (working class) are successful at overthrowing farmer Jones12.
Another evident characteristic in Orwell's writings is his use of his own life experiences. In Such, Such Were the Joys, a long essay; Orwell described his childhood as he was growing up13. Orwell received much criticism from the people in the book, because the way he described their traits and personalities14. Another book that was written about his own life experience was Down and Out in Paris. In this book he describes his life when he lived in the slums of Paris. Orwell arranged it in such a way that it seemed like it was fiction to most readers, but in fact it was real15.
The book Animal Farm is a satire of the Russian reveloution16. The setting is in a small farm in England. The book starts with the eldest pig gathering all the other animals into a meeting, He talks about a dream of revolting against the farmer who is in charge. The animals lead a successful revolt, and then take charge of governing themselves. It starts off where all the animals are equal to each other. Then it changes to all animals are equal, but some are better than others. Finally it is changed to all animals are equal, but pigs are better than all of them. The symbolism in this novel is great, and every animal can be matched up to a key person in the Russian Revolution.
The aspect of simplification is very evident in the story Animal Farm. The whole plot of the story is describing what happened during the Russian Revolution17. Barnyard animals replace all of the characters. In this book Orwell shows the stupidity of some of the people involved. He also shows how easy it is to persuade people to believe in the things you want. The biggest aspect that Orwell puts through is that all revolutions fail, and there is always corruption18.
Another aspect of Orwell's writing that is very apparent ... more

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The Clouds

Aside from all the prodigious number of Greek tragedies in history, stands a collection of  Greek comedies which serve as humorous relief from the powerful overtone of the tragedy.  These comedies were meant to ease the severity and seriousness sometimes associated with the Greek society.  The ideas portrayed in the comedies, compared to the tragedies, were ridiculously far-fetched; however, although abnormal, these views are certainly worthy of  attention.  Throughout his comedy, The Clouds, Aristophanes, along with his frequent use of toilet humor, ridicules aspects of Greek culture when he destroys tradition by denouncing the importance of the gods' influence on the actions of mortals, and he unknowingly parallels Greek society with today's.  Aristophanes also defiantly misrepresents an icon like Socrates as comical, atheistic, and consumed by ideas of self interest, which is contradictory to the Socrates seen in Plato's Apology or Phaedo.
    Aristophanes denounces the importance of the gods' influence on the actions of mortals.  In the usual tragedy, the gods play an extremely important role towards the actions of the mortal characters.  Through fear of the alternative and examples of the past, Athenians carried out their everyday lives under the guidance of the gods' wishes.  Aristophanes challenges the audience, and Greek culture as a whole, by offering a different view on the answers and directions of life, than that of the gods.  He denounces the parables and explanations to answers in life that involve the gods.  Instead he explains that such things as the aerial whirlwind, and especially the clouds, are the reasoning behind all of natures actions.  On the surface these comments were seen as a mockery and very humorous.  Underlying this humor is a scary truth, most likely ignored by the
congregations witnessing this play.  How many times has a character in a tragedy been so willing to contradict the gods?  Dominant characters like Creon and Prometheus have blatantly disobeyed the gods.  The alternative explanations serve a hidden truth in the hearts of many of the Athenian people.  This truth is always again repressed by the end of each play, tragedy or comedy; because their was too great of a fear to upset the higher beings.                
    Aristophanes, although he wrote in 420 BC, parallels much of Greek society with that of today's.  He disrupts the audiences' comfort through covertly making accusations towards the credibility of Athenians as whole-hearted people.  He places them on a plane with people of today's society who seek skeptical methods of living.  Universal codes, among advanced civilizations, set standards to be strictly adhered to, however Aristophanes totally contradicted these guidelines in The Clouds.  Strepsiades, an example of an every day Athenian citizen, seems to seek the untouchable wisdom of the great Thinker, Socrates.  On the outside, this plan is worthy of admiration and nobility.  As his motive is more closely studied, it unfolds that he is solely interested in Socrates' studies in order to escape his debts and obligations by sharpening his tongue.  Although the beginning of the play is comical because it offers ridiculous thoughts on the answers to life's questions, there is soon a sort of ironic overtone as the comedy becomes a concealed generalization of the audience it was written to amuse.  A commentary on the play written by Ian Johnston states, "increasingly numbers of the audience who were laughing so comfortably at Socrates [his bizarre answers] only a few minutes before are now being forced to laugh at themselves or their neighbors."  The depiction brought about by Aristophanes, towards general Athenians is that they are self centered, consumed by greed, and oblivious to the appropriate standards by which to lead one's life.  This allegation far surpasses the goals of a comedy, to ease the severity and seriousness sometimes associated with the Greek society, and to serve as humorous relief from the tragedies; however, the criticism only deepens the severity and stunts the humor, although the audience is probably still laughing anyway.  Through this method, Aristophanes provokes laughter as a way to cover up an unpleasant truth which is mutually kept silent by all of society.
    Aristophanes also sets Athenians equal to people today in their flaws in family proceedings.  A major difference between Greek comedies and tragedies can be seen ... more

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