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Aboriginal customary law and European law have been at odds since the first years of the European invasion, but only recently has the clash come into the open. Stuart MacMillan of the Aboriginal Resource and Development Services in the Northern Territory says that remote Aboriginal communities there and in Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland see no reason why they should submit to "whitefella law".
The governments of the Northern Territory and Western Australia are investigating how indigenous law can be incorporated into state law. Chris Sidoti of the Human Rights Council of Australia says: "Some people would say that human rights runs opposite to Aboriginal law, others that it provides a universal standard to which other legal traditions must adapt. Customary law can't remain immutable. The problem for those trying to bring the two systems into line is that human rights law derives from a western legal tradition which frequently contradicts Aboriginal law.
Colin McDonald, a Darwin barrister and expert in customary law, says that on such issues Australia's legal system may simply have to bite the bullet and go against the norms of international human rights.
Aboriginal women have often claimed that the law has been slanted to support the rights of indigenous men over women.
Lowitja O'Donoghue, who formerly chaired the government's Aboriginal affairs body ATSIC, believes that Australian law should be more aggressive in such cases. Some aspects of Aboriginal law are falling out of practice. Chris Sidoti believes that whatever balance is struck will be as distinct from traditional European law as it is from traditional Aboriginal law. "For traditional people, being put in jail is more inhuman than spearing, and any unified law would have to recognise that.
Aboriginal Customary Law
The High Court did, however, conclude in that case (a conclusion confirmed in WA v Commonwealth, Wororra Peoples v WA and Teddy Biljabu and others v WA, High Court, March 16 1995) that some Aboriginal land law (that which attracted the status of 'native title') survived the colonisation process. What is far less certain is the fate of Aboriginal customary laws that were not concerned with title to land. Did traditional laws on subjects such as family relationships, title to goods, community justice mechanisms, inheritance and criminal law survive colonisation? If native title survived, why didn't other property law? Why didn't any traditional laws retain their credence? One can conclude with confidence that colonisers had little regard for indigenous law. Recognition must be given ... to the existence (and survival) of customary law. As Australian society examines socially just ways of dealing with its indigenous peoples, and as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to demand the right of more culturally appropriate responses, the importance of customary law cannot be underestimated (Social Justice Commissioner, 1995: |P 31).
In 1992 the Commonwealth, in implementing recommendation 219 of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Report (Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, 1991), requested a further report be prepared which outlined the Commonwealth government's progress on the recognition of customary law since a 1986 Australian Law Reform Commission report (infra). Aboriginal defendants, the court confirmed, were subject to the law of New South Wales whether or not both victim and offender were Aborigines and whether or not they were to be subject to traditional law as well. This case confirmed some older legal precedents. For almost two hundred years the Australian courts did not recognise customary law at all. Be that as it may, the general law gave scant regard to customs, rites and traditions of Australia's indigenous peoples. In the landmark land rights decision, Milirrpum v Nabalco Pty Ltd and the Commonwealth (1971) 17 FLR 141 Justice Blackburn of the Northern Territory Supreme Court decided that there had been a system of law in existence in Australian Aboriginal societies in 1788. The impetus provided by the case of Sydney Williams in South Australia is crucial to the later deliberations of the Australian Law Reform Commission and to the story of the recognition of customary law generally.
Not coincidentally, in February 1977, the Australian Law Reform Commission was commissioned to determine
The ALRC concluded that codification is not an appropriate form of recognition of customary law, nor is the exclusion ... more
Find essay on Social Obligations
Edith whartons the house of mi
Lily Bart, the central character in Edith Wharton’s novel, The House of Mirth , was born into the fringes of high society in late nineteenth century New York. She developed a, “lively taste for splendour”(page 30) and a fear of, ”dinginess”.(page 35). Everything within this social circle is measured in monetary value, people and things alike are treated as commodities. This is the only way of life Lily knows, and without the financial means to sustain herself, Lily is destined to be a victim of this commodification of people and objects. Victim is defined in the Oxford Concise Dictionary , as a, “person or thing harmed or destroyed in the pursuit of an object or in gratification of a person”. Commodifiaction is defined as “the action of turning something into, or treating something as a commodity” and commodity is defined as, “an article of raw material that can be brought and sold”.
It was Mrs Bart who had raised Lily to value the finer things in life and fear the “dinginess”(page 35) that she associated with those who did not have money, or those who did not choose to spend their money on luxury. When Mrs Bart died, she died, “ ......of a deep disgust. She had hated dinginess, and it was her fate to be dingy”(page 35). But Lily’s mother alone is not solely to blame for this want, Lily says of her need for luxury,
..I suppose (it was) -in the way I was brought
up, and the things I was taught to care for. Or-no I won’t blame
anybody for my faults: I’ll say it was in my blood (page 226)
Although Lily felt that she should not blame anyone else for her high tastes she does not blame herself. She uses the excuse that it was in her blood that her fate to live for splendour was predetermined. Lily therefore sees herself as victim, a victim because it was her fate. Mrs Barts parental guidance did help to shape Lily’s value for the extravagant. It was Mrs Bart who taught Lily to value her beauty. Lily was told by her mother, “after they had lost all their money” (page 28) that Lily’s asset was her beauty. Mrs Bart saw the potential for trading Lily’s beauty for a rich husband, so they would have the means to sustain themselves in ‘high society’. Mrs Bart saw Lily’s beauty as:
.....the last asset in their fortunes, the nucleus
around which their life was to be rebuilt. She watched it jealously,
as though it were her own property and Lily it’s mere custodian; (page 34)
by treating Lily’s beauty as a commodity, she was treating Lily the person to which that beauty belonged, as a commodity. Lily also sees her beauty and therefore herself as a commodity. So from the age that Lily ‘came out’ her purpose in life, bestowed upon her by her mother and her ‘predetermined fate’, was to marry wealth.
For Lily like any good victim, there are always flaws to even the most water tight plans. Lily’s first challenge to her goal of , “marrying a great deal of money” (page 83) is the constant threat of time. Lily Barts physical beauty, is a perishable commodity. Miss Bart is first introduced to the reader at the not so tender age of twenty-nine, the commodity of physical beauty only depreciates in value with age. This sense of time running out for Lily to secure her fortunes is always present,
....she was frightened by the two little lines near
her mouth, faint flaws in the smooth curve of her check.
.....................and it seemed an added
injustice that petty cares should leave a trace on the beauty
which was her only defence against them (page 28)
Ironically when Mr Van Alstyne, discusses Lily posing for a portrait, he talks of how, “..the picture’d appreciate a hundred per cent in ten years”. An item such as a portraiture of beauty, would only ever gain value with time unlike her physical beauty. The name, “Lily” would have been seen by the reader, (at the time the novel was first published) as a reference to the “art nouveau” ... more
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