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sioux Hostile Takeover of the New World




                               The Effects of the United States Government on the Indians
                               "The responsibility of any nation, and the particular
                               responsibility of elected officials of any nation, is not to justify
                               what has passed for legality but to anticipate the conditions
                               and problems of tomorrow and attempt to deal with them. The
                               current confusion and violence in Indian Country are a result
                               of the failure to do so by generations of elected officials in this
                               country. To continue to perpetuate myths about American
                               Indians which have no basis in fact or in law is merely
                               avoiding the larger issues confronting the nations of the
                               world," said author Vine Deloria, Jr. (Deloria, Prologue) The
                               United States government failed miserably in its attempt to
                               deal with the Indians. By pushing them further and further
                               West, they pushed the Indians to hate and distrust the white
                               man to the point of war. These wars resulted in hundreds of
                               white deaths. However, the wars resulted in the destruction of
                               several entire Indian tribes and the near extinction of Indian
                               spirit throughout America. The tale is a sad one, one that
                               Americans should not be proud of. After every broken treaty,
                               the Americans blamed the Indians for existing, despite the
                               want of the Indians to simply live on their lands peacefully.
                               The "Trail of Tears" was a great tragedy and many thought it
                               would be the last now that all of the Indians were out of the
                               eastern United States. But the U.S. government became land
                               hungry and due to their idealism of "Manifest Destiny," the
                               "Trail of Tears" was only a starting point on the path to the
                               destruction of the Indians of the West. By 1850 gold had been
                               discovered in California, and white settlers were heading
                               West to strike it rich and lay claim to the entire continent.
                               (Utley and Washburn, page 163) New violence erupted as the
                               white man moved into Indian hunting grounds. Ten percent of
                               the Diggers in California met death violently. In 1846,
                               California was home to 100,000 Indians. By 1851, the
                               population had dropped to 30,000. (Utley and Washburn,
                               164)"That a war of extermination will continue to be waged
                               until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected," said
                               California governor in 1851. (Utley and Washburn, 179)
                               Under the ideals of Tom Fitzpatrick, United States Indian
                               Agent, the U.S. government decided it didn't only want to
                               separate the whites and the Indians, but also intended to
                               restrict them to specified areas known as reservations.
                               Nineteenth century removal and reservation policies reduced
                               Indian lands to mere islands in the stream of American
                               settlement. Reservations themselves were largely unwanted
                               or remote environments of little value. (Lewis, 1) The policy
                               makers did not only want to control the Indians, but civilize
                               them as well. The chiefs are thought to have agreed to these
                               treaties not because they understood the provisions, but
                               because a U.S. treaty tactic was to bribe them with a stock of
                               presents waiting to be distributed after the signing. (Deloria,
                               177) War was also threatened if the Indians did not sign. Most
                               of the time, the Indians ignored the treaties, not truly
                               understanding the motives of the whites to tell them what they
                               could and could not do. Moreover, just as the Indian chiefs
                               could not make their people obey these treaties, the U.S.
                               government could not make their own countrymen respect the
                               treaties. "It must certainly appear evident that something must
                               be done to keep those Indians quiet and nothing short of an
                               efficient military force stationed in their country will do this,"
                               warned Fitzpatrick. (Utley and Washburn, 195) The U.S.
                               government began forcing the Indians onto reservations.
                               Sometimes they would simply kill them with no warning such
                               as the killing of 224 Shoshones in the Battle of Bear River in
                               Montana, 1862. (Utley and Washburn, 201) The Apaches and
                               the Navajos experienced a similar fate. With nothing left, and
                               all their warriors dead, the reluctantly gave into the U.S.
                               government. One by one, the tribes were tricked into trusting
                               the white man. This trust almost always resulted in death for
                               the Indians. However, under the direction of President Grant,
                               Ely Parker or ... more

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Bilingual Education

By: Robert
E-mail: Bombastarr1208@aol.com

Bilingual Education = Unilingual Education Bilingual education in America is a sound idea, but it is not truly bilingual education, it is only bilingual for those who do not already speak English. America is a country with more and more cultures mixing together with different areas of America speaking different languages. In California, Spanish is the dominant language next to English, and in states such as Maine, French is spoken. Other cultures should not be assimilated into mainstream America completely, but America shouldnt have to bend over backwards to make life easier for foreigners. In order to become more culturally tolerant, everyone should learn a second language, not just immigrants. Americans should make bilingual education truly bilingual. The first reason is to eliminate the effect bilingual education has on poor, non-English speaking children. In Richard Bernsteins, A War of Words he says, Advocates of bilingual education believe that it represents the best chance for non-English speaking children -- who, not so coincidentally, often come from lower-income groups to enjoy the richness and opportunities of American life, but he also writes, Bilingual education is a failure, a tactic that in the end will harm the chances of the generally poor, non-English speaking children ever having a equal share in the promise of American life. By simply having everyone learn a second language eliminates the lines of income, and ethnic background. Truly bilingual education would also eliminate the psychological effects it has on non-English speaking children. When they are in a classroom filled with people who do not speak the same language they do, they are forced to feel alone because they can not perform at the same level as their peers, they feel there is something wrong with them, lower than everyone else. Empowering Minority Students does not argue that a childs inability to speak English is what leads him to fail if he is put into an English classroom. Children failbecause they are made to feel shame for belonging to a minority group, for not being a part of the dominant group. The only way to empower such childrenis for the teachers to consciously challenge the power structure both in their classrooms and schools and in the society at large Bilingual educationis an empowerment pedagogy. It is an act of rebellion against white, Anglo Domination (Bernstein 2). Truly bilingual education would prevent any one child from feeling lower than the other since they would all be sharing the same experience of learning another language. In California for example, immigrants would be learning to speak English, while children who already speak English would be learning another language also. Most likely the dominant minority language in the area. In this case Spanish, but of course Spanish would not be the only language available. The choice would be up to the parents. Total immersion in a foreign language is a necessity. Non-English speaking children must be totally immersed in English, and the same for the native English speakers, they must be immersed completely in, for example, Italian. Under the dominant method of bilingual education used throughout this country, non-English speaking students are taught all academic subjects such as math, science, and history exclusively in their native language. English is a separate subject. The problem with this method is that there is no objective way to measure whether a child has learned enough English to be placed in classes where academic instruction is entirely in English. As a result, some children have been kept in native language classes for six years (Hayakawa 3). There are many people who will agree that trying to learn a language is not something a person does in a hour everyday. That person must be totally immersed in the language, they must be speaking that language all of the time, or at least more than they speak their native language. If the people in the current bilingual education courses were totally immersed in English, they would have no choice, but to adapt and learn the language in order to function. It does not take a child six years to learn a language when they are forced to do so. Children learn at an exceptionally ... more

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  • S: Religion In Schools Today S: Religion In Schools Today Religion In Schools Today The American Religious Experience In America today we all have choices to make in regards to our religious beliefs. Many young children are brought up today confused about religion and the significance it plays in their lives. There are many sanctions and rules now on what can and cant be thought or displayed to people on public property, but it wasnt always like this. In this paper I will be discussing the American religious experience in regards to the impact re...
  • I: Hostile Takeover of the New World I: Hostile Takeover of the New World Hostile Takeover of the New World The Effects of the United States Government on the Indians The responsibility of any nation, and the particular responsibility of elected officials of any nation, is not to justify what has passed for legality but to anticipate the conditions and problems of tomorrow and attempt to deal with them. The current confusion and violence in Indian Country are a result of the failure to do so by generations of elected officials in this country. To continue to perpetua...
  • O: Bilingual Education O: Bilingual Education Bilingual Education By: Robert E-mail: Bombastarr1208@aol.com Bilingual Education = Unilingual Education Bilingual education in America is a sound idea, but it is not truly bilingual education, it is only bilingual for those who do not already speak English. America is a country with more and more cultures mixing together with different areas of America speaking different languages. In California, Spanish is the dominant language next to English, and in states such as Maine, French is spoken. Ot...
  • U: Battle Of Little Big Horn U: Battle Of Little Big Horn Battle Of Little Big Horn Five springs ago I, with many Sioux Indians, took down and packed up our tipis and moved from Cheyenne river to the Rosebud river, where we camped a few days; then took down and packed up our lodges and moved to the Little Bighorn river and pitched our lodges with the large camp of Sioux. The Sioux were camped on the Little Bighorn river as follows: The lodges of the Uncpapas were pitched highest up the river under a bluff. The Santee lodges were pitched next. The Oglal...
  • X: Souix Uprising X: Souix Uprising Souix Uprising I will admit that I am not much for reading. I will also admit after reading the first chapter in this book that I felt sick to my stomach, literally. That I feared reading the rest of the book knowing that this really happened and that people could actually do this to one another. Although the book disgusted me after the first chapter that I didnt want to read it anymore it also made me not want to put it down. It could have been the way the writer described everything made it a...
  • Sitting Bull exile to Canada Sitting Bull exile to Canada Sitting Bull exile to Canada Many things influenced Sitting Bulls decision to cross the border into Canada. After Custers defeat at Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull had to live life in fear. He fought on the defensive for years. Sitting Bull and his followers fled from the onslaught of American howitzers. He then was able to find sanctuary in the White Grandmothers Country, north of the international boundary. Most of the band drifted back in the next few years; Sitting Bull himself was to retur...
  • Significance Of Ritual In North American Indian Re Significance Of Ritual In North American Indian Re Significance Of Ritual In North American Indian Religion Significance of Ritual in North American Indian Religion Submitted by: Dan Xxxxxxxx, November 12, 1996 Submitted to: Dr. John X. Xxxxxxx RELST 110.6.01 When scholars study religion, the tendency exists to focus on the mythological aspects of the religion in an attempt to understand the major underlying concepts present. However, an equally rewarding study often can be accomplished through the careful analysis of the religion\'s ritual aspe...
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  • Carl Sandburg Carl Sandburg Carl Sandburg Carl Sandburg Final Draft Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), was an American poet, biographer, and balladeer. He was a writer, famous for his free-verse style (Carl Sandburg, 222). He focused on the people and places of modern American life. Sandburg wrote what is regarded as the definitive biography of Abraham Lincoln. He was even invited to address the joint session and to be honored, when the houses of Congress came together on Feb. 12, 1959, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the bi...
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  • Losing the Black Hills Losing the Black Hills Losing the Black Hills In the early 1860s the Oglala Sioux leader Chief Red Cloud fought to keep the U. S. Army from opening the Bozeman Trail, which led to the Montana gold fields through Sioux hunting areas in the Dakota Territory. Between 1866 and 1868 Red Cloud and his allies besieged forts along the trail until in 1868 the U.S. government agreed to abandon it. Red Cloud signed the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie Wyoming on April 29, 1869. The U. S. government agreed to close the Bozeman Trail, ...
  • Northern States Power Northern States Power Northern States Power A leader in today's economic world, Northern States Power (NSP) is recognized for its outstanding performance in both regulated and nonregulated operations. Its regulated operation serves over two million electric and gas customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, Arizona, and Michigan (NSP - Investor's Overview 1). Its head offices are located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is Mr. James J. Howard...
  • For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunt For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunt For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunting culture flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries, the sun dance was the major communal religious ceremony . . . the rite celebrates renewal - the spiritual rebirth of participants and their relatives as well as the regeneration of the living earth with all its components . . . The ritual, involving sacrifice and supplication to insure harmony between all living beings, continues to be practiced by many contemporary native Americans. -Eli...
  • Plains Indians Plains Indians Plains Indians For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunting culture flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries, the sun dance was the major communal religious ceremony . . . the rite celebrates renewal - the spiritual rebirth of participants and their relatives as well as the regeneration of the living earth with all its components . . . The ritual, involving sacrifice and supplication to insure harmony between all living beings, continues to be practiced by many contemporary native ...
  • Piute Indians Piute Indians Piute Indians The Paiutes, or Piutes (pronounced PIE-oot), included many different bands, spread out over a vast region. They are recognized as some of the North American Indian tribes. They are usually organized into two groups for study: the Northern Paiutes and the Southern Paiutes. The northern branch occupied territory that is now northwestern Nevada, southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, and northeastern California. The southern branch lived in territory now part of western Utah, southe...
  • Violence and Gaming Violence and Gaming Violence and Gaming The current use of gaming as an alternative form of making money on reservations may have negative effects on tribal communities. For instance, many who oppose gaming say that casinos are also a factor with crime. In addition, the issue of gaming itself is an occasional source of conflict among tribe members, conflict that in the past has erupted into violence between other people. This conflict involves concern over the impact gaming might have upon Indians. Some people are ...
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  • Plains Indians Plains Indians Plains Indians For many tribes of Plains Indians whose bison-hunting culture flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries, the sun dance was the major communal religious ceremony . . . the rite celebrates renewal - the spiritual rebirth of participants and their relatives as well as the regeneration of the living earth with all its components . . . The ritual, involving sacrifice and supplication to insure harmony between all living beings, continues to be practiced by many contemporary native ...
  • They Died With Their Boots On They Died With Their Boots On They Died With Their Boots On Starring: Errol Flynn as General Custer, Olivia de Havilland as Elizabeth Bacon, Arthur Kennedy I as Ned Sharp, and Charlie Grapewin as California Joe. Produced in 1943, They Died With Their Boots On, a Warner Brothers film, is a horribly inaccurate account of the events that lead to the Battle of Little Big Horn. His early days in war were depicted accurately, however. Boots told of his experiences at West Pointe; the most important experience is, notably, his gra...
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  • Custer Custer Custer The West\'s most famous battle pitted glory seeking Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his 7th Cavalry against 3,000 warriors under the leadership of Chief Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull had been told to report to the Sioux reservation by the end of January 1876. when he chose to stay on his land that had earlier been promised to him and his people in a treaty, the government, or mostly the War Department declared Sitting Bull and his people hostile and planned a large scale milit...
  • Black Elk Speaks Black Elk Speaks Black Elk Speaks Black Elk Speaks The book Black Elk Speaks was written in the early 1930\'s by author John G. Neihardt, after interviewing the medicine man named Black Elk. Neihardt was already a published writer, and prior to this particular narrative he was at work publishing a collection of poems titled Cycle of the West. Although he was initially seeking infor-mation about a peculiar Native American religious movement that occurred at the end of the 19th century for the conclusion his poetr...