Seymour Martin Lipset


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seymour martin lipset
Affirmative Action Is it legal? Is it even needed?


           When the school year draws to close, college-bound seniors have completed the college forms and eagerly await acceptance - or dread rejection - from the college of their choice. However, as most people know, there is much more to college admissions than a marshmallow bonfire by the mailbox. The question is, by what process do universities examine student applications and determine a qualified candidate? As a lawyer representing Barbara Grutter, I have conducted thorough research on admissions policies in American Universities. Because of my research, I can tell you that in universities that utilize the policy of affirmative action, the selection process is unfair and discriminatory. This policy is a serious issue because it compromises the equality established under the US constitution, displays itself as a stigma on the reputation of the minority, belittles minorities as a whole, and because the diversity that the University of Michigan heralds may have overrated effects that do not really change the learning capacity of the classroom.


           Primarily, the usage of race in the admissions process obviously stands in direct violation of the equality offered by the Equal Protection Act. Advocates of affirmative action will argue that minorities who come from less privileged schools and neighborhoods must be given this advantage to compensate for their lack of qualified teachers, textbooks, etc. This logic is faulty as this imposed generality that all black, Hispanic, and Native American born peoples are underprivileged is false. Second, what would it feel like to be a perfectly qualified black student who only recently finds that he is accepted into the famous XYZ University? Good right? That is, until you reach campus grounds and you realize people regard you as the guy that got those extra points for being black. Affirmative action promotes a discriminatory thought discrediting black, Hispanic, or Native American students that are truly qualified or gifted. As Frederick Douglass remarked, What I ask for the Negro is not benevolence, not pity, not sympathy, but simply justiceDo nothing for us All I ask is, give him a chance to stand on his own legs! Let him alone! (Grutter v. Bollinger et al. 42). Likewise, Justice Thomas believes that blacks can achieve in every avenue of American life without the meddling of university administrators (Grutter v. Bollinger et al. 42). As an adversary of this policy, I can say that I do not wish to strike down blacks, Hispanics, or any type of people. Conversely, despite a shared sympathy with the university administrator for their situation, I wish only to lift them up on equal ground just as capable as any other man or woman in this nation! Third, affirmative action is unnecessary in that advantages stemming from racial diversity in classroom are overrated. According to a study conducted by Stanley Rothman, much of the conclusions of previous tests and surveys suffered from methodological defects, which range from poor item formulation to interpretive problems linked to selective recall and social desirability response set. Rothmans study approached members of the university with non-controversial questions about their perceptions and experiences to obtain data. He concluded that because the predicted positive associations of educational benefits and interracial understanding failed to appear, racial diversity does not necessarily improve the education and racial milieu at American colleges (Rothman). This study need not even be touched to show that the advantages conferred by racial diversity makes little impact. Our school for example, has one of the richest assortments of people of different ethnic groups. A glance around the school however will show with a few exceptions that students have for the most part segregated themselves into their own groups based on race. Journalist Ron Edwards who observes, for the most part, the whites congregate with other whites and Asian students, while black students generally hang together, has noted this undeniable fact. (Edwards).


           So what should be done? My plan is simple, mostly involving university admissions policy changes. There are several ways if diversity is still desired to maintain diversity while not using race as a factor. For example, the factor of family income or the community average income could be used. In such a ... more

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America the unusuak and wrong

Different people from all different walks of life founded America. Many of these people came to America as now know it, for many reason. One of these reasons being that they felt their government was corrupt, harsh, unfair or just to powerful in there every day lives. So naturally when America created its government, it was created in such a way, to prevent tyranny, high taxation, and ensure personal freedoms. Author John W. Kingdon feels that the government the founders created is so fragmented and our ideology of individualism and anti-government (small government) is now causing more harms then good. What do you think? Do you feel that the U.S.  Government is so separated it has a hard time getting anything done? I do, and in this essay I will support Kingdons argument by providing information and evidence to show that the U.S. institutions in place today have to high of values on the rights of individual and small government. So lets begin by looking at the differences between U.S. government and the governments of other countries.
We first need to look at the institutions of the U.S. and the institutions of other industrialized countries. America institutions believe very heavily in a system of separation of powers. This is where we separate the national government into three different branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The constitution with practices that have been adopted since the constitution, have created a form of independence for each of the national government branches of power. The members of each of these branches are selected differently. The president (executive branch) is elected to a four-year term and can only run for president in two consecutive terms. Popular vote and a vote of the Electoral College elect the president. The members of the House of Representatives (legislative branch) have a two-year term by popular vote from districts of equal population. The Senate (legislative branch) is elected for a six-year term by a popular vote statewide. The judiciary (judicial branch) is appointed for life by the president with Senate approval.
One reason that makes these three branches independent from each other, is the U.S. system of checks and balances. With checks and balances each branch can put a check on another branch to maintain a balance of power, so that one branch can not be more powerful then any of the other branches. For example the president can veto acts of congress, the judiciary can interpret and overturn acts of congress, and congress can check the executive branch by using its power of purse.
Most Americans already knows how the U.S. system of government works, so now lets look at the governments of other representative democracies. Just about all-representative democracies use some version of a parliamentary government. In the traditional parliamentary system, there is no separation of powers. In the U.S. we have a president, in parliamentary government their head of state is called the Prime Minister or premier. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority in parliament. If one party controls the parliamentary majority, then the leader of that party becomes the Prime Minister. If that were the case in the U.S., Newt Gingrich would be our president. The Prime Minister has no set term limit. The parliament can choose to get rid of the Prime Minister and his cabinet, and the Prime Minister can dissolve parliament and call new elections. There are no real checks and balances in parliamentary government, although more modernized countries like France have started adopting a checks and balances in combination with their parliamentary government. Another thing to point out is fragmentation of U.S. government. U.S. government is fragmented enough by the separation of powers, we then take it a step further by separating power at the national and state level. This makes the coordination of action in the U.S. difficult and lengthy, where as in parliamentary government power is not so divide making coordination action much quicker.  
There is another big difference between U.S. government and that of other countries. We have discussed a little about the U.S. being a small government where as other countries as being big government. With small government, the government is ... more

seymour martin lipset

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  • O: No title O: No title Affirmative Action Is it legal? Is it even needed? When the school year draws to close, college-bound seniors have completed the college forms and eagerly await acceptance - or dread rejection - from the college of their choice. However, as most people know, there is much more to college admissions than a marshmallow bonfire by the mailbox. The question is, by what process do universities examine student applications and determine a qualified candidate? As a lawyer representing Barbara Grutter...
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  • R: Affirmative Action R: Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action has become of the most controversial social policy issues to be discussed in recent years. It is controversial because it challenges fundamental American beliefs. As Seymour Martin Lipset put it: Affirmative Action policies have forced a sharp confrontation between two core American values: equality and individualism. (Dudley7) This values oriented approach, which pervades popular discussion and derives from functionalist sociology, fails to explain why simi...
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  • N: Lipsets American Creed N: Lipsets American Creed Lipsets American Creed Lipset\'s American Creed Liberty. Egalitarianism. Individualism. Populism. Laissez-faire. These five concepts embody the American creed as described by author Seymour Martin Lipset. Lipset feels that this American creed is representative of an ideology that all Americans share. Lipset\'s argument is on shaky ground, however, when scrutinized under the microscope of race. Racial relations in this country do much to undermine the validity of Lipset\'s argument, especially th...
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  • L: Lipsets American Creed L: Lipsets American Creed Lipset\'s American Creed Lipset\'s American Creed Liberty. Egalitarianism. Individualism. Populism. Laissez-faire. These five concepts embody the American creed as described by author Seymour Martin Lipset. Lipset feels that this American creed is representative of an ideology that all Americans share. Lipset\'s argument is on shaky ground, however, when scrutinized under the microscope of race. Racial relations in this country do much to undermine the validity of Lipset\'s argument, especia...
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  • Canada - of the United States of America Canada - of the United States of America Canada - of the United States of America CANADA - OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The Canadian identity has always been difficult to define. We, as Canadians, have continued to define ourselves by reference to what we are not - American - rather than in terms of our own national history and tradition. This is ironic since the United States is continuing to be allowed by Canadians to take over our economy and literally buy our country. Culturally Canada has its own distinct government and institu...