Seminole Tribe


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seminole tribe The pressures of white expansionism led the United States Government to find ways to
remove the Native Americans from their fertile lands. Spurred by this pressure, and the
need to fulfill his campaign promise to open Indian land for settlement, Andrew Jackson
pushed through Congress the Removal Act. The Act allowed the government to negotiate
treaties with the various Native American tribes, pay them for their lands, relocate them
to western lands, and support the tribes for one year after removal. President Jackson,
more than anyone else, was responsible for the fate of the five civilized tribes of the
southeast. When the state of Georgia annexed the Cherokee Nation's land within Georgia
territory against all treaties the Federal Government had with the Cherokee Nation,

Jackson support it, even going as far as to ignore the Supreme Court when it ruled the

Georgia annexation unconstitutional and the Cherokee Nation as an Independent

Domestic Nation. In another era Jackson's actions would have been deemed
treasonousand a total abuse of executive power but in the 1830's, the growing population,
the need to expand to accomodate this growth and perhaps Congress' reluctance to submit
the country to constitutional debate of power led to the removal of the indians.Indian

Reaction The leaders of the Cherokee Nation and other tribes knew that fighting the white
settlers would gibe the national and state governments an excuse to send in troops and
take away land.The Cherokee nation responded with diplomacy. Several chief went to

Washington to plead their case, pointing out the legal treaties between the Cherokee

Nation and the United States gauranteeing them their land. The removal issue was hotly
debated in Congress. Support forth tribes by Henry Clay, Davy Crockett, Daniel Webster
and other prominent statesmen feel on deaf ears. The issue was also being fought in the
legal system. In Worcester vs.Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the laws of

Georgia were invalid in Cherokeeland and that The Cherokee land belongs to the

Cherokee. The ruling was not enforced by the Executive branch with President Jackson
refusing to do so. Dishearten and divided the Cherokee Nation broke into two factions,
for removal or against. John Ross, Cherokee Nation chief, led the larger group against
removal while MajorRidge led the smaller group for removal. Major Ridge and his
faction sighneda treaty with the United States Government for five million dollars. The
government was fullyaware that ridge didnt represent the majority of the Cherokee

Nation, but they validated the treaty anyway. With this, the fate of the tribe was sealed.

Several of the other civilized tribes were removed ahead of the Cherokees. The Choctaws
removal was tragic. The journey west was badly planned and badly carried out. An
enormous number of Indians died in their removal. The Cherokee's removal was just as
trajicculminating in the death of over four thousand Cherokees in what has come to be
known as the trail of tears. Reasons for such a tragic outcome are numerous.

Contaminated food and water supplied by government contractors accounted for a large
portion of the deathtoll. The government and the contractors were, as always, motivated
by economic variables. The cost of the removal was first and foremost on their agenda.

Fatigue, poor logistical planning, to outright negligence are also contributing factors. The

United States removed the first few thousand Cherokees by boat, but that proved to be so
tragic that John Ross convinced the government to allow the tribe to manage the removal
themselves and to allow them to make the journey acrossland. This proved not to be the
answer as thousands more died of starvation,illness, and the elements as the US Army
marched them across the western frontier. The Seminoles fought their removal from their
lands by warring with The United States,but to no avail. The Seminoles were the only one
of the five civilized tribes to resist American culture. They were fiercely independent. At
the outset of the indian removal, the Seminoles split into factions, just like the Cherokees,
opposing and favoring removal. They fought against each other and against their evictors,
the US Army. Jackson's insistence that the Seminoles live under Creek rule in the west
provoked the resistance amoung the Seminoles. Jackson's resistance in allowing the

Seminoles to live independently out west precipitated hostilities which led to the Second

Seminal War. The Seminoles held their own against the US. Army, mainly due to the fact
that they used guerrilla tactics. Even after the majority of the tribe was captured, few were
allowed to stay in order ... more

seminole tribe

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The Seminoles

The Seminole Indians are a tribe of Indians who now
have territory and reservations in Florida and Oklahoma.
They once belonged to the Muskogee tribe that lived along
streams in what are now southern Georgia and Alabama.
 The Seminoles moved to Florida and Oklahoma
around 1708 when the white men drove them out of their
homes and took their land.  The Seminoles adjusted well to
life in Florida.
   In the late 1700's and early 1800's Florida was a
territory of Spain, that made the Seminoles Spanish
citizens. Like white men, they had black slaves, but they
treated their slaves with respect.   In the early 1800's
General Andrew Jackson attacked the few Seminole
villages left in Georgia and forced most of the Indians to
flee to their relatives in Florida.  Among them were a
young woman and her son, Osceola, who would grow up to
become a great Seminole leader.   This attack started the
First Seminole War.
 Florida was sold to the United States by Spain in
1819. In 1823 the Seminoles signed a treaty giving up most
of their land.   Once they moved into their new reservations
in Central Florida Andrew Jackson who was president at
the time signed the Indian Removal Act which required all
Seminoles to move to the Indian Territory, which is now
known as Oklahoma. Most of the Seminoles wouldn't go.
This started the Second Seminole War.  During the Second
Seminole War many of the Seminoles gave up and went to
Oklahoma. The ones that didn't had to hide deep in the
Everglades where the white men couldn't find them.
Osceola was taken prisoner by the United States
government.  He died in prison.
 The Florida Seminoles never signed a formal peace
treaty with the United States.   The Seminole Indians are
still living in reservations in Florida and Oklahoma, The
Seminole Tribe of Florida, Inc., has its headquarters in
Hollywood, Florida, where there is a replica of a traditional
chickee village.
 The Seminole Indians have been in what is now The
United States of America for over fifteen thousand years.
They have been through many wars and have had many
tragedies along the way.  The Seminoles always were a
strong tribe and continue to be a strong tribe. ... more

seminole tribe

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  • E: The pressures of white expansionism led the United E: The pressures of white expansionism led the United The pressures of white expansionism led the United States Government to find ways to remove the Native Americans from their fertile lands. Spurred by this pressure, and the need to fulfill his campaign promise to open Indian land for settlement, Andrew Jackson pushed through Congress the Removal Act. The Act allowed the government to negotiate treaties with the various Native American tribes, pay them for their lands, relocate them to western lands, and support the tribes for one year after remo...
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  • The Seminoles The Seminoles The Seminoles The Seminole Indians are a tribe of Indians who now have territory and reservations in Florida and Oklahoma. They once belonged to the Muskogee tribe that lived along streams in what are now southern Georgia and Alabama. The Seminoles moved to Florida and Oklahoma around 1708 when the white men drove them out of their homes and took their land. The Seminoles adjusted well to life in Florida. In the late 1700s and early 1800s Florida was a territory of Spain, that made the Sem...
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