Spectrum Disorder


Find More Spectrum Disorder

Looking for essays on spectrum disorder? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

spectrum disorder Genetics




    Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do. By understanding genetic engineering and its history, discovering its possibilities, and answering the moral and safety questions it brings forth, the blanket of fear covering this remarkable technical miracle can be lifted.
    The first step to understanding genetic engineering and embracing its possibilities for society is to obtain a rough knowledge base of its history and method. The basis for altering the evolutionary process is dependant on the understanding of how individuals pass on characteristics to their offspring. Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process when an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel developed the first "laws of heredity." Using these laws, scientists studied the characteristics of organisms for most of the next one hundred years following Mendel's discovery. These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, or genes (Stableford 16). For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, and the other brown. The same child could also receive two brown genes from his or her mother. The conclusion for this inheritance would be the child has a three in four chance of having brown eyes, and a one in three chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
    Genes are transmitted through chromosomes which reside in the nucleus of every living organism's cells. Each chromosome is made up of fine strands of deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. The information carried on the DNA determines the cells function within the organism.
    DNA discovery is attributed to the research of three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson in 1951. They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin 1).
    "The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 25). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. DNA can be broken up by exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 26). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at nucleotide bases both upstream and downstream from the gene to be transfered. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called ligases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure.
    Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1). In nature, most organisms copy their DNA in the same way. The PCR mimics this process, only it does it in a test tube. When any cell divides, enzymes called polymerases make a copy of all the DNA in each chromosome. The first step in this process is to "unzip" the two DNA chains of the double helix. As the two strands separate, DNA polymerase makes a copy ... more

spectrum disorder

Research on Spectrum Disorder

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Spectrum Disorder" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Spectrum Disorder essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Spectrum Disorder and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Spectrum Disorder

Find essay on Spectrum Disorder

Cholecyctokinin and panic disorder




Cholecyctokinin is a neuropeptide found in the gastrointestinal system and brain.  Research has shown that it has various isolated fragments that may influence several important areas of human behavior, such as nociception, satiety and anxiety.  Cholecystokinin receptors located in the central nervous system (CNS) are known as CCK-B receptors, and they have high affinity for the tetrapeptide fragment CCK-4.  Anxiogenic effect of CKK-4 in humans suggested that it might be involved in pathogenesis of panic disorder, and opened new avenues of research into biological aspects of anxiety.  Further research showed increased sensitivity of panic disorder patients to CCK-4 in comparison with normal volunteers.  Next, substances capable of blocking CCK-B receptors (CCK-B antagonists) were synthesized and their action was evaluated.  One of such antagonists, L-365,260 proved to be effective in blocking CCK-4 induced panic attacks in panic disorder sufferers.  However, a pilot study  failed to show the effectiveness of the same antagonist in decreasing the frequency of spontaneous panic attacks in panic disorder patients during the course of six weeks.  Though CCK-B antagonists may prove to become great potential anxiolitic agents, more research has to be done in order to understand the mechanism of CCK-4 action as a neurotransmitter and its role in naturally occurring panic attacks
Ethiology of panic disorder: a brief overview
Panic disorder, (PD) is a recognized psychiatric condition and is identified in DSM-III-R as a condition separate from other anxiety disorders.  Its main feature is occurrence of unprovoked panic attacks, which happen at random and cannot be explained by the patients.  These attacks of fear are closely associated with an overwhelming subjective feeling of anxiety in connection with unpleasant bodily sensations, such as increased heartbeat/palpitations, hot flushes/chills, abdominal distress, nausea, sweating, trembling/shaking, etc.  Along with objectively groundless emotional symptoms, e.g. fear of losing control, sense of unreality and detachment, even fear of dying they affect PD sufferers, interfering with social and professional aspects oftheir lives.  Some PD patients associate panic attacks with certain objects or situations, and therefore phobias,  especially agoraphobia , are closely associated with the PD.  
The ethiology of PD is not clear, and most theories support either a psychological or a neurobiological view.  The most developed psychological explanation is cognitive theory of PD.  According to Clark's model, the panic attack develops as a result of misinterpretation of unpleasant bodily sensations,which leads to increasing feeling of anxiety and progresses to a fully developed panic.  This misinterpretation is defined as anxiety sensitivity, and it present in PD patients.  When challenged by panicogenic pharmacological agents, anxiety sensitivity causes a faster and stronger response in PD sufferers than in healthy individuals.2  Biological theories concentrate on implicating pathological disturbances in the neurotransmitter systems, including GABA, serotonin (5HT) and noradrenaline.  
Recently attention was given to a less known neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK).  Though it was first discovered in the gastrointestinal tract (it is secreted by the small intestine and stimulates gall bladder contractions), its abundant presence in the mammalian brain indicated on its possible functions as a behavior-regulating neurotransmitter.  Various electrophysiological data and animal studies linked CCK to anxiety regulation.  For example, its excitatory role on pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area was first observed in rats after electrophoretic administration of CCK, and increased density of CCK-B receptors was detected in rats with low exploratory activity and with novelty-avoidance behavior.7  The later, also known as novelty stress sensitivity, is often observed in panic disorder patients..  Anxiogenic properties of CCK were demonstrated in various animal models of anxiety, and results of only one of these studies suggested anxiolytic rather than anxiogenic properties of CCK.7
The first human study which demonstrated CCK anxiogenic properties was conducted by De Montigny in 1989.  The study did not include a control group and all participants were healthy volunteers.  Upon injection of various doles of CCK (20-100 mg) 70% of participants developed panic attack symptoms.7  This discovery was confirmed a year later by Bradwejn and colleagues, who have contributed heavily to the research on the role of CCK as panicogenic agent.  In 1991 they confirmed De Montignys observation with the use of a double-blind experimental design.7  Unlike de Montigny, Bradwejns study included no healthy volunteers, but rather panic disorder patients, who were randomly subjected to injections of either ... more

spectrum disorder

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • S: Autism S: Autism Autism Autism is a developmental disability of the brain, much like dyslexia or attention deficit disorder. Autism is not a form of mental retardation, and though many autistic people act like they are retarded, but a lot of times they are very intelligent. The Autism society of America quotes autism...occurs in approximately 15 of every 10,000 individuals and nearly 400,000 people in the U.S. today have some form of autism. The sympots of autism may vary from person to person. Autism is calle...
  • P: Genetics P: Genetics Genetics Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • E: Cholecyctokinin and panic disorder E: Cholecyctokinin and panic disorder Cholecyctokinin and panic disorder Cholecyctokinin is a neuropeptide found in the gastrointestinal system and brain. Research has shown that it has various isolated fragments that may influence several important areas of human behavior, such as nociception, satiety and anxiety. Cholecystokinin receptors located in the central nervous system (CNS) are known as CCK-B receptors, and they have high affinity for the tetrapeptide fragment CCK-4. Anxiogenic effect of CKK-4 in humans suggested that it m...
  • C: Genetic Testing And Its Social Implications C: Genetic Testing And Its Social Implications Genetic Testing And Its Social Implications Probably, applied genetics\' most impacts on society are as a result of genetic tests. In general, genetic tests seek to detect some feature of a person\'s genetic constitution. This feature can be a disease causing mutation or a marker DNA sequence used to detect presence of another gene. Obviously these procedures used for testing the status of DNA, RNA or chromosomes are included in genetic tests. What is more it is possible to include some protein ...
  • T: Chocha T: Chocha chocha It was in 1886 that the German pharmacologist, Louis Lewin, published the first systematic study of the cactus, to which his own name was subsequently given. Anhalonium lewinii was new to science. To primitive religion and the Indians of Mexico and the American Southwest it was a friend of immemorially long standing. Indeed, it was much more than a friend. In the words of one of the early Spanish visitors to the New World, they eat a root which they call peyote, and which they venerate a...
  • R: Children?s Violent Television Viewing: Are Parents R: Children?s Violent Television Viewing: Are Parents Children?s Violent Television Viewing: Are Parents Monitoring? Children\'s Violent Television Viewing: Are Parents Monitoring? Tina L. Cheng, MD, MPH*; Ruth A. Brenner, MD, MPH; Joseph L. Wright, MD, MPH; Hari Cheryl Sachs, MD#; Patricia Moyer, BS; and Malla R. Rao, MEngg, DrPH ABSTRACT. Objective. Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence ...
  • U: Bipolar Affective Disorder U: Bipolar Affective Disorder Bipolar Affective Disorder Bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery to scientists and physicians since the sixteenth century. The artist Vincent Van Gogh is the first documented case of the disorder, but since then, we have not learned much more about what causes the disease or even a cure for sufferers. The biggest hindrance to scientists is that there are so many symptoms, and they arent sure what the source is. Right now, approximately one percent of the population (three million peop...
  • M: CHILD ABUSE M: CHILD ABUSE CHILD ABUSE Child Abuse is a major problem in our society today. According to child protective service (CPS) agencies in the United States. Child Abuse and neglects shows 1.7% increase over the number children reported in 1996. More people are starting to report child abuse, reporting levels have increased 41% between 1988 and 1997. There are four forms of child maltreatment: emotional abuse, neglect, physical abuse and sexual abuse. Emotional Abuse: Also known as: verbal abuse and mental abuse....
  •  : Embryonic Stem Cells Unnecessary for Medical Progr : Embryonic Stem Cells Unnecessary for Medical Progr Embryonic Stem Cells Unnecessary for Medical Progress stem argumentative persuasive Embryonic Stem Cells Unnecessary for Medical Progress Reporting on new research by Dr. Donald Orlic of the National Institutes of Health and others, indicating that adult bone marrow stem cells can help repair, and restore function in, damaged hearts: Until now, researchers thought that stem cells from embryos offered the best hope for rebuilding damaged organs, but this latest research shows that the embryos, w...
  • D: Autism D: Autism Autism In general, autism is the developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear, or otherwise sense. Approximately 3 to 5 out of every 10,000 school aged children have some for of autism, and males with the disorder outnumber females with it by nearly 5 to 1. It is estimated that 1 in every 500 display some autistic characteristics (Williams, xiv). Autism is called a spectrum disorder because there is no one characteristic and it is different i...
  • I: Erectile Dysfunctions I: Erectile Dysfunctions Erectile Dysfunctions ERECTILE DYSFUNCTIONS Erection problems are estimated to effect more than ten million American men. At some point in a males life, they are likely to have this problem, ranging from maybe one or two times, or as severe as impotence. Studies have shown that men 18-24 have a low percentage of erectional difficulties, but there is a high percentage of men 51-60 that have this problem. Yet age is not the only factor for this problem. Many factors contribute to erectile dysfunct...
  • S: I Never Promised You a Rose Garden S: I Never Promised You a Rose Garden I Never Promised You a Rose Garden Schizophrenia has long been a devastating mental illness and only recently have we begun to see an improvement in our capabilities to treat this disorder. The development of neuroleptics such as, Haldol, Risperidal, and Zyprexa have given psychiatrists, psychologists and their patients great hope in the battle against this mental disease. However, during the 1960s, drugs were not available and psychologists relied upon psychotherapy in order to treat patients. ...
  • O: Autism O: Autism autism We start with an imagea tiny, golden child on hands and knees, circling round and round a spot on the floor in mysterious, self-absorbed delight. She does not look up, though she is smiling and laughing; she does not call our attention to the mysterious object of her pleasure. She does not see us at all. She and the spot are all there is, and though she is eighteen months old, an age for touching, tasting, pointing, pushing, exploring, she is doing none of these. She does not walk, or c...
  • R: Asperger?s Syndrome and Instructional Intervention R: Asperger?s Syndrome and Instructional Intervention Asperger?s Syndrome and Instructional Intervention Aspergers Syndrome and Instructional Intervention Aspergers Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disability first identified in 1944 by Dr. Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician. However, since his paper was written in German and published during World War II, his findings were not well known in the United States and in other non-German speaking countries. In 1981, Dr. Lorna Wing, a British researcher, brought AS to the attention o...
  • D: No title D: No title The Environment In Which Planning Processes Take Place May Have An Important Effect On How The Process Is Conducted The ubiquity of change social, economic, political, technological and attitudinaland the accelerated pace by which it is occurring demand a serious and imaginative response on the part of business if they want to thrive over the next several years, let alone the next decade or 100 years. Strategic planning is highly selective, sets priorities, and does not constitute a compreh...
  • E: Fatty Standards E: Fatty Standards Fatty Standards Todays children are faced with a severe epidemic. Day after day, children are growing in size. The number of obese children is growing severely and scientists are perplexed. Obesity is a disease affecting thousands of people every day. While conducting my research, the argument that I found was most prominent was the debate between whether obese individuals should become fit vs. just losing weight. Most articles I found continued to say that obese people need to lose weight to r...
  • R: The Dawn of a New Age: PCP R: The Dawn of a New Age: PCP The Dawn of a New Age: PCP The Dawn of a New Age: PCP April, 1956 : The pharmaceutical company Parke & Davis first synthesize what they believe to be the perfect anesthetic (Souza, 1995). When administered to patients, it causes a completely dissociative state, with no significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression. Patients appear to be awake, eyes open, breathing normally.but are unaware of their surroundings or the procedures being performed upon them (Souza, 1995). Indeed, this is the ...
  • Ect1 Ect1 Ect1 How is Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) used to treat depression? To answer this question, we must first answer these other questions: What is electroconvulsive therapy? When depression is diagnosed, which patients are suitable for ECT and which for psychotherapy? If not all depressed patients will respond to ECT, how are we to identify those likely to benefit? Invented by Cerletti and Bini, in 1938, ECT was the first form of therapy that reliably reduced severe depression (Abrams and Essman...
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder Bipolar Affective Disorder Bipolar Affective Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definate explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we ar...
  • The overdiagnosis of ADHD The overdiagnosis of ADHD The overdiagnosis of ADHD In Bobbys second grade classroom, his teacher threw up her hands and said, That is it! On that very morning, Bobby leaped out of his seat seven times to go sharpen his pencil, each time accidentally colliding into other students desks and chairs, sending papers and books plunging to the floor. Bobby screamed out comments to every slightly comical part of the book that the teacher read. His teachers last straw was when, after repeatedly kicking the desk in front of h...
  • Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy Aromatherapy is a branch of herbal medicine that centers on using fragrant substances, particularly oily plant extracts, to alter mood or improve individuals health or appearance. The alleged benefits of aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of emotions from past experiences. But skeptics cite a lack of credible supportive studies published in reputable scientific or medical journals. Scents of Well-Being? Aromatherapy...
  • The Early Detection and Treatments of Adolescent D The Early Detection and Treatments of Adolescent D The Early Detection and Treatments of Adolescent Depression and Suicid Only in the past two decades has depression in adolescents been taken seriously. Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood and thoughts. It affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide. Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in...
  • Hamlet and the motif of thought Hamlet and the motif of thought Hamlet and the motif of thought If Hamlet from himself be ta\'en away, And when he\'s not himself does wrong Laertes, Then Hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it. Who does it then? His madness. If\'t be so, Hamlet is of the faction that is wrong\'d; His madness is poor Hamlet\'s enemy. (V.ii.230-235) Hamlet\'s self-description in his apology to Laertes, delivered in the appropriately distanced and divided third-person, explicitly fingers the greatest antagonist of the playconsciousness. The obl...
  • Special Needs Special Needs Special Needs Higher Diploma in Primary Education Special Educational Needs Assignment Student Name: Julie Collins Student Number: GDPE226 Tutor Group: Mayo A Tutor: Dr. Brian Mac Giolla Phadraig Date of Submission: 28th September 2004 SECTION A What are the four separate categories of Special Educational Needs and constituent sub-categories, as detailed in the S.E.R.C. report? 1. Pupils with learning difficulties and disorders Pupils in need of Remedial Teaching (Learning Support) Pupils ...
  • PH232 - Pharmacology III (Overall: Week 16) PH232 - Pharmacology III (Overall: Week 16) PH232 - Pharmacology III (Overall: Week 16) WEEK 3 (1/30 - 2/2) NOTES: Antiviral Agents (ch 49, pg 801) Cont'd... Antiherpes Agents (Ch 49, pg 802) Cont'd... . Acyclovir/Valacyclovir cont... o As mentioned before, these drugs must be phosphorylated to the Triphosphate form in order to become active. o Acyclovir inhibits DNA Polymerase of the Virus. o Acyclovir is incorporated into the Viral DNA Chain, and since it lacks 3-prime Hydroxyl Group, it will terminate the elongation of the DNA Chain. o...