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skin cancer rates The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - Detrykowski

The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - Detrykowski


     "And God said, let there be light and there was light and then God saw the
light, that it was good " ( Genesis 1: 3-4 ). Undoubtedly, light is good.
Without light man could not survive. Light is the ultimate cosmic force in this
universe allowing man to progress and flourish. In the form of heat, light from
the sun warms the Earth. Light, also, is the single most important factor
influencing the growth and development of plants. Photosynthesis, a process by
which plants incorporate light from the sun, allow plants to botanically grow
and survive. Certain forms of light are harmful and thus can be said are 'bad'.
A natural umbrella called the ozone layer protects the Earth and its inhabitants
by screening out this harmful light. For " millions of years ozone has been
protecting the earth " by absorbing ultraviolet or bad radiation from the sun (
Rowland, 1992, p.66 ). This natural umbrella protecting mankind has recently
suffered the effects of industrialized society. This " ozone shield is
dissipating " and the cause is laid primarily to man - made chemicals (
Bowermaster et al, 1990, p.27 ). If enough of these man - made chemicals are
released, "the ozone layer would be weakened to such an extent that it does not
filter out the sun's invisible and dangerous ultraviolet rays " ( Jones, 1992,
p.36 ). Such a scenario would drastically alter society and the environment.
Ozone depletion has been described as "potential catastrophe " and " a planetary
time - bomb " ( Way, 1988, p.9 ). The four main areas affected by a depleted
ozone layer and thus by the corresponding increase in harmful ultraviolet
radiation are agriculture, wildlife, the environment, and human health. A
depleted ozone layer has a profoundly negative and potentially devastating
effect on humanity and its surroundings.

    From an agricultural perspective, a diminished ozone layer poses great
risks. Since man's evolution from 'man the hunter and gatherer' to 'man the food
producer' , mankind has grown ever more dependent on his surroundings. In the
case of food production man relies greatly on these surroundings. The land on
which man attempts to grow food for himself, and certainly for others as well,
has sufficed for thousands of years. The crops grown on his land have provided
thousands with food to eat in the ancient world, millions with food to eat in
the medieval world, and billions with food to eat in the present world.
Regrettably, there have always been times of hunger and shortages. More
frighteningly, in the present world man is confronted with a population boom
which is burgeoning near the six billion mark. It is now more important than
ever to protect, maintain, and hopefully increase the amount of food grown. One
of the drawbacks of industrialization has been the significant depletion of the
ozone layer. This depletion could have an incredibly devastating impact on the
world and more specifically agriculture. In general, " plants are quite
sensitive and fragile when confronted with ultraviolet increases " ( Zimmer,
1993, p.28 ). Words such as sensitivity and fragility only add to the urgency of
the possible agricultural holocaust. One agricultural scientist remarked, "
soybeans, tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, corn, beans, and wheat are all especially
sensitive to UV light " ( Jones, 1992, p.39 ). Since most of the mentioned crops
are considered cash crops the economic aspect of lower crop yields could also
spell disaster. Food supplies are surely in jeopardy when taking in to account
that " more than two - thirds of the plant species - mainly crops - tested for
their reaction to ultraviolet light have been found to be damaged by it " ( Lean
et al, 1990, p.97 ). An increase in ultraviolet light radiating towards plants
accelerates the pace at which man must decide what to do with the dilemma of a
booming and more importantly hungry population. Conceedingly, plants, as any
element of life, have been known to adapt to contemporary and dangerous changes
in its surroundings but it cannot be dismissed that " UV radiation can also
mutate the genes of plants " which are the fundamental building blocks of all
life ( Bowermaster et al, 1990, p.44 ). Interference with the foundations of
life can also lead to calamity and more importantly a yet foreseen and unknown
calamity. In 1988, then U.S. Interior secretary Donald Hoedel ... more

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Breast Cancer
annon

In the United States in 1995 alone, 43,063 died from breast cancer. It is
the number two cancer killer and the number one cancer in females ages 15
to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy
drops nineteen and a half years. This cancer is within the top three
cancers of all woman above the age of 15, and comprises 6% of all health
care costs in the U.S. totaling an astounding 35 billion dollars a year.

An average woman is said to have a one in thirty chance of getting the
cancer, but if that person had family history of the disease, their
chances have been measured up to a one in six chance. Sixtynine percent
of AfricanAmerican women survive from it, and there are predicted to be
nearly two million new cases reported this year in the U.S. The disease is
breast cancer.

Breast cancer is a group of rapidly reproducing, undifferentiated cells in
the area of the breast in women. The earliest changes occur in the
epithelial cells of the terminal end buds (TEB) of the breast milk ductal
system. While the outlining steps of breast cancer are unknown, the cells
in the breast trigger a reaction of cell reproduction. These new cancer
cells form tumors. If cancer cells are active or are considered malign,
the tumor grows at tremendous speeds, and may end up in metastasis.

Metastasis is a complex process in which cells break away from their
primary tumors, and via the blood supply or through the lymph system
relocate into other organs, thus spreading cancer throughout the body if
left untreated. Generally, if a lump is smaller than one centimeter, it is
considered benign, although every woman should consult her doctor about
any unusual bumps or feeling in the chest. One sign of breast cancer
results from ductal cancer in the breast. A once hollow open tube could be
completely clogged up with cancerous cells thus leaving an awkward feeling
in the chest area. Other complications that result from this cancer and
others is on top of the clogging and cramming of the system, the body's
need to not only supply for itself, but for the large tumors.

Recently genes have been touted as a great cause of cancer. It now is
thought among the medical community that while there are definite
environmental contributors to cancer, even those people who are exposed to
few carcinogens may suffer from disease that runs in their families. Among
the genes that is being heavily researched is the gene BRCA1. In one of
the preliminary detections of this particular gene, over 250 Jewish women
were discovered to have mutations with this germline allele, accounting
for approximately 13% of all breast cancer patients observed. Jewish women
in specific were used, as early on their was a definite pattern of breast
cancer through the Jewish community especially that which lived in the

United States. The specific mutation, 185delAG, was, "strongly associated
with the onset of breast cancer in Jewish women before the age of 30."

Scientists thrived upon this new information of genealogical interplay, so
the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) set out determined to
study the overall effects of these genes, not only along familial lines,
but also concerning the general population. In an article printed on

January 18, 1996, germline alterations in BRCA1 were discovered in six of
the 80 women surveyed with breast cancer but had no apparent familial
history of it. Thus the scientists concluded that mutation was not limited
to women with history of cancer. In an article printed in the Dallas

Morning News, genes were sighted as a cause of five to twenty percent
of all breast cancer. In that article, a gene known as p53 supposedly
stalls reproduction, and can even cause a cell to "commit suicide". Other
genes that seem to accelerate growth to overtake and stick to proteins
includes HER2, neu, and erB2. "Ten years from now, you won't go for a

BRCA1 test," said Dr. ShattuckEidens of Salt Lake city. "You'll go for a
breast cancer predisposition test." relation between serum estrogen
levels at a single time with links to breast cancer, but no evidence links
estrogen levels over an extended time to the risk of breast cancer, until
researchers at the New England Journal of Medicine proposed a study.

Bone mass is a cumulative effect of estrogen on bones scientists say, and
so the study focused on the more easily observed density and mass of bone
tissue in women. Four levels were accounted for, and ... more

skin cancer rates

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  • S: Skin Cancer S: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Every hour one American is killed by skin cancer and every thirty seconds one American gets skin cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease that alters the DNA of a skin cell and causes it to reproduce at a rapid pace. This overproduction of cells can be harmful and in many cases deadly. Out of these cancers the most common is Basal cell carcinoma. Many steps have been made in the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma, some have been very successful and some not. The cells that have the altered ...
  • K: The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - K: The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - Detrykowski The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer - Detrykowski And God said, let there be light and there was light and then God saw the light, that it was good ( Genesis 1: 3-4 ). Undoubtedly, light is good. Without light man could not survive. Light is the ultimate cosmic force in this universe allowing man to progress and flourish. In the form of heat, light from the sun warms the Earth. Light, also, is the single most important ...
  • I: Breast Cancer I: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer annon In the United States in 1995 alone, 43,063 died from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer and the number one cancer in females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancy drops nineteen and a half years. This cancer is within the top three cancers of all woman above the age of 15, and comprises 6% of all health care costs in the U.S. totaling an astounding 35 billion dollars a year. An average woman is said to have a one in thirt...
  • N: Today adolescents of both sexes face a serious ris N: Today adolescents of both sexes face a serious ris Today adolescents of both sexes face a serious risk of HIV infection, which is the cause of AIDS. AIDS is a chronic and most often fatal disease. Despite growing understanding and awareness, HIV infection is a serious threat to both heterosexual and homosexual teens. When adolescents take certain risks, they are more likely to become infected with HIV and develop AIDS: These are the most important facts about AIDS: . AIDS is most often fatal . Anyone can get AIDS - many teens (both boys and girl...
  •  : Orange : Orange orange We must do everything in our power to make the world recognize that our veterans are still paying a high price for fighting the war in Vietnam. Agent Orange is slowly taking the lives of these brave veterans. The government has recognized some diseases but the rules to compensation can be complex. It was in the 1960\'s that we were in the process of trying to destroy vegetation and brush in Vietnam, in doing so we proceeded to contaminate one of the largest parts of the environment, Human...
  • C: Aging Theories C: Aging Theories Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming worn out. Aging is a ve...
  • A: Cfcs Cause Deterioration of the Ozone Layer A: Cfcs Cause Deterioration of the Ozone Layer Cfcs Cause Deterioration of the Ozone Layer The deterioration of the ozone layer , caused by Cfcs, endangers the lives of humans'. Cfcs have a diminishing effect on the ozone layer. Furthermore, the deterioration of the ozone cause an increase of Ultraviolet (UV) radiation which can have a negative effect on human skin and eyes. As a writer for newsweek, I have investigated the scenario and found the following information. The earth's atmosphere is a blanket of air that surrounds the planet. Thi...
  • N: Pollution and Human Rights: Our fate is in our ha N: Pollution and Human Rights: Our fate is in our ha h Pollution and Human Rights: Our fate is in our hands Pollution is probably the most important problem in the world today. One of the reasons it is so important to human beings is that we know that we brought about pollution. Unlike most of the other problems in the world, such as AIDS, pollution is a human creation. Since the beginning of time, whenever human beings changed their environment, they were greatly affected. Areas where pollution is extremely high encounter death rates and diseas...
  • C: -- Copyright Information -- C: -- Copyright Information -- -- Copyright Information -- 1998 SIRS, Inc. -- SIRS Researcher Winter 1998 Title: AIDS and Immunity Author: Laurie Garrett Source: Newsday (Long Island, N.Y.) Publication Date: July 7, 1998 Page Number(s): C1+ --------------------------- NEWSDAY (Long Island, N.Y.) July 7, 1998, pp. C1+ Copyright 1998, Newsday, Inc./Laurie Garrett. Reprinted by permission. AIDS AND IMMUNITY Battling the Perfect Immune System Killer by Laurie Garrett Staff Correspondent GENEVA--It's hard to tell if the glass is ...
  • E: Skin Cancer E: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Of all different kinds of cancer, skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Skin cancer is a disease which cancer cells are found on the outer layers of the skin. Your skin protects the body from heat, infection, light, injury and infection. It also stores fat, water, and vitamin D. The skin has two layers and several different kinds of cells. With a certain lifestyle these cells can become cancerous.(Prodigy Web Browser: An Introduct...
  • R: Sexual Abstinence R: Sexual Abstinence Sexual Abstinence By: Anonymous E-mail: starr@imtoosexy.com Today\'s world is full of worries and problems which did not affect teens a generation ago. New problems keep appearing in today\'s world, such as STDs, increased pregnancy rates, and other factors facing teens who choose to have sex. Emotionally and physically teens and getting less developed before having sex and are not prepared for the serious problems which come along with their decision to have sex. No longer is it a matter which ...
  •  : Of all different kinds of cancer, skin cancer is o : Of all different kinds of cancer, skin cancer is o Of all different kinds of cancer, skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Skin cancer is a disease which cancer cells are found on the outer layers of the skin. Your skin protects the body from heat, infection, light, injury and infection. It also stores fat, water, and vitamin D. The skin has two layers and several different kinds of cells. With a certain lifestyle these cells can become cancerous.(Prodigy Web Browser: An Introduction to skin Cancer NET},...
  • R: No title R: No title Maquiladoras And The NaftaS Impact Introduction In this paper I will discuss the history and practices of the Maquiladora industry. I will discuss its background, its problems, the benefits it offers to United States companies, and the impact the NAFTA has and will have on the industry. In addition, I will make a suggestion on a possible strategy the Maquiladoras can adopt in order to address the challenges brought on by the NAFTA, to ensure it remains a strong force in the future. Background M...
  • A: Atmosphere crisis A: Atmosphere crisis Atmosphere crisis We are living in the midst of a great chemical experiment, and some serious consequences are becoming apparent to scientists. More than two billion pounds of chemicals are spewed into the air each year. These chemicals are brewing a disastrous stew, resulting in an atmosphere crisis. The greatest consequences of the atmosphere crisis may be the greenhouse effect( global warming) and the ozone deletion. If humankind wants to survive well into the next millennium, than we must st...
  • T: Physical geography T: Physical geography physical geography What is MTBE and Why we should be Concerned !! MTBE stands for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. In 1990 congress passed the Clean Air Act to reduce smog in cities that were listed as ozone non-attainment area. Congress mandated Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) as part of the act. Congress mandated as part of it formula, a 2% by weight oxygenate to be added to RFG to reduce hydrocarbon SMOG pollutants from automobile exhaust emissions. MTBE is a chemical, which promotes more complete co...
  • E: Mans Effect On The Environment E: Mans Effect On The Environment Mans Effect On The Environment Man\'s Effect on the Environment 1) SOURCES OF POLLUTION Freshwater Environments : Man pollutes freshwater all over the world in many ways there is much waste and pollution that ends up in rivers. One of the main hazards is called eutrophication, this process becomes enriched with artificial nutrients from fertilisers which run off into the rivers and upset the natural nutrient cycle of the river, lake or pond. The water turns green because of the algae which when ...
  • S: Cancer S: Cancer Cancer Cancer I. Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. If the spread of these abnormal cells is not controlled, cancer can cause death. Most cancers take the form of tumors, although not all tumors are cancers. A tumor is simply a mass of new tissue that serves no physiological purpose. It can be benign, like a wart, or malignant, like cancer. Benign tumors are made up of cells similar to the surrounding normal cells and are enclosed in a membra...
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  • Brain Cancer Brain Cancer Brain Cancer Every hour one American is killed by skin cancer and every thirty seconds one American gets skin cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease that alters the DNA of a skin cell and causes it to reproduce at a rapid pace. This overproduction of cells can be harmful and in many cases deadly. Out of these cancers the most common is Basal cell carcinoma. Many steps have been made in the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma, some have been very successful and some not. The cells that have the altered...
  • Cancer Cancer Cancer Cancer I. Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. If the spread of these abnormal cells is not controlled, cancer can cause death. Most cancers take the form of tumors, although not all tumors are cancers. A tumor is simply a mass of new tissue that serves no physiological purpose. It can be benign, like a wart, or malignant, like cancer. Benign tumors are made up of cells similar to the surrounding normal cells and are enclosed in a membr...
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  • Business and the economy Business and the economy Business and the economy Task - 1 Discuss whether firms like Rechem should be allowed to import chemical waste from overseas to be disposed of here in the U.K. ANALYSIS Rechem have thirty years of experience in solving environmental problems caused by a wide range of hazardous and toxic materials. Their range of services included the following: Waste Management Logistics Incineration Project Management Recycling Environmental Monitoring (See APPENDIX A) DISCUSSION Not a...
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  • Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Every hour one American is killed by skin cancer and every thirty seconds one American gets skin cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease that alters the DNA of a skin cell and causes it to reproduce at a rapid pace. This overproduction of cells can be harmful and in many cases deadly. Out of these cancers the most common is Basal cell carcinoma. Many steps have been made in the treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma, some have been very successful and some not.The cells that have the altered D...