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Status Of Transition From Socialism
Vietnam is a country whose economy is evolving. Its rapidly changing economy is facing significant alterations in the process of transition. Vietnam is moving away from its current economy, which is a non-market socialist one, towards a market economy with a socialist orientation. Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world with a Gross Domestic Product of only $300. High levels of population along with the proper training will allow Vietnam to effectively use its number one resource, people. Australia plays a key role in assisting Vietnam's economic growth and development through their aid programs.
Economic reforms are changing Vietnam from an agricultural rich economy to a service industry one. Throughout the years, agriculture, as a percent of Gross national product, has decreased from year to year, while service and industrial are increasing. This steady decline is because of the changing situation with its economy. With this decrease, migration to cities and towns is usually normal, but not in this case, as Vietnam has stayed primarily rural. The main agricultural cash crops in Vietnam are rice, coffee, cashews, corn potatoes rubber, soybean and tea. Clothing, computers and electronics are a growing part of the economy as well. Tourism is the largest industry in the service sector.
In Vietnam land sales are not permitted. This is because of the communist rule, and the ownership of all land by the state. During the current economic reform to a market system of economy, household farms have replace the once popular collective farms. Land rights are guaranteed to the families for twenty years on farmland and fifty years for forestland. Though the farmers can still not own land they do have the right to use it, rent it, inherit it, and well as claim it as collateral.
The changing economy has caused the industrial and service sectors to steadily expand. With this increase, many are being dominated by state owned industries.
Along with the escalating change towards a market economy, competition within the private sector has also risen due to the fact that state owned enterprises are increasing as well. If these state owned enterprises were private then economic efficiency would be increased as well. This in turn would benefit the Vietnam economy and people. The government has instated rules so this can happen. They have also forced the state owned enterprises to be self- sufficient. They are now highly self-sufficient. They are self-run, determine what their production inputs and outputs are, and are responsible for the financing and accounting of their firm. Though they seem to be individual entities, the government still has a strong hold on them because the governments has complete ownership of the firm, even though there are shareholders.
With the institution of Doi Moi the economy of Vietnam has experienced a very strong growth. The past decade the Gross Domestic Product averaged 7.5%. Throughout the most recent years the growth has not been as severe but still positive. It was gaining strength as 2000 began but has been slowing down. There is still a positive growth but not as significant as in the mid 90s. See following chart for the Real GDP Growth in %.
Towards the end of the 90s many factors accounted for this slow down. Economics reforms were slowing as well. State owned enterprises and banks were becoming inefficient as well. This, along with a decrease in demand and consumption, a decrease in foreign and local investing, as well as a decrease in outputs all contributed to the slow down in economic growth. So, as this slow down became evident, changes needed were made in order to increase the GDP. In the year 2000, certain things happened which did in fact raise the growth in real GDP. The world economy was growing and manufacturing and commodity prices were improving as well. Along with a rapid growth in the industrial sector as well as the non-state sector Vietnam was able to recover from a slowing GDP growth quickly.
In order to accelerate the economic growth more and reduce the poverty, which seems to be plaguing the country, the Vietnam Government installed Doi Moi reforms. This process was accelerated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, formerly Vietnam's ... more
Find essay on Services For Complete
Today, telecommunications technology affects lives to a greater degree than ever
before. Communication has evolved over many years from the earliest attempts at
verbal communication to the use of sophisticated technology to enhance the
ability to communicate effectively with others. Every time a telephone call is
made, a television is watched, or a personal computer is used, benefits of
telecommunication technologies are being received. The concept of
telecommunications may be defined as the transmission of information from one
location to another by electronic means. Telecommunications is using electronic
systems to communicate. Life is changing constantly and has been changing faster
since the rapid advancements in telecommunication. Because of continuing
attempts to find better and more efficient ways to communicate, the process of
communication has steadily improved. Many of these improvements were made
without the use of electronic technology. Human beings earliest attempts at
communication were through nonverbal means such as facial expressions and
gesturing. The use of these nonverbal signs, prehistoric people were able to
communicate emotions such as fear, anger, and happiness. More specific motions,
such as pointing, allowed them to convey more information . Verbal communication
probably started with a series of disorganized but meaningful sounds (grunts and
snarls). These sounds slowly developed into a system of organized, spoken
language that truly allowed humans to share information (Croal 59). Writing,
which is the use of symbols to represent language, began with early cave
drawings, progressed to picture writings such as hieroglyphics, and finally
evolved into the handwritten language we use today (Croal 61). As civilization
developed, people found it necessary to communicate their ideas to one another
over greater distances. The earliest method of transporting information was to
carry it from place to place; but as the development of commerce made speed an
essential part, greater effort was expended to increase the rate at which ideas
were transmitted (Croal62). The search for rapid transport of information led to
the formation of the pony express in 1860 (Cozic 77). Although the pony express
required several weeks to carry mail from the East Coast to the West Coast, it
was a vast improvement over the earlier methods. The pony express was not the
only time humans teamed up with animals to attempt to improve communications.
Dogs and pigeons were used to carry messages, especially during wartime . Most,
if not all, of the early forms of communication had two significant problems.
Both the speed at which information could be effectively communicated and the
distance over which information could be sent were severely limited. With the
advancements in forms of electronic communication, these problems were solved.
It was even before the pony express that a true technological breakthrough was
made. In 1844, the first electronic transmission occurred when Samuel Morse
developed a system of dots and dashes to symbolize letters of the alphabet. A
transmission device called the telegraph was used to send the coded signals over
wires. The telegraph was to become the primary method of reliable and rapid
communication during the American Civil War . It took quite a few years to link
the major cities of America by telegraph wires, but by 1861 the pony express was
replaced . Telegraphic communication became a major part of Americas business
and military history. One of the early telegraph companies, Western Union,
became the dominant carrier. Today, Western Union, through the use of modern
technology, transmits information twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
Actual voice communication over distance finally became possible in 1876 when
Alexander Graham Bell held the first telephone conversation with his assistant,
Thomas Watson . This alternative to written communication rapidly helped the
telephone become the worlds most important communication tool. By 1866 the
first successful attempt to link Europe and America by undersea cable had been
accomplished. This cable was capable of carrying telegraph data only . The
telephone today remains a vital tool, and like the telegraph, the telephone is
constantly being improved by modern technology . By 1900, the goal of
communication technologists was to find a method of transmitting messages over
long distances without the need for wires. That dream became reality in 1901
when Gugliellmo Marconi and two assistants stood on a hill in Newfoundland and
listened carefully to their receiver. Faintly they heard the Morse code
dot-dot-dot, the letter s. the signal had traveled 1,700 miles from
Cornwall, England, and it represented the first successful wireless
transmission. This success led Marconi to form Marconi Wireless Telegraphy
Company. It was not until the Titanic disaster in 1912, however, that wireless
transmissions became commercially profitable. As ... more
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